Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947

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Herbert Spencer Jennings was a naturalist and geneticist. He taught botany and zoology at various universities in the United States and abroad. He specialized in research on the physiology of micro-organisms, animal behavior, and genetics.

From the description of Diaries, 1903-1942. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122440035

From the description of Papers, ca. 1893-1947. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122689452

Professor of zoology at the University of Michigan and director of the U.S. Fish Commission Biological Survey of the Great Lakes, 1901.

From the description of H.S. Jennings journal, June-September 1901. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 34419521

Herbert Spencer Jennings was a distinguished American biologist.

He was born in Tonica, Illinois in 1868. He received his Ph. D from Harvard University and came to The Johns Hopkins University in 1906. In 1910 he was made Henry Walters Professor of Zoology and director of the zoology laboratory. His chief research interests were protozoology and genetics. He was the author of 10 major works and numerous articles and lectures. Jennings died in 1947.

From the description of Herbert Spencer Jennings papers, 1901-1945. (Johns Hopkins University). WorldCat record id: 48369085

H.S. Jennings was one of the first zoologists to study the behavior of individual microorganisms and genetic variation in single-celled organisms.

Jennings graduated from Harvard in 1896, and in 1906 completed his most important work on zoology, Behavior of the lower organisms. He was a professor of zooology at Johns Hopkins University from 1910 until his retirement in 1938. He performed research on protozoa, and wrote extensively on Paramecium bursaria. Jennings' writings focused on numerous aspects of genetics and heredity, includings topics such as mutation, variation, evolution and eugenics. His later books include Life and death: heredity and evolution in unicellular organisms (1920); The biological basis of human Nature (1930) ; and Genetics (1935).

From the description of Jennings collection of zoological articles, ca. 1894-1947. (Indiana University). WorldCat record id: 60563393

Herbert Spencer Jennings (1868-1947, APS 1907) was a microbiologist, zoologist and geneticist. In his critical monograph Contributions to the Study of the Behavior of Lower Organisms (1904) Jennings challenged the theory physicochemical tropisms in animals championed by Jacques Loeb (1859-1924, APS 1899), and brought single-celled organisms into the realm of psychology. He also helped to found the field of mathematical genetics by systematically applying principles of Mendelian theory to his calculations of expectable ratios of the traits in various types of inheritance. Jennings’s most important contribution to genetics was his investigation of the questions of variation and evolution that confirmed the gradual but persistent progress of the latter by the accrual of very slight alterations.

Jennings was born on April 8, 1868, the son of physician George Nelson Jennings and Olive Taft Jenks, in Tonica, Illinois. He learned to read at a very early age, by delving into his father’s extensive home library. From 1874-1879 the family lived in various localities in California, before returning to Tonica, Illinois, where Jennings attended a public high school. After high school, he studied at the Illinois Normal School near Bloomington (now Illinois State University) in 1887-88, then briefly taught in rural schools near his home in Tonica. At the age of twenty-one in 1889 without a degree, Jennings served as assistant professor of botany and horticulture at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (later Texas A & M University).

In 1890 Jennings matriculated at the University of Michigan, where he studied with the young zoologist and ichthyologist Jacob Reighard. He graduated with a B.S. in 1893. After a year of graduate study at Michigan, Jennings moved on to Harvard to study with Reighard’s mentor Edward Laurens Mark at the Zoological Laboratory. He received an M.A. from Harvard in 1895 and a Ph.D. in 1896. His thesis was on the embryology of a rotifer. As a graduate student, Jennings was influenced by Charles Benedict Davenport (1866-1944, APS 1907), then a Harvard instructor, to shift his interests from descriptive to experimental biology. After completing his doctorate, Jennings was awarded the Parker traveling fellowship, which allowed him during the winter of 1896-97 to study the response of the Paramecium to stimuli with pioneering researcher on protozoan behavior Max Verworn at the University of Jena. In the spring of 1897 Jennings worked at the Naples Zoological Laboratory. Returning home that summer, he held several one-year appointments as professor of botany at the Montana State Agricultural and Mechanical College (1897-98) and as instructor in zoology at Dartmouth (1898-99) to replace a professor on leave. Also in 1898 Jennings wed Mary Louise Burridge, an artist and a son born to them later that year.

