The author of this volume informed his correspondents about the trade of pepper and rum in New York between November and December 1801. He also did business in Philadelphia, Boston, and Baltimore.
From the guide to the New York Mercantile letter book, 1801, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume contains copied passages from several sources, including the works of John Locke, histories of England and Europe, and treatises on religion.
From the guide to the Eighteenth-century commonplace book, 1732-, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of this volume lived in southwestern Ohio. He made a living as a travelling bookseller and frequently worked in the towns of South Charleston, Jamestown, and London. He had a son Jimmie (b. 1852), and a daughter Ella (b. 1854).
From the guide to the Ohio Bookseller's diary, 1869, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Walley Chamberlain Oulton was the son of Walley Oulton and Catherine Walker of Dublin, Ireland. Sometime after the debut of his first play in 1783, he moved to London, England, where he continued to write plays and later began to act. Oulton also published a newspaper, occasionally composed essays, and became a theater historian. He and his wife, Ann Elizabeth Churchill, married on November 5, 1787, and had four children, including John and Thomas Walker Oulton.
From the guide to the Walley Chamberlain Oulton, The Sleep Walker, or, Which is the Lady?, Oulton, Walley Chamberlain, The Sleep Walker, or, Which is the Lady?, Undated, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
After D-Day (June 6, 1944), the troop ship Marigold was newly refitted as a hospital ship and traveled to Europe to assist with the Allied invasion of southern France. After returning to the United States, the Marigold was stationed at Charleston, South Carolina, until being sent to the Pacific Theater in October 1944. The ship traveled through the Panama Canal to New Guinea and the Philippines before returning to the United States in May 1945.
From the guide to the U.S. Army Hospital Ship Marigold diary, Marigold, U.S. Army Hospital Ship diary, 1944-1945, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The owner of this volume traveled from Cambridge, New York, to Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York City in 1806. He performed manual labor, and traded animal skins. In 1808, the author lived in Cambridge, New York, where he planted crops such as potatoes, cabbages, and corn. Signatures in the volume suggest that the author may have been James Peters.
From the guide to the Cambridge (N.Y.) account book and journal, 1806-1808, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of this daybook lived in a town or city called Springfield in 1825 and 1826. He made and repaired chairs and other goods and performed other services, such as painting and varnishing wooden furniture and mirrors.
From the guide to the Springfield Cabinet-maker's daybook, 1825-1834, 1825-1826, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Priscilla Hunt Cadwallader, born to a religious Quaker family in North Carolina on July 10, 1786, had little formal education. In 1811, she married Jabez Hunt, who died two years later, leaving her with a young child. She moved to Indiana, and in 1815 began preaching at the Blue River Monthly Meeting in Washington County. She quickly became known for her preaching, and began to travel around the United States. Around 1824, Priscilla Hunt married Joseph Cadwallader, a Quaker minister, though this second marriage ended in divorce in 1830. Despite her unhappy marriage, Priscilla found herself in a leadership role during the split of the Society of Friends into Hicksite and Orthodox factions in 1827-1828. During the later years of her life, she continued to travel and preach throughout the United States and Canada, though various illnesses increasingly took their toll on her and limited her ability to travel. She died on November 13, 1859.
From the guide to the Priscilla Hunt Cadwallader sermons, Cadwallader, Priscilla Hunt sermons, 1824, 1831, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Horatio Smith Noyes was born in Brattleboro, Vermont, on April 16, 1815, the son of John Noyes (1764-1841), a United States Congressman, and Polly Hayes (1780-1866), an aunt of future president Rutherford B. Hayes. He attended Dartmouth College before transferring to Yale in 1833. After graduating from Yale in 1835, he briefly studied law and became a clerk for a shipping firm; he was later a bank cashier in Brattleboro, Vermont, and a businessman in Springfield, Vermont, and Newtonville, Massachusetts. On May 24, 1843, Noyes married Mary Augusta Chandler (d. 1855) of Rockingham, Vermont. They had two children, Edward Horatio (b. 1844) and Charlotte Augusta (b. 1846). After the death of his first wife, Horatio S. Noyes married Abbie S. Woodman of Boston, Massachusetts, on May 19, 1857. They had three children: Charles Rutherford (b. 1858), William Stacy (b. 1859), and Mary Louisa (b. 1861). Horatio Smith Noyes died on August 10, 1883.
From the guide to the Horatio Noyes collection, Noyes, Horatio collection, 1838, 1862-1880, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Phebe (or Phoebe) T. Plant was born on July 2, 1800, the daughter of Rebecca Plant of Southington, Connecticut. On August 4, 1805, her widowed mother married Samuel Hearsey. During her late teenage years, Phoebe corresponded with Martha Barnes, who also lived in Southington. Phebe Plant married Joel Neal (1798-1835) on September 1, 1818, and died on March 26, 1819.
From the guide to the Phebe Plant collection, Plant, Phebe collection, 1801-1830s, 1814-1819, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
François-Joseph-Paul, comte de Grasse (1722-1788), was born in Bar-sur-Loup, France, on September 12, 1722. In 1781, after serving as a commodore in the French navy during France's early involvement in the American Revolution, de Grasse was promoted to admiral and given command of a large fleet. The convoy reached the West Indies in April 1781 and participated in several engagements before sailing to Virginia to support the Comte de Rochambeau's troops. De Grasse and his fleet fought the British in several battles around the Chesapeake, and provided a naval blockade during the sieges of Yorktown and Gloucester. After General Charles Cornwallis surrendered to the allied forces in October of 1781, de Grasse returned with his fleet to the West Indies, where they aided in capturing St. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat in 1782. However, in April 1782, de Grasse faced a disastrous defeat against Admiral George Romney off of the Îles de Saintes, and was captured by the British. He was eventually freed and he returned to France, where he died in 1788.
From the guide to the Journal ou Campagne des Armées de Terre et de Mer…, 1781-1782, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of this diary, a doctor, traveled onboard the American clipper N. B. Palmer from New York to Shanghai, China, between 1859 and 1860, leaving his wife and children in the United States. In Shanghai, he met his brother, a doctor who had previously relocated to China, and the pair provided medical services for the crews of arriving ships, as well as for local residents. Though his brother eventually left, he remained in Shanghai until at least July 1860.
