Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

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The oldest natural science research institution and museum in the Americas, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was founded in 1812 "for the encouragement and cultivation of the sciences, and the advancement of useful learning." Since the founding of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, there have been twenty-eight presidents and five acting presidents (please see additional note for a complete list of Academy presidents). From 1937 to 1995, there were four presidents and one acting president who left their administrations well documented: Charles M.B. Cadwalader, William M. Marvel, Milton H. Wahl, Thomas Peter Bennett and Keith Stewart Thomson. In addition, several key staff members who worked closely with these presidents left a record of their influence and contributions.

Charles M.B. Cadwalader, (1885-1959), served as president from 1937 to 1951. Cadwalader was born at Fort Washington, Pennsylvania on June 3, 1885 to Richard M. and Christine Biddle Cadwalader, and was a descendant of the 1689 Welsh emigrant, John Cadwalader. He studied at the William Penn Charter School and graduated from St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire. Though not a professional research scientist, he was fascinated, from his youth, with birds and frequently visited the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He was elected a Life Member of the Academy in 1908 and to the Board of Trustees and the Executive Committee on April 7, 1927. Cadwalader served as Managing Director from 1928 to 1937, when he was elected President. He served as both President and Managing Director until 1947, when H. Radclyffe Roberts was appointed Managing Director. In 1937, Cadwalader received an honorary Master's degree in Science from the University of Pennsylvania in recognition of his service to the Academy. For twenty five years Cadwalader served the academy without financial compensation. In fact, throughout his tenure as president, Cadwalader was a generous benefactor to the museum. Cadwalader is credited with establishing the Academy publication Frontiers in 1936, quintupling membership, and expanding many of the habitat groups representing the animals of North America, Africa and Asia. He actively worked to raise funding for the library, scientific research, expeditions, and the installation of exhibits. He was "among the pioneers in the habitat type of exhibit, a method which shows the animals in natural postures in their native surroundings" ( Frontiers, p. 27). Cadwalader retired in 1951, although he remained actively involved with the Board of Trustees and later was appointed as an honorary trustee. He died on June 18, 1959.

William Marvel served as President from 1971 to 1974. Marvel was raised in Baltimore, Maryland. He graduated from Princeton University in 1941 and received his doctorate in political science in 1951, also from Princeton University. Marvel was not personally interested in science, rather his background was in education and civics. In fact, in 1962, he became the first president of Education and World Affairs. During his time at the Academy, Marvel worked on a few major projects, including: a developmental planning survey of the Academy called the Brakeley John Price Jones survey, a major fund raising campaign; the purchase of an additional building to accommodate growing space needs; and the 1976 Bicentennial Celebration of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

In 1969, the Academy endorsed the city's efforts for the 1976 Bicentennial. Marvel was actively involved with The Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance which was formed during his tenure and included more than twenty cultural institutions in the area which worked together to create programs for the Bicentennial Celebration. The Academy's program centered on the creation of an extensive exhibit highlighting the development of the natural sciences in the United States since 1776. In addition, the Academy created traveling programs, held a lecture and film series, and held a three day symposium.

In 1970, the Board of Trustees voted that Brakeley John Price Jones Company, an international fund-raising consulting firm, should be commissioned to assist the Academy in the Master Planning Process and the creation of a ten to fifteen year long-term plan. Brakeley John Price Jones Company produced an in-depth survey which was completed by 1972. The survey determined core programs, a new mission statement, and identified new funding sources for the Academy. A capital campaign was organized to finance and implement the proposed changes.

Due to the growth and expansion of the Academy, by the 1960s, there was a need for more space for the scientific programs; and a Site Committee examined possibilities and methods of execution for minimal disruption. In 1972, guided by Marvel, the Academy purchased the Fidelity Mutual Life Insurance Company building at Pennsylvania and Fairmont Avenues. The new building was to house the scientific departments, collections, laboratories, offices and the library, thereby separating the research and public functions of the institution. The aforementioned departments moved into new building in 1973, however, the move was short-lived. When Milton H. Wahl succeeded Marvel as Academy President, he determined the cost of maintaining two buildings to be prohibitive and the move back into the main building began immediately. The research departments returned first. Still in need of space, as an alternative, renovations on the main building commenced in 1975, making room for all the remaining departments still in residence in the Fidelity building. The building at Pennsylvania and Fairmont Avenues was sold in December 1978.