In 1899 Jennings became a zoology instructor at the University of Michigan, progressing to the rank of assistant professor in 1901. Also, in 1901 he coauthored a textbook with Reighard, entitled the Anatomy of the Cat. During his summers at the University of Michigan, Jennings continued to serve under Reighard’s supervision as an assistant with the Michigan lake surveys. In 1902 he was appointed program director for the U.S. Fish Commission Biological Survey of the Great Lakes.

In 1903 Jennings became assistant professor of zoology at the University of Pennsylvania and was allowed a one-year leave to return to the Naples Zoological Laboratory, funded by a grant from the Carnegie Institution. He published the results of his research the following year as Contributions to the Study of the Behavior of Lower Organisms (1904). In 1906 Jennings moved on to Johns Hopkins University to become professor of experimental zoology. Here he was assigned light teaching duties and provided with a laboratory. In 1910 he was promoted to become Henry Walters Professor of Zoology and directed the zoological laboratory until his retirement in 1938.

Even before his post-doctoral studies, Jennings pursued experimental research on the behavior of primitive animals and their reactions to stimuli. Of his many published papers, Jennings’s study of “The Psychology of a Protozoan” (1899) sparked the strongest reaction. He had become greatly interested in the complex behavior of these single-celled microorganisms, which he attributed to their entire structure. These views drew fire from University of Chicago biologist Jacques Loeb, who maintained the reactions of all life forms could ultimately be explained as physical or chemical reactions [i.e. tropisms]. However, at a scientific meeting in 1900 Jennings provided experimental demonstrations to prove the validity of his theory, and obtained the agreement of Loeb.

In 1900 Jennings was one of the many biologists inspired to study genetics by the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel’s work on inheritance in plants. In his laboratory at Johns Hopkins he began to study the genetics and evolution of two species of single-celled organisms, the Paramecium and Difflugia. His goal was to discover the origin of hereditary variations in organisms, whose reproduction is primarily asexual. Jennings based his research on the characteristics of individual organisms (aggregating these results statistically, rather than studying them as groups). He discovered that the progeny of the individual organisms were identical with the “parent” organisms. Further studies by Jennings’s graduate students showed that the same is true of multicellular organisms, reproducing by asexual means. Systematically applying Mendelian theory to his samples, he helped to found the field of mathematical genetics by calculating the expectable ratios of traits in various types of inheritance. Jennings’s greatest contriubutions to genetics related to questions of variation and evolution. From 1908 to 1916 Jennings and his students published a number of papers, discussing the constancy and variability of traits in protozoan lines of inheritance. He demonstrated that within a given species there are a number of particular strains whose traits endure for many generations. However, he also noticed the spontaneous development of very slight, but persistent variations. The net effect of his work was to modify the theory of mutations, since the alterations he observed were so slight that they suggested evolution proceeded gradually by means of very small (rather than abrupt) changes. A contemporary university publication offered a somewhat exaggerated description of Jennings as the first scientific researcher “to actually see and control the process of evolution among living things.”

After Jennings’s appointment as Director of Johns Hopkins zoological laboratory, he had less time to spend on his own research, but continued to supervise the work of graduate students. He also produced an important series of writings that popularized genetics and discussed the philosophical implications of the new methods and findings of experimental biology. His popular books, that included Life and Death: Heredity and Evolution in Unicellular Organisms (1920), Prometheus; or, Biology and the Advancement of Man (1925), The Biological Basis of Human Nature (1930) and The Universe and Life (1933) focused on the central finding of his lifework that biological processes are identical across the animal kingdom. In 1935 he also authored a textbook entitled Genetics.

In 1938 his wife Mary died, shortly after Jennings’s retirement from Johns Hopkins, and the following spring he accepted a position as visiting professor at the University of California at Los Angeles. There at the age of seventy he resumed his research on the Paramecium, about which he published several new papers. In 1939 he married Lulu Plant Jennings, his brother’s widow.

Throughout his career Jennings held memberships and offices in many scientific societies and learned organizations. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1907. He was also a member of the American Zoological Society (President, 1908-09), the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Society of Naturalists (1910-11) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (in 1914). Internationally, Jennings was an honorary fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society in Great Britain, a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a member of the Société de Biologie de Paris and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science.