From the guide to the China diary, 1859-1860, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The majority of these poems were culled from various publications, and most were originally written prior to 1852. Many were later set to music and published in 19th-century songbooks.
From the guide to the Poetry manuscripts, [1850s-1880s], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The ancestors of Robert Leet Patterson included members of the Patterson, Williams, Herron, Wilson, and Baird families, who lived in western Pennsylvania in the 18th and 19th centuries.
From the guide to the Robert Leet Patterson family genealogical notebook, Patterson, Robert Leet family genealogical notebook, 1900-1909, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The 138th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, containing 10 companies, was one of the first regiments to organize after President Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. The regiment mustered at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, on August 26, 1862, under Charles L.K. Sumwalt, and spent much of 1863 in Maryland and northern Virginia, pursuing Confederate General Robert E. Lee. They first saw action in the Battle of Wapping Heights on July 23, 1863, and served as part of the Army of the Potomac and, later, the Army of the Shenandoah. The regiment was mustered out on June 23, 1865.
From the guide to the United States. Army. 138th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment diary, 1863-1864, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Philadelphia Mayors collection is made up of individual items related to 25 mayors of Philadelphia who held office between 1705 and 1976.
From the guide to the Philadelphia (Pa.) Mayors collection, 1705-1976, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The anonymous author of this volume was born on April 21, 1827. His brother-in-law, Albert Whitely, married Elizabeth Townsend, Rachel K. Lowber, and Eliza A. Lowber. Albert had four children: Elizabeth, Benjamin, Madeline, and Rosa. The author also refers to an aunt and nephew, Susan and Henry A. Leister of Philadelphia; an uncle, Samuel Virden of Murderkill Hundred; and two cousins, P. L. S. Virden and William Townsend.
From the guide to the Diary of a railroad and steamer trip, 1857, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Though Italy did not become a major colonizing force in the Western Hemisphere in the 16th and 17th centuries, its scientists and philosophers retained an interest in expanding knowledge of world geography and astronomy. With reports from explorers, Italians and other Europeans began to create maps of the world showing North and South America and the Atlantic Ocean, complemented by newly developed navigational grids depicting lines of latitude and longitude, by which sailors and others venturing into unknown territory could determine their position. These advances in cartography and geography were aided by developments in astronomy, which allowed for more reliable navigational tools.
From the guide to the Breve Trattato di Geografia, [ca. 1650-1675], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
In 1866, M. D. Moore of New York City addressed a New York Senate committee with his plan for an elevated suspended railway that would ferry passengers between Battery Park and Central Park; he estimated the project's cost at $1,500,000. The proposed trains would be propelled by "dummy engines" using the coal derivative "coke." In 1870, Joseph W. Morse, who claimed to have invented a plan for the suspended railway system, joined George F. H. Youngs, Samuel Bromberg, and James E. Beers in an attempt to construct the railway.
From the guide to the New York (N.Y.) Elevated Railway collection, 1866-1872, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The 1850s were a time of significant change in traditional blacksmithing in Pennsylvania, as new fuels and materials led to changes in mining practices and as many shops introduced new labor-saving tools, increasingly purchased rather than produced by individual blacksmiths themselves. Industrial production began to limit demand for handmade products, leading smiths to diversify their talents and offerings; many, for example, began making parts to repair manufactured goods, such as wagons.
From the guide to the Bustleton (Pa.) Blacksmith's account book, 1851-1858, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
John Smith made the first documented voyage by Europeans to what is now the states of Pennsylvania and Delaware in 1608, followed shortly thereafter by Henry Hudson (1609) and Samuel Argall (1610). Between 1637 and 1638, Swedish immigrants began the first permanent European settlements in the area, though the territory often oscillated between Dutch and English control. In 1681, King Charles II of Great Britain granted William Penn a charter to land in the area; Penn established a colony, now named Pennsylvania, with a high tolerance of religious freedom, a large Quaker presence, and a certain degree of autonomy from English governance. During this period, the colony's largest migratory populations originated from Germany and the British Isles, with significant numbers of Scotch-Irish. Pennsylvania outlawed slavery in 1780. Philadelphia was the site of the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the capital of the United States throughout the American Revolution. During the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, Pennsylvania's main industries centered on iron and steel, with a significant printing industry based around Philadelphia. Notably, the Erie Canal, finished in 1825, allowed transport from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.
From the guide to the Pennsylvania Geography exercise book, [ca. 1831-1835], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Colonial New Jersey was under the legal jurisdiction of Great Britain. Cases argued in local courts could eventually be heard in the state's Supreme Court. Robert Hunter Morris, son of Governor Lewis Morris, was chief justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court from 1739 until his death in 1764.
From the guide to the New Jersey Court Cases, 1739-1753, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Colonel John Cumming of Worcester, Massachusetts, purchased a plot of land in Western Massachusetts known as township "No. 5" on June 2, 1762; much of this plot was incorporated as the Town of Cummington on June 23, 1779. The poet William Cullen Bryant was born there on November 3, 1794, the son of Peter Bryant, a local physician. In 1850, the population of Cummington was roughly 1,172.
From the guide to the Cummington (Mass.) Country Store and Tavern account book, 1817-1866, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
George III, King of Great Britain, was born in 1738, the son of Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. He ascended to the throne on October 25, 1760, following the death of King George II, his grandfather, although he was not formally crowned until September 22, 1761. He married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744-1818) on September 8, 1761. Domestically, the early years of his reign were difficult, as Great Britain cycled through multiple different administrations. By the early years of Lord North's ministry in the 1770s, political matters became more settled, while international affairs became increasingly heated, especially with the American colonies. By 1810, the King had become incapacitated by mental illness, and he remained secluded in Windsor Castle until his death on January 29, 1820.