Wahl was born in 190[7] in St. Louis Missouri. He received his undergraduate degree from the Central Wesleyan College in 1928, his Master's degree from the University of Missouri in 1930, and his doctorate from the University of Illinois in 1933. On recommendation by Ruth Patrick, the Academy's noted limnologist, Wahl served as acting president from 1974 to 1976. Wahl had recently retired as an executive of the DuPont Company. Formally, he was head of the Savannah River Laboratories and in charge of the Atomic Energy Division at DuPont. On a part-time basis, Wahl supervised the daily operations at the Academy, submitted budget proposals, and supported the Board of Trustees in financial development. In 1976, Thomas Peter Bennett was appointed president and Wahl retired.

Bennett was born in Lakeland, Florida. He received his bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Florida State University in 1959 and his doctorate from Rockefeller University in 1965. Prior to his administration at the Academy, Bennett was a professor of Biology and Chemistry at several prominent universities. He also authored several publications on molecular biology and developmental cell biology. During his tenure at the Academy, he more than doubled the endowment, and built a new science wing, auditorium, classroom facilities and the Hall of Changing Exhibits. Bennett founded The Academies of Natural Science Institutes (TANSI), Museum Association of Pennsylvania (MAP) and Friends of Logan Square Foundation (FLSF). In 1984, the Outside-In children's hands-on exhibit opened. The renowned permanent exhibit, Discovering Dinosaurs opened in January 1986. Bennett resigned in 1985, in order to return to his home state of Florida, although he remained available to assist in finding his replacement and smooth the transition. John Schmidt, a member of the Board of Trustees acted as President during the candidate search from 1986 to 1987.

In 1987, Keith Stewart Thomson began his administration as President. Born in Derbyshire, England on July 29, 1938, he received his Bachelor of Science in Zoology and Comparative Physiology in 1960 from the University of Birmingham. In 1963, he received his doctorate in Biology from Harvard University. Thomson was a dean and former director of Yale's Peabody Museum of Natural History before taking the position at the Academy. He also wrote several books and numerous scientific papers. During his tenure as Academy president, he reinitiated the Capital Campaign to raise money to build a new space for the library, exhibits, and education programs and to increase scientific research and expeditions. He resigned from the Academy in 1995.

During Cadwalader's presidency, James A.G. Rehn was the Corresponding Secretary and worked closely with Cadwalader. Rehn was born in Philadelphia on October 26, 1881 to William J. and Cornelia Loud Rehn. He was educated at the Public Industrial Art School and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He began at the Academy in 1900 as a student, and went on to become an associate in the Entomological Section. He served as Secretary from 1920 to 1938, and Corresponding Secretary from 1938 to 1959, though he continued to work in Entomology. Rehn died on January 25, 1965.

Throughout the Office of the President's history, the Comptroller or Treasurer has worked closely with the President of the Academy, managing the financial aspects of accounts, expenditures, benefits, building operations and other fiscal duties. There have been a few notable Treasurers including George Vaux, Jr. and Arthur E. Newbold, Jr.

George Vaux, Jr. was born on December 18, 1863 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania to a prominent Quaker family. He graduated from Haverford College in 1884 and the Law School at the University of Pennsylvania in 1888. He was elected a member of the Academy in 1892, treasurer in 1894 and solicitor in 1911; he served all these positions until his death in 1927. As a mineralogist he was involved in developing the mineral collection at the museum. His great-uncle Joseph Sansom (1767-1826) and his uncle William Sansom Vaux (1811-1882), were both notable mineralogists. William Sansom Vaux donated his significant mineral collection to the Academy.

Arthur E. Newbold, Jr., became the treasurer after Vaux's death. Newbold was the son of Arthur E. and Harriet Dixon Newbold. He graduated from Harvard University in 1909 and the University of Pennsylvania in 1912. Newbold was elected as a member in 1921, and served as treasurer from 1927 to 1948. Newbold guided the Academy during the Great Depression, and throughout the 1930s, invested in real estate in areas such as Colorado Springs.

During the Marvel, Wahl and the beginning of Bennett's administration, there were a few different people who served in the position of comptroller. The comptroller was responsible for managing institutional finances, including monitoring bank accounts; creating treasury reports; performing audits; maintaining the budget and operational plans; gifts; investments; and creating employee benefit packages. Cliff Jones served as secretary/comptroller from October 1972 until 1974. When Jones resigned, Kirby Scott served as comptroller from 1974 to 1977. As comptroller, Jones and Scott assisted the Academy with both the purchase and sale of the Fidelity Mutual Life Insurance Company building, as well as site planning and renovations for the main building.