In addition to his many scholarly and popular books on biology and genetics, Jennings published numerous papers in zoological and physiological journals. He was also the Associate Editor of the Journal of Experimental Zoology and Genetics and of the Biological Bulletin.

Jennings spent his final years in Los Angeles, California. He died in Santa Monica, California on April 14, 1947.

From the guide to the H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings papers, ca. 1893-1947, Circa 1893-1947, (American Philosophical Society)

Herbert Spencer Jennings (1868-1947, APS 1907) was a microbiologist, zoologist and geneticist. In his critical monograph Contributions to the Study of the Behavior of Lower Organisms (1904) Jennings challenged the theory physicochemical tropisms in animals championed by Jacques Loeb (1859-1924, APS 1899), and brought single-celled organisms into the realm of psychology. He also helped to found the field of mathematical genetics by systematically applying principles of Mendelian theory to his calculations of expectable ratios of the traits in various types of inheritance. Jennings’s most important contribution to genetics was his investigation of the questions of variation and evolution that confirmed the gradual but persistent progress of the latter by the accrual of very slight alterations.

Jennings was born on April 8, 1868, the son of physician George Nelson Jennings and Olive Taft Jenks, in Tonica, Illinois. He learned to read at a very early age, by delving into his father’s extensive home library. From 1874-1879 the family lived in various localities in California, before returning to Tonica, Illinois, where Jennings attended a public high school. After high school, he studied at the Illinois Normal School near Bloomington (now Illinois State University) in 1887-88, then briefly taught in rural schools near his home in Tonica. At the age of twenty-one in 1889 without a degree, Jennings served as assistant professor of botany and horticulture at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (later Texas A & M University).

In 1890 Jennings matriculated at the University of Michigan, where he studied with the young zoologist and ichthyologist Jacob Reighard. He graduated with a B.S. in 1893. After a year of graduate study at Michigan, Jennings moved on to Harvard to study with Reighard’s mentor Edward Laurens Mark at the Zoological Laboratory. He received an M.A. from Harvard in 1895 and a Ph.D. in 1896. His thesis was on the embryology of a rotifer. As a graduate student, Jennings was influenced by Charles Benedict Davenport (1866-1944, APS 1907), then a Harvard instructor, to shift his interests from descriptive to experimental biology. After completing his doctorate, Jennings was awarded the Parker traveling fellowship, which allowed him during the winter of 1896-97 to study the response of the Paramecium to stimuli with pioneering researcher on protozoan behavior Max Verworn at the University of Jena. In the spring of 1897 Jennings worked at the Naples Zoological Laboratory. Returning home that summer, he held several one-year appointments as professor of botany at the Montana State Agricultural and Mechanical College (1897-98) and as instructor in zoology at Dartmouth (1898-99) to replace a professor on leave. Also in 1898 Jennings wed Mary Louise Burridge, an artist and a son born to them later that year.

In 1899 Jennings became a zoology instructor at the University of Michigan, progressing to the rank of assistant professor in 1901. Also, in 1901 he coauthored a textbook with Reighard, entitled the Anatomy of the Cat. During his summers at the University of Michigan, Jennings continued to serve under Reighard’s supervision as an assistant with the Michigan lake surveys. In 1902 he was appointed program director for the U.S. Fish Commission Biological Survey of the Great Lakes.

In 1903 Jennings became assistant professor of zoology at the University of Pennsylvania and was allowed a one-year leave to return to the Naples Zoological Laboratory, funded by a grant from the Carnegie Institution. He published the results of his research the following year as Contributions to the Study of the Behavior of Lower Organisms (1904). In 1906 Jennings moved on to Johns Hopkins University to become professor of experimental zoology. Here he was assigned light teaching duties and provided with a laboratory. In 1910 he was promoted to become Henry Walters Professor of Zoology and directed the zoological laboratory until his retirement in 1938.