From the guide to the The History of the Reign of George III, History of the Reign of George III, The, 1820-1823, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Fremont Trading and Mining Company was one of many corporations formed during the gold rush mania of 1949. The company consisted of 76 men from New York and Connecticut, all hopeful prospectors, who pooled their resources to co-finance the expensive voyage to California. They commissioned a ship to sail around Cape Horn, via Rio de Janeiro and Valparaiso, to San Francisco. The ship was the barque Selma, built in 1839 in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and mastered by Orin Selen, taking fourteen crew and ninety-three passengers. The back of the diary lists the members, their ages, residences, and occupations. Though two of the members were physicians, the majority were tradesmen and craftsmen, whose average age was twenty-six. The journal's author had some carpentry skills, but failed to identify himself. He started his entries on March 27, 1849, at the outset of their six-month sailing trip to San Francisco, described the company's successful search for gold in the Feather River north of Sacramento, and reported on his return as far as Panama in March 1851.
From the guide to the Fremont Mining and Trading Company diary, 1849-1851, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Milton Sacred Musical Society was founded in Milton, New Hampshire, on January 1, 1817, to promote musical religious worship. Asa Swasey served as its first president, and Levi Jones (1771-1847) served as its first secretary. The group consisted of residents of Milton, New Hampshire, and met monthly throughout the year 1817 (cancelling two meetings on account of extenuating circumstances). As secretary, Levi Jones recorded the society's constitution, its meeting minutes, and members' accounts.
From the guide to the Milton Sacred Musical Society constitution and minutes and Levi Jones estate accounts, 1817, 1847-1848, 1817, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
John Bell (1796-1872) was born in Ireland and, after 1810, raised by his uncle John Bell in Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated with a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1817. After serving as a ship's physician, Bell settled in Philadelphia. There he practiced medicine, edited medical journals and lectured at the Philadelphia Medical Institute. From 1851 to 1852 he was chair of theory and practice of medicine at the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati. He was a founder of the Pennsylvania Temperance Society and a member of the American Philosophical Society and the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
From the guide to the Memoir of Dr. John Bell, c.1872, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)
Most of the composers represented in this collection were active in Germany and the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
From the guide to the Manuscript Sheet Music collection, 1801-1923, 1850s-1890s, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The study and profession of chemistry increased significantly throughout the mid-1800s, both in Europe and in the United States. During this period, chemistry societies were established to unite scholarly communities, and the subsequent popularity of chemistry led to the expansion of study in other scientific disciplines. The number of known elements, for example, grew from 62 in 1850 to 82 in 1910.
From the guide to the Chemistry lecture notes, 1856-1857, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The American-owned packet ship York began its first journey between the United States and Great Britain on March 19, 1825, under the command of William Baker, and later Nash de Cost, ending its run in 1828. Along with transporting cargo, the York frequently carried passengers, who enjoyed luxury accommodations.
From the guide to the York (Ship) log, 1825-1828, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The book contains recipes in many different hands. The first 9 pages are "Mrs. Goodfellow's Receipts" and other recipes are attributed to various persons.
From the guide to the Mrs. Goodfellow and Others recipes, Goodfellow, Mrs. and Others recipes, undated, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Little is known of the author of this diary; he owned a small farm in Nova Scotia, where he worked as a carpenter.
From the guide to the Nova Scotia diary, 1877-1879, 1877, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Ann Maine Wells, the daughter of United States Army surgeon Dr. John Bloodgood, married McLane W. Tilton (1836-1914) on July 24, 1866, while Tilton commanded the Marine Barracks at the United States Naval Academy. In 1869, Tilton served onboard the USS Colorado and traveled to Korea and China. They had two sons: McLane Tilton, Jr., and John G. Tilton. Wells created the collection's maps, but the compiler of the commonplace book is unknown.
From the guide to the Commonplace Book, 1846-1857, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Thomas May, Thomas Rutter, Thomas Bull, and Samuel Potts founded the Joanna Furnace in Robeson Township, Pennsylvania, around 1791. The furnace was rebuilt in 1847 and produced goods such as kettles, pots, ovens, and plates. Joanna Furnace ceased operation in 1898.
From the guide to the Pennsylvania Iron Furnace collection, 1777-1809, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
In the spring of 1857, a number of settlers from Champlain, New York, and other New England towns moved to Washington County, Illinois, where they founded the town of Hoyleton (also known as "Yankee Town"). The town had around 30 to 40 resident families in December 1858. Early settlers included Congregationalist ministers J. A. Bent and Ovid Miner, who built a seminary there in 1859.
From the guide to the Hoyleton (Ill.) collection, 1857-1858, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Henry Benton Austin joined the Union Army around the beginning of the Civil War and served in the Army of the Potomac at and immediately after the Battle of Ball's Bluff. He later became a first lieutenant in Company C of the 16th Indiana Infantry Regiment.
From the guide to the Henry Benton Austin collection, Austin, Henry Benton collection, -1862, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
On August 19, 1874, following the printed accusations of noted feminist Victoria Woodhall, Theodore Tilton sued Henry Ward Beecher, alleging that the famous preacher had committed adultery with his wife, Elizabeth, and demanding $100,000 as restitution. Beecher denied the charges, and the case was tried in January 1875. After six months of trial, Beecher was exonerated by a hung jury, though the scandal damaged his reputation and created a rift among women's rights activists.
From the guide to the Lizzie to John letters, 1875, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Louis G. Monté boarded the steamer New England at Charlestown, Massachusetts, on July 5, 1899. During the months of July and August, he traveled in England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium. He returned to New York on the steamer Southwark in mid-August.
From the guide to the Louis G. Monté collection, Monté, Louis G. collection, 1899, 1907, 1899, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
While encamped at Morristown, New Jersey, likely in May 1781, an unknown Continental soldier copied brigade orders into the blank flyleaf of the first volume of The Works of Laurence Sterne, (1774 Philadelphia reprint), containing the first volume of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman .
From the guide to the Revolutionary War orders, written in Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, Revolutionary War orders, [1781?], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
References within the journal suggest that the author, a Mr. Moore, may have been accompanied by Richard Grosvenor, Second Marquess of Westminster (1795-1869), a wealthy aristocrat who represented Chester (1818-1830), Cheshire (1830-1832), and South Cheshire (1832-1834) in the House of Lords.