Additionally, under Marvel's administration, the Academy’s internal structure was reorganized in 1973, creating three distinct divisions; 1) The Public Museum, 2) Limnology and Ecology and 3) Systematics and Evolutionary Biology. The new divisions were headed by Robert Matthai, Clyde Goulden and Frank B. Gill respectively. Additional pre-existing divisions were; the Office of Development and the Office of Finance and Administration.

Matthai’s tenure was short-lived, and in 1975, Christopher Ray replaced Matthai as the Director of the Public Museum from 1975 to 1979. Ray was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and raised in Westport, Connecticut. He earned a degree in physics and biology from Reed College in 1957. In addition to being a scientist, he was an artist and sculptor, talents which he put to use designing and curating exhibits. During Ray's tenure at the Academy, he assisted with the intensive plans for the Bicentennial Celebration and installed many new exhibits.

The Director of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, Frank B. Gill was born October 2, 1941 in New York, New York. Gill specialized in zoology and received both his undergraduate degree in 1963 and his Doctorate in 1960 from the University of Michigan. Gill began his career at the Academy as Assistant Curator of Birds in 1969, serving in that capacity until 1974 when he was promoted to Associate Curator. In 1970, he was appointed Chairman of the Department of Ornithology. Gill became the Director of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology division in 1973 and retired in 1991.

In 1972, when Roberts retired as the Managing Director, the title of the position was changed to Scientific Director and Clyde Goulden was appointed. While searching for Roberts replacement, George Davis, the director of the Malacology Department was appointed Executive Assistant to the President. George Davis was born May 21, 1938 in Bridgeport Connecticut. He received his bachelor's degree in Biology from Marietta College in 1960, a Master's in Zoology in 1962 and his doctorate in Zoology and Malacology in 1965. Both of his graduate degrees are from the University of Michigan. Davis began his career at the Academy in 1970 as Associate Curator of Mollusca. As the Executive Assistant to the President, Davis held this position from 1971 to 1972, during the transition period from John Bodine to Marvel as President. The title "managing director" was resurrected in 1974 when Milton H. Wahl was appointed acting president of the Academy upon Marvel's resignation. Davis retired in 2000.

Bibliography:

Academy of Natural Sciences Website: “About the Academy, History,” http://www.ansp.org/

"Academy's Retired President, A Patron, Charles M.B. Cadwalader, Dies," Frontiers . Vol. 24:1, October 1959.

"Brutes and Scholars," Time . March 29, 1937.

Linton, M. Albert. The Academy of Natural Sciences: 150 Years of Distinguished Service . Newcomer Society in North America: New York, 1962.

Nolan, Edward J. A Short History of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: Philadelphia, 1909.