Even before his post-doctoral studies, Jennings pursued experimental research on the behavior of primitive animals and their reactions to stimuli. Of his many published papers, Jennings’s study of “The Psychology of a Protozoan” (1899) sparked the strongest reaction. He had become greatly interested in the complex behavior of these single-celled microorganisms, which he attributed to their entire structure. These views drew fire from University of Chicago biologist Jacques Loeb, who maintained the reactions of all life forms could ultimately be explained as physical or chemical reactions [i.e. tropisms]. However, at a scientific meeting in 1900 Jennings provided experimental demonstrations to prove the validity of his theory, and obtained the agreement of Loeb.

In 1900 Jennings was one of the many biologists inspired to study genetics by the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel’s work on inheritance in plants. In his laboratory at Johns Hopkins he began to study the genetics and evolution of two species of single-celled organisms, the Paramecium and Difflugia. His goal was to discover the origin of hereditary variations in organisms, whose reproduction is primarily asexual. Jennings based his research on the characteristics of individual organisms (aggregating these results statistically, rather than studying them as groups). He discovered that the progeny of the individual organisms were identical with the “parent” organisms. Further studies by Jennings’s graduate students showed that the same is true of multicellular organisms, reproducing by asexual means. Systematically applying Mendelian theory to his samples, he helped to found the field of mathematical genetics by calculating the expectable ratios of traits in various types of inheritance. Jennings’s greatest contriubutions to genetics related to questions of variation and evolution. From 1908 to 1916 Jennings and his students published a number of papers, discussing the constancy and variability of traits in protozoan lines of inheritance. He demonstrated that within a given species there are a number of particular strains whose traits endure for many generations. However, he also noticed the spontaneous development of very slight, but persistent variations. The net effect of his work was to modify the theory of mutations, since the alterations he observed were so slight that they suggested evolution proceeded gradually by means of very small (rather than abrupt) changes. A contemporary university publication offered a somewhat exaggerated description of Jennings as the first scientific researcher “to actually see and control the process of evolution among living things.”

After Jennings’s appointment as Director of Johns Hopkins zoological laboratory, he had less time to spend on his own research, but continued to supervise the work of graduate students. He also produced an important series of writings that popularized genetics and discussed the philosophical implications of the new methods and findings of experimental biology. His popular books, that included Life and Death: Heredity and Evolution in Unicellular Organisms (1920), Prometheus; or, Biology and the Advancement of Man (1925), The Biological Basis of Human Nature (1930) and The Universe and Life (1933) focused on the central finding of his lifework that biological processes are identical across the animal kingdom. In 1935 he also authored a textbook entitled Genetics.

In 1938 his wife Mary died, shortly after Jennings’s retirement from Johns Hopkins, and the following spring he accepted a position as visiting professor at the University of California at Los Angeles. There at the age of seventy he resumed his research on the Paramecium, about which he published several new papers. In 1939 he married Lulu Plant Jennings, his brother’s widow.

Throughout his career Jennings held memberships and offices in many scientific societies and learned organizations. He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1907. He was also a member of the American Zoological Society (President, 1908-09), the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Society of Naturalists (1910-11) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (in 1914). Internationally, Jennings was an honorary fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society in Great Britain, a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a member of the Société de Biologie de Paris and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science.

In addition to his many scholarly and popular books on biology and genetics, Jennings published numerous papers in zoological and physiological journals. He was also the Associate Editor of the Journal of Experimental Zoology and Genetics and of the Biological Bulletin.

Jennings spent his final years in Los Angeles, California. He died in Santa Monica, California on April 14, 1947.