From the guide to the European Grand Tour journal, 1818-1819, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
During the early 19th century, travelers within in the United States and Canada relied primarily on stagecoaches and water transportation. Roads were often poor and became impassable in bad weather, while the natural courses of rivers and other waterways predetermined many of the available routes. Utilizing a combination of overland and water-based means, a traveler from Ontario could arrive in southern Ohio in about three weeks.
From the guide to the Journal of a trip from Kingston, Ontario, to Cincinnati, Ohio, 1820, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
From the guide to the Letter to William Hunter, 1760-1761., (John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
From the guide to the Remarks on the works of John Baptiste Van Helmont, et al, c. 1760, (John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
The text was composed just after the conclusion of the American Revolution. It encouraged a strong union of the states as the best form of government.
From the guide to the "An Exhortation to Peace Under the American Revolution" penmanship exercise, 1783, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
These Christian sermons were written between 1757 and 1761.
From the guide to the Eighteenth-Century sermons, 1757, 1760-1761, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The brig Swiftsure sailed from Boston, Massachusetts, to Port Louis, Mauritius; to Calcutta, India; and then back to Boston between 1817 and 1819. The Swiftsure embarked on November 30, 1817; reached Port Louis around April 1, 1818; reached Calcutta on June 13, 1818; and returned to Boston on January 20, 1819.
From the guide to the Ralph I. Linzee, Log of the Brig Swiftsure, Linzee, Ralph I., Log of the Brig Swiftsure, 1817-1819, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Josephus W. Voodry, originally of Woodbury, Vermont, was born in April 1839, and joined the 3rd Vermont Infantry Regiment, Company G, in 1861. He was stationed in northern Virginia throughout 1861 and in Pennsylvania in July 1863. After the war, he and his wife Mary Jane moved to North Platte, Nebraska, where he died in November 1916.
From the guide to the Josephus W. Voodry letters, Voodry, Josephus W., 1861-1863, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of this volume, a young woman from New York, accompanied her father on visits to Mississippi and Louisiana in the spring of 1888 and to Scotland and England in the summer of 1889.
From the guide to the New York Woman's travel journal, 1888-1889, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Autograph/Photograph Album was a keepsake of autographs and photographs to Kittie (or Katie) from school friends at both the Hartford Female Seminary of Hartford, Connecticut, and the Abbot Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, just prior to the American Civil War.
From the guide to the Autograph/Photograph Album, 1857-1861, (Western Reserve Historical Society)
These sermons form part of a series of 76 sermons formerly attributed to St Augustine of Hippo. They were widely known by 1350 and although even then doubts about their authenticity existed, J P Migne included them as works by Augustine in his Patrologia Latina as late as the end of the 19th century. They may have been deliberately forged to help the Order of Hermits or Friars of St Augustine in disputes with the Canons Regular of St Augustine; the Friars had only been founded in 1256 while the Canons dated back to the 11th century. If Augustine had written such sermons on the conduct of hermit life to preach to his followers around Hippo then the Friars could claim descent from this eremetical movement, so pre-dating the foundation of the Canons. The sermons are based on the works of Augustine and later Augustinian theologians, but their author, or authors, is not known.
From the guide to the Pseudo-Augustine, Sermones ad fratres in eremo, c.1350, (University of St Andrews)
The anonymous author of this journal was closely related to the Price and Walter families of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. The Price family belonged to the Society of Friends and included several prominent citizens of Lower Marion, near Philadelphia. The author of this volume grew potatoes and wheat on a farm near Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the early 19th century.
From the guide to the Pennsylvania farm journal, 1820-1822, 1902, 1820-1822, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Though most of the fighting during the Civil War took place on Confederate soil, residents throughout both the Union and the Confederacy were touched by the conflict. Women saw brothers and other male acquaintances go off to war, most notably after the introduction of conscription in the North in 1862. Renewed calls for a draft appeared in 1863 and 1864, though service could often be evaded by purchasing a substitute or by paying a $300 commutation fee. Despite facing hardships and the absence of many men of fighting age, women continued their social engagements and lived their daily lives with as much normalcy as possible in the circumstances.
From the guide to the Massachusetts Women's Home Front letters, 1863-1864, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Following the 1867 purchase of Alaska by the United States, the United States established a military post, Fort Wrangell, on Wrangell Island, which had been a center for the Russian fur trade since the early 19th century. The fort soon became the center of a community serving gold prospectors. The city of Wrangell continued to grow and eventually hosted a robust fishing and canning industries.
From the guide to the Alaska collection, 1889-1895, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of this volume was born in Dumfries, Scotland, on April 30, 1780. He lived in Quebec, Canada, between 1788 and 1795, when he returned to Scotland to study in Edinburgh. In October 1796, he joined the British Army's 89th Regiment, and in May 1797 he joined the 49th Regiment. He served with the 49th Regiment during the Battle of Copenhagen (1801), and was later stationed at several posts in Canada, including Fort York and Niagara. After serving in Great Britain between August 1805 and March 1807, the 49th Regiment returned to Canada, where the author commanded Fort Chambly until May 1809. He served throughout the War of 1812 and participated in several battles, being wounded in the Battle of Crysler's Farm in November 1813. He returned to England and was stationed in Colchesterford until his unit's dissolution on October 24, 1814. After his military service, he traveled throughout Europe, and he lived until at least December 1851.
From the guide to the Journal and Commonplace Book, 1803-1851, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
James Spencer Knapp was born in Guilford, New York, around 1830. He and his wife, Emily (or Emilie) A. Scott of Bainbridge, New York, moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1845, where he became a successful dentist. They had six children: Julia, James, Colby, Emily, Wilmot, and Samuel. Emily Scott Knapp died in 1871.
From the guide to the Emily Scott Knapp household book, Knapp, Emily Scott household book, [1860s], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of most of these sermons may have been Frederick Marsh (1780-1873), who served as pastor of the Winchester Center Congregational Church between 1809 and 1851.
From the guide to the Winchester (Conn.) sermons, 1791-1845, 1810-1845, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Conesus Lake, one of the Finger Lakes of northern New York, lies just east of the town of Geneseo, New York. The lake has been a popular vacation destination since the late 19th century.