From the guide to the President's Office and Administrative Records, 1874-2003, Bulk, 1939-1993, 1874-2003, (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Leidy, Joseph, 1823-1891. Correspondence, 1850-1890. College of Physicians of Philadelphia
creatorOf President's Office and Administrative Records, 1874-2003, Bulk, 1939-1993, 1874-2003 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Elisha Kent Kane Papers, Bulk, 1843-1857, 1810-1953 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia papers on expeditions, 1819-1969 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIf, 1866-1886 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn E.R. Fenimore Johnson photographs, 1929-1970 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Pew Charitable Trusts. Grant products reports, 1988-2002. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Lesley, J. Peter, 1819-1903. Papers, 1826-1898 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Crawford H. Greenewalt papers, 1951-1993 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Coates family. Coates and Reynell Family Papers, 1677-1930 bulk 1730-1850. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Samuel W. Woodhouse collection, 1844-1932 The Museum of Northern Arizona
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Minutes ; correspondence, 1812-1924. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Correspondence with Eugene Ormandy, 1970. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIe. 1845-1865. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Gray, Asa, 1810-1888. Asa Gray papers, 1840-1859. Library of Congress
referencedIn Harrison Allen papers, 1861-1867, 1861-1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Anthony, John Gould, 1804-1877. Letter : Cincinnati, Ohio, to M. Burrough, Vera Cruz, 1839 July. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Wyck Association,. Wyck papers, 1663-1972. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Expedition to the White River Beds of the Big Badlands of South Dakota (1841). South Dakota vertebrate paleontological field photographs, 1941. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIc, 1826-1836 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia Board of Trustees records, Bulk, 1976-1989, 1925-1990 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn H. A. Pilsbry papers, Bulk, 1900-1953, 1885-1957 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Harshberger, John W. (John William), 1869-1929. Papers, 1886-1929. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia Exhibits Department records, 1852-2001 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Miscellaneous letters, 1744-1894. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (Pa.). Letters to Henry Charles Lea, 1886-1910. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Ludwick Institute. Records, 1801-1950. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn J. Percy Moore papers, 1847-1963 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Winchell, N. H. (Newton Horace), 1839-1914. Newton H. Winchell and family papers, 1814-1958. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn George Ord Collection, 1831-1864 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Charles Luke Cassin papers, 1745-1878, 1745-1878 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Robert B. Haines III collection, 1793-1834. Haverford College Library
referencedIn Fogg, John M. (John Milton), 1898-1982. John Milton Fogg Papers, 1931-1982. The Barnes Foundation, Barnes Foundation Libraries and Special Collections
referencedIn Accademia delle scienze di Torino. Correspondence, 1824-1912, with Philadelphia institutions. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Gray, Asa, 1810-1888. Papers, 1840-1859 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Frazer family. Papers, 1779-1979 (bulk: 1860-1909) University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn Samuel George Morton papers, 1832-1862 Library Company of Philadelphia
referencedIn Index to letters of Joseph Leidy, [ca. 1978], Circa 1978 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Muhlenberg family papers, 1769-1866, 1769-1866 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851. Papers, 1819-1850. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn John Edward Gray papers, 1783-1884, 1783-1884 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Francis Whittier Pennell biographies of botanists, circa 1924-1952 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia minutes and correspondence, 1812-1924, 1812-1924 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Records, 1860-1983, 1890-1980 (bulk). National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.). Archive Center
referencedIn Sharp, Benjamin, 1858-1915. Family papers, 1809-1915. Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College
referencedIn Mead, Theodore Luqueer, 1852-1936. Theodore Luqueer Mead postal cards, 1873-1881. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Cassin, Charles Luke, 1846-1878. Papers, 1745-1878. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn George B. (George Bacon) Wood papers, 1815-1913, 1815-1913 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIh, 1892-1896 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Correspondence to Daniel Garrison Brinton, 1894-1898. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851. Letter book : Philadelphia, Pa., 1832-1837. Princeton University Library
referencedIn LeConte, John L. (John Lawrence), 1825-1883. Papers, 1812-1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wyck Association Collection, 1663-1972 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Fowler, Henry Weed, 1878-1965. Reminiscences on old naturalists, 1959. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology. Records, 1859-1984 (inclusive), 1859-1946 (bulk). Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
creatorOf Orphan Photograph Collection, 1926-1985, undated Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
creatorOf Speakman, John. Receipt book, 1811-1813, 1838. © 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Kobbé, Frederick William. Frederick W. Kobbe and Helen Jay De Bois genealogical research papers, [ca. 1800-1945] New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Poupard, James A.,. Index to letters of Joseph Leidy, [ca. 1978]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Papers of Merritt Lyndon Fernald, 1893-1934 Gray Herbarium Library
referencedIn Coates and Reynell family papers, 1677-1930 bulk 1730-1850. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Constantine Samuel Rafinesque papers, 1818-1977 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Parker, George Howard, 1864-1955. Papers of George H. Parker, 1881-1956 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Gray, Prentice. Prentice Gray papers, 1929-1930. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Putnam, Frederic Ward, 1839-1915. Papers, 1807-1971 (bulk: 1855-1935) Peabody Museum Archives, Harvard University