From the guide to the H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings diaries, 1903-1942, 1903-1942, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947. Diaries, 1903-1942. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings papers, ca. 1893-1947, Circa 1893-1947 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Lynch, Ruth J. Stocking, 1887-1983. Ruth J. Stocking Lynch papers, 1906-1979. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Jennings, George Nelson, 1833-1903. Autobiography, 1897. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947. Papers, ca. 1893-1947. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn L. C. Dunn Papers, ca. 1920-1974 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings papers, ca. 1893-1947, Circa 1893-1947 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Warren H. (Warren Harmon) Lewis papers, ca. 1913-1964, 1913-1964 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Lewis, Warren H. (Warren Harmon), 1870-1964. Papers, ca. 1913-1964. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Kelly, Howard A. (Howard Atwood), 1858-1943. Papers, 1888-1935 and undated. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
referencedIn Frank Manny papers, 1890-1955 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Journal of Experimental Zoology records 1891-1964 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Paul Kester papers, 1880-1933 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Jacob Ellsworth Reighard Papers, 1887-1942, 1890-1920 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947. H.S. Jennings journal, June-September 1901. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Kester, Paul, 1870-1933. Paul Kester papers, 1880-1933. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Raymond Pearl Papers, Circa 1895-1940 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Gildersleeve, Basil L. (Basil Lanneau), 1831-1924. Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve papers, 1847-1925. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947. Herbert Spencer Jennings papers, 1901-1945. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn George Nelson Jennings autobiography, 1897, 1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Journal of Experimental Zoology records, 1891-1964 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Davenport, Charles Benedict, 1866-1944. Papers, 1874-1944. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf H. S. (Herbert Spencer) Jennings diaries, 1903-1942, 1903-1942 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Dunn, L. C. (Leslie Clarence), 1893-1974. Papers, [ca. 1920]-1974. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn University of Michigan Faculty and Staff Portraits, ca. 1860-ca. 1960 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Manny, Frank Addison, 1868-1954. Frank Addison Manny papers, 1890-1955. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer), 1868-1947. Jennings collection of zoological articles, ca. 1894-1947. Indiana University
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associatedWith Moore, Barrington, 1883- person
associatedWith Moore, J. Percy (John Percy), b. 1869 person
associatedWith Morgan, C. Lloyd (Conwy Lloyd), 1852-1936 person
associatedWith Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 1866-1945. person
associatedWith Mullenix, Rollin Clarke, 1869- person
associatedWith Muller, H. J. (Hermann Joseph), 1890-1967. person
associatedWith Mulligan, Margaret E person
associatedWith Nash, Jay Bryan, 1886-1965 person
associatedWith National Academy of Sciences (U. S.) person
associatedWith National Committee for Mental Hygiene person
associatedWith National Research Council person
associatedWith Neal, Herbert V. (Herbert Vincent), 1869-1940 person
associatedWith New York University person
associatedWith Nin, Man-Chiang person
associatedWith Norton, W W person
associatedWith Offermann, Carlos A person
associatedWith Osborn, Byrle person
associatedWith Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 1857-1935 person
associatedWith Osterud, Hjalmar Laurits, 1883- person
associatedWith Osterud, Hjalmar Laurits, b. 1883. person
associatedWith Pack, Charles Lathrop, 1857-1937 person
associatedWith Parker, George Howard, 1864-1955 person
associatedWith Park, Thomas, 1908- person
associatedWith Peabody, James E person
associatedWith Pearl, Maud M. DeWitt person
associatedWith Pearl, Raymond, 1879-1940. person
associatedWith Peebles, Florence, 1874- person
associatedWith Perkins, Henry Farnham, 1877- person
associatedWith Plain talk person
associatedWith Pomeroy, Fred Elmer, 1877- person
associatedWith Pomeroy, Fred Elmer, b. 1877. person
associatedWith Princeton University Press person
associatedWith Prior, W. F., company, inc. person
associatedWith Procter, William, 1872-1951 person
associatedWith Progressive Education Association person
correspondedWith Provine, William B. person
associatedWith Queen, Stuart Alfred, 1890-1987 person
associatedWith Raffel, Daniel, b. 1899. person
associatedWith Raphael, Theophile, 1891- person
associatedWith Rasbridge, W J person
associatedWith Reighard, Jacob Ellsworth, 1861-1942 person