From the guide to the Conesus Lake Camping commonplace book, 1889, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
County-level officials in Pennsylvania in the late 18th and early 19th centuries included sheriffs, treasurers, and prothonotaries.
From the guide to the Pennsylvania County Officials, 1791-1815, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
In 1844, the Bank of Germantown (Pennsylvania) leased an old grist mill to Charles Magarge and Edwin R. Cope, who were both involved in the Philadelphia paper industry. Along with William Sherer, they successfully converted the mill into a paper manufacturing facility. Paper production commenced around November 1844, and the mill continued to operate under Charles Magarge & Company until at least the 1870s.
From the guide to the Wissahickon Paper Mill papers, 1844-1845, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This book contains examples of livestock brands used by dealers throughout the western United States in the late 19th century.
From the guide to the Western Brand book, 1899-1900, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Major General Amos Hall was born in Guilford, Connecticut, on November 21, 1761, the son of Stephen Hall (1739-1783) and his wife, Abigail Saxton. Stephen Hall served as a captain with the 7th Connecticut Infantry Regiment during the Revolutionary War. Amos served as a sergeant in the Revolutionary War, and later worked as a surveyor in western New York and as a tavern keeper in West Bloomfield, New York, a town he helped found in 1796. Hall became a brigadier general in the Ontario and Steuben county militias in 1800, and served in western New York throughout the War of 1812. In December 1813, he temporarily commanded troops gathered near Buffalo, New York, and was the American commanding officer at the Battle of Buffalo (December 30, 1813). After the war, he returned to West Bloomfield. Amos Hall married Phebe Coe (1771-1841) of Granville, Massachusetts, on December 11, 1791, and they had at 9 children: Enoch Augustus (or Augustine), David Saxton, Stephen, Emilia Catherine, Hiland Bishop, Justus, Morris, Thomas, and Heman. Amos Hall died on December 28, 1827.
From the guide to the Amos Hall orderly book, Hall, Amos orderly book, 1813-1893, 1813-1814, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The anonymous author of this diary came to the United States from Lüchow, Germany, in 1843, and lived in Middleport, New York, where he was a boot-maker and tanner. In 1847, he owned tannery with T. H. Lee. His birthday was May 24, and his family, including several siblings, remained in Germany after he moved to the United States.
From the guide to the German Immigrant's diary, Middleport (N.Y.), 1847-1852, 1847-1849, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Chinese Women's Association of New York City was formed in 1931 to serve the local Chinese community, a population of roughly 10,000 individuals. By 1936, the organization had more than 350 members, who helped organize dinners and receptions for distinguished Chinese guests and established classes in English, among other activities. As military conflicts between China and Japan worsened through the 1930s, the association more strongly emphasized fundraising efforts to assist Chinese war refugees, soliciting both monetary and in-kind donations, particularly of clothing and medical supplies. Theodora Chan Wang, a social worker and graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, and Columbia University, served as the group's president from at least 1937 to 1938.
From the guide to the Chinese Women's Association donation requests, 1937-1938, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume contains copies of legal documents recorded in Pennsylvania in the 18th century.
From the guide to the Pennsylvania Legal Record Book, 18th century, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Lillian Holmes Keyes wrote two letters to her grandparents in July 1896. Other members of her family included Mildred (b. ca. 1889), Edith, Edith's mother Fannie, and an older man named Frank. Edith had aunts named Lily and Grace, and she and Lillian shared an aunt named Alice. The Holmes family owned a store, which was sold to another family member in the summer of 1896.
From the guide to the Holmes-Keyes children's letters, 1896, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Efforts to grow wine in North America began when the first European settlers arrived on the continent, but were stymied by the lack of suitable native grapes. Some of the first concentrated efforts to produce a significant amount of wine for export occurred in Jamestown, Virginia, shortly after its settlement, but the wines produced were mostly unprofitable and did not compare favorably to imported European varieties. By the 1730s, however, some planters determined that wine growing should be feasible in the colonies, and persistent farmers attempted, with limited success, to create commercially viable wines in Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. Thomas Jefferson became a champion of American wine and, following the American Revolution, the domestic wine industry became increasingly popular and successful throughout the United States.
From the guide to the Eighteenth-Century Wine-Growing collection, Eighteenth-Century Wine-growing collection, 1782-1783, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Samuel Lightfoot was born in Ireland on February 5, 1701, the son of Thomas (ca. 1645-1725) and Sarah Lightfoot. The Lightfoot family, who were Quakers, emigrated from Ireland to New Garden, Pennsylvania, in 1716, and Samuel later moved to Pikeland Township, Pennsylvania, where he was a surveyor and justice of the peace. He married Mary Head on July 30, 1725, and they had four children: Benjamin (b. 1726), Thomas (1728-1793), Samuel Abbott (1729 or 1730-1759), and William (1732-1797). Samuel Lightfoot died on February 26, 1777.
From the guide to the Samuel Lightfoot surveyor's journal, Lightfoot, Samuel surveyor's journal, 1739-1788, 1739-1743, 1753-1757, 1786-1788, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Dr. Henry Foster was born in Vermont in January 1821 and moved to Sulphur Springs (later Clifton Springs), New York, around 1850. In 1856, he established the Clifton Springs Sanitarium, which offered traditional sanitarium treatments in combination with religious practices. In 1881, he turned over control of the sanitarium to a board of thirteen trustees, though he remained its superintendent and treasurer until his death on January 15, 1901. The sanitarium employed 7 physicians (including one woman) in 1892 and by this time had established its own farm, which helped provide food for its patients. It later became the Clifton Springs Hospital & Clinic, and its main building is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
From the guide to the Clifton Springs Sanitarium collection, -1892, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This 18th-century manuscript contains instructions and problems associated with mathematical subjects. The bulk of the problems focuses on practical applications of theorems and calculation methods. The rebound volume bears the title Practical Mathematics on its spine.
From the guide to the Practical Mathematics manuscript, 1700s, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Ledger Book, 1867-1870, seems to have been used for multiple purposes. The first half of the book traces the balance and settlement of financial accounts for various clients. The second portion features entries for rental of post office boxes and postage for various magazines and newspapers while a very small section in the back highlights farm expenses.