referencedIn Zaccheus Collins correspondence, 1805-1827 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Miscellaneous letters, 1744-1894. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Hutchinson, G. Evelyn (George Evelyn), 1903-. G. Evelyn Hutchinson papers, 1875-1992 (inclusive), 1922-1991 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993. Personal papers, 1948-1992. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Samuel George Morton Papers, 1819-1850 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Autograph letters of naturalists, 1744-1894, 1744-1894 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn John Fries Frazer papers, 1834-1871, 1834-1871 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Horace G. Richards papers, 1928-1984 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIj, 1898-1988 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Sharp, Benjamin, 1858-1915. Papers, 1876-1916. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Records of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1812-1925. Library of Congress
referencedIn H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings papers, ca. 1893-1947, Circa 1893-1947 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Jefferson, Edward Graham, 1921-2006. Edward Graham Jefferson papers, 1962-1992 (bulk, 1979-1987) Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Jacob Stauffer Papers, 1844-1879, 1844-1879 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIb, 1807-1825 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Edward Drinker Cope papers, 1859-1907 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
creatorOf Nolan, Edward J. Letter to Horace Howard Furness, 1880. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Dunlop, Robert G. (Robert Galbraith), 1909-1995. Papers, 1947-1991. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Academy of Natural Sciences. Membership certificate for Charles Atwood Kofoid, 1923 Mar. 20. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Speck, Frank Gouldsmith. Frank Gouldsmith Speck Papers. 1903-1950. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Thomas Campbell Eyton correspondence, 1836-1874, 1836-1874 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Frederick W. Kobbé and Helen Jay De Bois genealogical research papers, 1817-1944 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn New Harmony Manuscripts, 1812-1871 Working Men's Institute of New Harmony, Indiana
creatorOf Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851. Observations on the size of the brain in various races and families of man : with ethnological remarks : manuscript, [18--?] / by Samuel George Morton, M.D., Phila[delphia]. Princeton University Library
creatorOf Van Rensselaer, Jeremiah, 1793-1871. [Constitutions and by-laws of various institutions, mainly in New York, and other pamphlets]. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Tait family. Papers, 1786-1899. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Kobbe, Frederick William. Frederick W. Kobbe and Helen Jay De Bois genealogical research papers, [ca. 1800-1945] Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IId, 1837-1844 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIg, 1887-1891 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Stauffer, Jacob, 1808-1880. Correspondence, 1844-1879. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Benjamin Sharp papers and glass lantern slides, 1844-1893 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
referencedIn Frank Shipley Collins papers, 1872-1919, 1872-1919 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Papers of Carroll William Dodge, 1847-1939 Botany Libraries
referencedIn Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844. Collection, 1781-1844 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIi, 1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Edward James Nolan documents and correspondence on the History of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1846-1915 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
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associatedWith Schramm, Jacob R., (Jacob Richard), b. 1885 person
associatedWith Schuh, Richard Edwin, b. 1860 person
associatedWith Sharp, Benjamin, 1858-1915. person
associatedWith Sharp, Benjamin, 1858-1915. person
associatedWith Sharp, Benjamin, 1885-1915 person
associatedWith Silliman, Benjamin, Sr., 1779-1864 person
associatedWith Skinner, Henry. person
associatedWith Skinner, Henry, 1861-1926. person
correspondedWith Slack, J. H. person
correspondedWith Smithsonian Institution corporateBody
associatedWith Speakman, John. person
associatedWith Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 person
associatedWith Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 person
associatedWith Stauffer, Jacob, 1808-1880. person
associatedWith Stauffer, Jacob, b. 1808 person
correspondedWith Streets, Thomas H. person
associatedWith Tait family. family
associatedWith Taylor, Lane person
associatedWith Terry, William A. person
associatedWith The Associated Natural Science Institutions (TANSI). corporateBody
associatedWith Thomson, Keith Stewart person
associatedWith Torrey, John, 1796-1873. person
associatedWith Traill, George W. person
associatedWith Transeau, Edgar Nelson, 1875-1960 person
associatedWith Vaux, George, Jr., 1863-1927 person
associatedWith Wagner Free Institute of Science. corporateBody
associatedWith Wahl, Milton H. person
associatedWith Waterton, Charles, 1782-1865. person
associatedWith West, G. S., (George Stephen), 1876-1919 person
associatedWith Wille, N., (Nordal), 1858-1924 person
associatedWith Wilson, Alexander, 1766-1813. person
associatedWith Wilson, William P. 1844-1927. person
associatedWith Winchell, N. H. (Newton Horace), 1839-1914. person
associatedWith Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. corporateBody
associatedWith Wood, George B. (George Bacon), 1797-1879 person
associatedWith Woodhouse, S. W. (Samuel Washington), 1821-1904 person
associatedWith Wright, Charles person
associatedWith Wright, Minturn T., 1925- person
associatedWith Wyck Association, corporateBody
associatedWith Wyck Association. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Academy of Natural Science
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Estate records
Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Subject
Scientific expeditions
American Revolution Bicentennial, 1976
Science--Societies, etc
Exhibits
Smithsonian Institution
Dioramas
Associations, institutions, etc
Salvage archaeology
Natural history museums--Collection management
Committees
Fund raising
Natural history museums
Occupation
Activity

Corporate Body

Establishment 1812

Americans

English

Information

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