associatedWith Revista de Occidente person
associatedWith Rhoades, Marcus M. (Marcus Morton), 1903-1991 person
associatedWith Richmond, Hotel person
associatedWith Riddle, Marjorie person
associatedWith Ritter, William Emerson, 1856-1944 person
associatedWith Robinson, Elliott Stirling, b. 1894 person
associatedWith Sanford, Edmund C. (Edmund Clark), 1859-1924 person
associatedWith Sanford, G B person
associatedWith Schoen, Max, 1888 person
associatedWith Science Service person
associatedWith Scott, Joseph M person
associatedWith Seafield, Ione M person
associatedWith Searle, William D person
associatedWith Sexson, Paul A person
associatedWith Shapovalov, Leo, 1908-1994 person
associatedWith Shull, A. Franklin (Aaron Franklin), b. 1881 person
associatedWith Shull, George Harrison, 1874-1954. person
associatedWith Shute, D. Kerfoot (Daniel Kerfoot), 1858-1935 person
associatedWith Sigma Xi person
associatedWith Smith, J Whitefield person
associatedWith Sonneborn, T. M. (Tracy Morton), 1905-1981, person
associatedWith Spencer, R. R. (Roscoe Roy), 1888-1982 person
associatedWith Spencer, Steven M person
associatedWith Stout, Arlow Burdette, 1876-1957 person
associatedWith Swain, Robert E. (Robert Eckles), b. 1875 person
associatedWith Sweet, Norman person
associatedWith Taylor, Charles Vincent, 1885-1946 person
associatedWith Thayer, John B. (John Borland), b. 1894 person
associatedWith The Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago person
associatedWith The American year book person
associatedWith The general press cutting association, ltd. person
associatedWith The Nation Associates person
associatedWith The New republic person
associatedWith The Parents' magazine person
associatedWith The philosophical review person
associatedWith The Science press person
associatedWith The Science Service person
associatedWith The Survey person
associatedWith The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology person
associatedWith Tillinghast, Frank N person
associatedWith Titus, Charles P person
associatedWith United States Fish Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Food Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Navy person
associatedWith University of Michigan person
associatedWith University of Michigan corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania person
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. Press person
associatedWith Van der Lyn, Theodore N person
associatedWith Vaughan, B C jr person
associatedWith Vaughan, Thomas Wayland, 1870-1952 person
associatedWith Vavilov, N. I. (Nikolaĭ Ivanovich), 1887-1943. person
associatedWith Visscher, J Paul person
associatedWith Vries, Hugo de, 1848-1935. person
associatedWith Wagner Free Institute of Science person
associatedWith Walcutt, Charles C person
associatedWith Walter, H E person
associatedWith Ward, C. H. (Charles Henshaw), 1872-1935 person
associatedWith Ward, Henry Baldwin, 1865-1945 person
associatedWith Watson, John Broadus, 1878-1958. person
associatedWith Waverly Press person
associatedWith Weatherby, Jesse Howell, 1903- person
associatedWith Weaver, Nevin person
associatedWith Weill, Blanche C. (Blanche California), b. 1883 person
associatedWith Weir, John Robert, 1912- person
associatedWith Welch, William Henry, 1850-1934 person
associatedWith Weller, Charles Frederick, b. 1870 person
associatedWith Wenrich, David Henry, 1885-1968 person
associatedWith Wheeler, George C. (George Carlos), 1897-1991 person
associatedWith Wheeler, William Morton, 1865-1937 person
associatedWith Whitney, Leon Fradley, 1894-. person
associatedWith Wiggam, Albert Edward, 1871-1957 person
associatedWith Williams, Elmer F person
associatedWith Wilson, Edwin Bidwell, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology person
associatedWith Wold, Carmin E person
associatedWith Worcester, Dean A. (Dean Amory), 1889-1982 person
associatedWith W. W. Norton & Company person
associatedWith Yale University Press person
associatedWith Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. person
associatedWith Zook, Helen Phyllis person
associatedWith Zoological Society of London person
associatedWith Zuckerman, H G person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Great Lakes (North America)
United States
Japan
Tokyo (Japan)
United States
Subject
Zoologists--Archives
Fishes
Variation (Biology)
Emigration and immigration law--United States
Genetics
Protozoa--Physiology
Genetics--Study and teaching (Higher)
Protozoology--Study and teaching (Higher)
Biometry
Paramecium
Biology
Biologists--Archives
Animal behavior
Schools--Japan--Tokyo
Japanese language
Paramecium--Physiology
Universities and colleges
Invertebrates--Behavior
Eugenics
Emigration and immigration law
Biology--Study and teaching (Higher)
Natural selection
Zoology--Study and teaching (Higher)
Heredity
College teachers--Archives
Protozoa--Genetics
Evolution
Universities and colleges--Japan
Correlation (Statistics)
Vitalism
Zoology
Occupation
Zoologists--United States
College teachers
Biologists
Function

Person

Birth 1868-04-08

Death 1947-04-14

Americans

German,

English,

French

Information

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