From the guide to the Ledger Book, 1867-1870, (Western Reserve Historical Society)
No information available.
From the guide to the Library books which I have read Ms 0030., 1800-1803., (Mount Holyoke College Archives and Special Collections)
Emile M. Tauzin was born around 1832, the son of Louis Tauzin of Natchitoches, Louisiana. After earning a bachelor's degree from Georgetown University in 1855, he returned to Natchitoches, where he owned several slaves. In early 1860, he married Azunia Dennison. Emile M. Tauzin died in February 1861.
From the guide to the Emile Tauzin commonplace book, Tauzin, Emile commonplace book, 1852-[1865?], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Christian catechisms have been used since the 16th century to instruct pupils in a question-and-answer format. Many Christian denominations have official, authorized catechisms.
From the guide to the Catechism manuscript, [late 1600s-early 1700s], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume recounts a pedestrian journey undertaken by Suffolk, Sidney, Manly, and Moreton of Baltimore, Maryland, in 1816. The travelers attended several parties during their journey.
From the guide to the Notes for a Journal of a Pedestrian Tour, 1816, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The owner of this volume taught school in New Hampshire and present-day Maine between 1787 and 1811. The teacher held classes in private homes and schoolhouses in Berwick, Massachusetts (now Maine); Cumberland County, Massachusetts (now Maine); Dover, New Hampshire; Monhegan Island, Massachusetts (now Maine); Rochester, New Hampshire; and Somersworth, New Hampshire.
From the guide to the New England Schoolmaster's teaching book, 1787-1811, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume contains an unknown author's contemporary opinions on the American Revolution, along with proposed methods by which Great Britain could secure victory.
From the guide to the Thoughts on the War between Great Britain & America, 1776-1778, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The owner of this cashbook lived in Sandusky, Ohio, in the early 19th century.
From the guide to the Sandusky (Ohio) cashbook, 1818, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
An early and avid linguist and ethnographer, Peter Stephen Du Ponceau nurtured the core collection of vocabularies of American Indian languages begun by Thomas Jefferson. By the time of his death in 1844, Du Ponceau had established the American Philosophical Society as one the nation's premier centers for the study of the indigenous languages of North America.
From the guide to the Vocabulaire Chacta, 1820, (American Philosophical Society)
This manuscript, entitled The Number of Polls and the Value of rateable Estates within the Province of Massachusetts-bay during the year 1771, may be in the hand of George Chalmers. George Chalmers was born in Fochabers, Scotland, ca. 1742, the son of village postmaster James Chalmers and Isabella Ruddock. He studied at the University of Aberdeen and later read law at Edinburgh University. In 1763, he left for Maryland to assist his uncle with a legal dispute. A Loyalist, he practiced law in Baltimore until 1775, when he moved to London, England, amidst growing colonial unrest. In 1777, he began an authorial career aimed at provoking British opinions against the revolting American colonists, and he wrote several works about North American and British history. In 1786, he was appointed chief clerk of the Privy Council's committee for trade and foreign plantations, and in 1792 he became agent for the Bahamas. He continued writing during this period and won admittance to several antiquarian societies; his major work of the period was the multivolume Caledonia, a history of Scotland. He died a bachelor in London, England, on May 31, 1825.
From the guide to the The Number of Polls and the Value of rateable Estates within the Province of Massachusetts-bay during the year 1771, Number of Polls and the Value of rateable Estates within the Province of Massachusetts-bay during the year 1771, The, , (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
"George," a member of the United States Armed Forces, served in Stams, Austria, during May and June 1945.
From the guide to the U.S. Serviceman’s Letters, Stams (Austria), 1945, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume contains instructional notes for surveyors, compiled in the late 18th or early 19th century.
From the guide to the Land Surveying, undated, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
On July 31, 1892, seven men and women left Caldwell, New York, for a canoe trip on Lake George. Two members of the party left early, and the rest ended their journey near Fort Ticonderoga on August 12, 1892, when they boarded a train for Boston, Massachusetts.
From the guide to the Lake George (N.Y.) Camping Journal, 1892, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume contains sermon and prayer notes kept by a New England minister in the early 18th century.
From the guide to the Colonial Parson's notebook, 1713-1741, 1713-1714, 1741, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
George Eighinger received this ledger from Nash G. Camp (b. 1838) on March 4, 1850, and used its empty pages as a copybook for math problems and other material. The book previously belonged to a shipping merchant from Baltimore, Maryland, who imported linen and other goods from Germany and exported coffee, tobacco, and sugar, among other goods, from the Caribbean to Germany, particularly to Bremen.
From the guide to the William Eighinger ledger, Eighinger, William ledger, 1798-1801, 1850, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Fanny Sanford embarked from New York City on June 27, 1820, on a journey to South America, which included stops at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Montevideo, Uruguay; Pisco, Peru; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. As of October 3, 1821, the ship was still sailing off the coast of South America, bound from Ecuador for Uruguay.
From the guide to the Fanny Sanford log book, 1820-1847, 1820-1821, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Fortifications have been important throughout the history of warfare, particularly as coastal defenses. In particular, star-shaped forts provided a variety of outward-facing angles to improve defense. One prominent example of this type of fort in the United States is Fort McHenry, constructed around the turn of the 19th century near Baltimore, Maryland.
From the guide to the Architecture Militaire, [1700s?], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
East Hartford, Connecticut, lies across the Connecticut River from Hartford, the state's capital. In 1783, the town chose its first independent officers, and until 1823 it encompassed the area now known as the town of Manchester.
From the guide to the Penmanship, Illustrated. Examples of Writing, 1814-1815, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This collection is made up of sermon notes written in the late 1700s or early 1800s.
From the guide to the Sermon notes, [late 18th or early 19th century], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The anonymous author of this journal was a businessman who had several professional contacts throughout New England, in Detroit, and in St. Louis.
From the guide to the Boston to St. Louis travel diary, 1837, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The anonymous author of this volume practiced law in New York City around the turn of the 20th century; one of his clients was the Consolidated Gas Company. He was a close friend of Joseph Pulitzer and Russian painter Vasily Vereshchagin, and was acquainted with Theodore Roosevelt, T. P. O'Connor, and Henry James. He maintained a vigorous interest in horse racing and traveled widely, including trips to Maine, Georgia, Europe. He had at least two children, Harry and Gertrude.
From the guide to the New York lawyer's journal, 1895-1906, 1902-1906, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Prior to the Revolutionary War, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was a center of commerce in British North America. Merchants in the city traded a variety of goods, and the largely import-driven economy received items from Great Britain and from ports throughout the Caribbean.
From the guide to the Philadelphia Merchant account book, 1771-1776, 1771-1773, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The practice of extracting pithy sayings, words to the wise, and inspirational poetry into a personal anthology was as common among the educated elite in 18th century France as it was in America. Such commonplace books provide evidence of the range of authors and the types of literature enjoyed by members of the elite, but in what they include -- and exclude -- these books may also be revealing of the personal beliefs and moral principles of the individual compiler. Presumably, if the compiler felt a passage worth recording, he or she felt that it contained some literary, philosophical, or moral merit. The act of recording passages from scripture and from orthodox religious writers, for example, fairly clearly distinguishes that compiler from one who chooses to cite secular writers or at times anticlerical philosophers.
From the guide to the Morale Philosophique, c. 1800, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The author of this journal embarked for Europe from New York City on November 27, 1863, and arrived in Liverpool, England, on December 11, 1863. He spent much of the next two years living in and traveling around Europe, accompanied by various acquaintances he met while abroad. He spent most of his time in Paris, France; Rome and Elba, Italy; and Heidelberg, Germany. He remained in Europe until at least September 1865. [Note: This may be the journal of E. M. Greenly, based on an inscription on the flyleaf. E. M. Greenly may be Edward M. Greenly (b. 1841), a New York (state) lawyer, who completed his U.S. passport application on November 25, 1863.]
From the guide to the European Travel journal, 1863-1865, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Residents of the Hill School District (later the Southwest School District) in New Gloucester, Maine, built a new schoolhouse around 1807, and hired teachers until at least 1823. The Antipedo Baptist Society of New Gloucester, Gray, and Poland, Maine, met from at least 1808 to 1818; its members included Ephraim Stinchfield, who often served as moderator of the group's meetings.
From the guide to the New Gloucester (Me.) collection, 1805-1823, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The 200-ton barque Henry Kelsey, named after the Canadian explorer, was built by Seabury and Dunham in Yarmouth, Maine, in the mid-1840s. Engaged in the trade of many types of goods, most of which were foodstuffs, the ship traveled to New Orleans, Boston, and Barcelona between 1847 and 1849.
From the guide to the Henry Kelsey (Barque) log books, 1847-1849, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Clements Robert Markham was born in Stillingfleet, England, on July 20, 1830, the son of David Markham and Catherine Milner. He joined the Royal Navy in 1844, and sailed to South America and the Arctic. In 1852, after leaving the navy, he set out for Peru. He joined the India Office in 1854, after his return to England. Among his accomplishments, he participated in efforts to cultivate cinchona in India and cataloged the India Office's surveys and other information about the subcontinent. He also participated in an expedition to Abyssinia in 1867-1868. After leaving the India Office in 1877, Markham encouraged polar exploration. His publications included a biography of Richard III, a Quechua dictionary, and works on history and geography. He and his wife, Minna Chichester, were married in April 1857 and had one daughter, Mary Louise (b. 1859). Clements R. Markham died on January 30, 1916.
From the guide to the Clements R. Markham papers, Markham, Clements R. papers, 1859-1910, 1859-1870, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
As the population of the Northern Liberties district of Philadelphia expanded in the late 18th century, the city government made plans for the locations of commercial properties, election districts, and sewage canals. On April 17, 1795, the Philadelphia government passed an act to authorize the employment of three persons to survey and regulate the streets, alleys, and water courses in the Northern Liberties Township. By 1818, city employees produced three different street plans or drafts for the justices of the peace in Northern Liberties.
From the guide to the Philadelphia (Pa.) Surveyor's Notebook, 1795-1802, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
David P. Gerberich was born in East Hanover, Pennsylvania, on December 22, 1814. He and his cousin, Simon G. Stein, moved to Florid, Illinois, in 1837, and to Washington, Illinois, in 1839. In 1840, Gerberich moved to South Bend, Indiana, where he married Fannie Maria Miller (1817-1843) on July 2, 1840. They had two daughters, Mary Catharine (1841-1924) and Henrietta Fannie (1843-1924). In 1849, Gerberich married his deceased wife's sister, Catharine Anna Miller (1828-1905). They had seven surviving children: Henry Miller (b. 1852), Malinda (1854-1892), Ella (b. 1855), Caroline (b. 1857), Joseph David (b. 1860), Martha Ann (b. 1862), and Charles Eugene (b. 1864). David P. Gerberich died on October 29, 1873.
From the guide to the David P. Gerberich account book and recipe book, David P. Gerberich family account book and recipe book, 1840-1888, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The HM Sloop Penguin was a cruiser class ship built by the British in 1813. The USS Hornet captured the 20-gun cruiser on March 23, 1815, near the island Tristan da Cunha, over a month after Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Ghent, ending the war. The Penguin and the Hornet were, however, stationed in one of the most remote areas of the Atlantic Ocean and had not yet heard the news. The Penguin, captained by James Dickerson, opened fire on the Hornet, which was lead by Master Commandant James Biddle. By the end of the battle, the Penguin was damaged beyond repair and ten of the Penguin 's crew, including Captain Dickerson, were killed, with 28 wounded. The 118 captured British sailors were sent to Rio de Janeiro in the U.S. Schooner Tom Bowline .
From the guide to the HM Sloop Penguin collection, Penguin, HM Sloop collection, 1814-1815, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Levi M. Carson was born in New York around 1828, and entered the University of Pennsylvania as a member of the class of 1849. There, he studied medicine under J. S. Clark at the Pennsylvania Hospital, and in 1850 he moved to Seneca Falls, New York, where he began a medical practice. He and his wife Mariett had at least one child, Jenny.
From the guide to the Levi M. Carson notebook, Carson, Levi M. notebook, 1849-1879, 1849-1850, 1878-1879, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The first author of this volume left Kennebunk, Maine, for New Orleans in December 1852. After reaching New Orleans, he traveled to Cincinnati, Ohio, via the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Little is known of the second author.
From the guide to the Journal of a Voyage from Kennebunk to New Orleans and commonplace book, Journal of a Trip from Kennebunk to New Orleans and commonplace book, 1852-1853, 1857-1887, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The anonymous author of this volume was a Protestant minister based in Montréal, Québec, in the late 1840s. In November 1848, he embarked on the Erromango, a ship owned by James Kelso of Greenock, Scotland, for a nine-month missionary journey through Scotland and England. He returned to Montréal in August 1849.
From the guide to the Canadian Evangelist journal, 1848-1849, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
John Herries, a native of Great Britain, began his lengthy military career in India, where he served as a cadet for the East India Company before joining the 52nd Regiment of Foot as an ensign in June 1792. While in India, he participated in the capture of Pondicherry and witnessed the surrender of Sri Lanka. In August 1799, Herries became captain of the 35th Regiment of Foot, with which he served in Holland, the Mediterranean, Egypt, and the Ionian Islands. He commanded the 35th regiment at Zakynthos ("Zante") for two years as major. During the War of 1812, he served as lieutenant colonel with the 102nd (later the 100th) Regiment of Foot, which he commanded during the capture of Moose Island in Passamaquoddy Bay. Herries later served as commander of the 96th Regiment of Foot in North America and Bermuda. He died on November 6, 1832.
From the guide to the John Herries collection, Herries, John collection, 1814-1815, [1851?], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
George Erving was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 23, 1738. After graduating from Harvard College in 1757, he operated a store that sold goods imported from Europe. Though he originally signed the Boston non-importation agreement, he later violated its provisions; by the time of the Revolution, he had become a Loyalist. General Thomas Gage temporarily established his headquarters in Erving's home in 1775 or 1776, and in March of 1776, Erving left Boston with the British Army. He settled in Halifax, Nova Scotia, before moving to Froyle, England, and London, England. Erving's later efforts to receive compensation for property lost in Boston were unsuccessful. Erving married his first wife, Lucy Winslow, in October 1768. Following her death in April 1770, he married Mary McIntosh, with whom he had one surviving son, George William Erving. George Erving died on January 17, 1806. George William Erving later moved to the United States and became a diplomat.
From the guide to the George Erving collection, Erving, George collection, 1796-1816, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Austrian or German author (or authors) of these volumes traveled to the United States in 1901 and 1904 and reported on engineering projects, industrial topics, and the scenery, particularly in the West.
From the guide to the German travel diary transcripts, 1901, 1904, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The unidentified owner of this volume lived in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1849, and operated a general store that sold a variety of goods, including foodstuffs and manufactured items.
From the guide to the Ann Arbor (Mich.) Merchant's account book, 1833, 1849, 1849, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This travel diary was written by an anonymous author who traveled from Albany to Fort Erie and Buffalo, and finally to Niagara Falls, in the summer of 1815. The writer traveled by wagon, ferry, and raft, and explored the terrain on both the Canadian and American sides of the falls at a time when this was not yet a popular tourist attraction.
From the guide to the Niagara Falls travel diary, 1815, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Silas Deane was born in Groton, Connecticut, on December 24, 1837. His father, Silas Dean, served in the colonial assembly, and the younger Silas later appended a final e to the family name. He graduated from Yale College in 1758 and relocated to Wethersfield, Connecticut, where he taught school and studied law; his six younger siblings joined him there after the deaths of their parents in the early 1760s. After the death of his first wife, Mehitable Nott Webb (d. 1767), Deane married Elizabeth Saltonsall Ebbets. He began practicing law in 1763 and served in the Connecticut General Assembly in 1768 and from 1772-1775. He became secretary of the Connecticut Committee of Correspondence in 1774 and was a member of the First Continental Congress. He lived in France from 1776 to 1778 and worked as an official agent for the newly formed United States, later collaborating (and feuding) with fellow American representatives Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Lee. Deane returned to Philadephia in 1778 but later went back to Europe, where he lived in Paris and Ghent. In 1781 his reputation in the United States, already poor, was further tarnished by the appearance of several "intercepted" letters suggesting that he favored reconciliation with Great Britain. Deane intended to return to North America in the fall of 1789 but died on September 23, 1789, shortly after boarding a ship bound for the United States.
From the guide to the Revolutionary War letter and document extracts, 1781-, 1781-1782, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This item tracks the journey of its unnamed author from the Missouri River at Elizabeth Landing to Georgetown, California, as he travels west to prospect for gold in 1850.
From the guide to the Gold Rush travel journal, 1849-1850, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Debating societies have been prominent in Britain since the early 18th century and emerged in the United States in the 19th century, particularly as an exercise in institutions of higher education. Members would meet regularly and discuss various topics, often political or religious in nature.
From the guide to the Debating Society minutes, [ca. 1884-1885], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Lord Charles Wellesley was born in Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland, on January 16, 1808, the second son of Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) and Catherine Pakenham. He joined the British Army in 1824 and served with the 15th Regiment of Foot, of which he became Lieutenant Colonel on July 13, 1838. After spending time in Canada in the early 1840s, the regiment returned to England, where it was stationed in the summer of 1841. Wellesley served with the regiment until March 1845, and ascended to the rank of major general in 1856. He served in the House of Commons as MP for Hampshire from 1842-1852, and as MP for Windsor from 1852-1855. He married Augusta Sophia Anne Pierrepont (b. 1820) on July 9, 1844; they had two daughters and two sons. Lord Charles Wellesley died on October 9, 1858.
From the guide to the Great Britain. Army. 15th Regiment of Foot orderly book, 1841, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
England first began charging excise duties on foreign and domestic products in 1643, a practice modeled on the Dutch system. Between 1700 and 1774, the government charged excise taxes on food and drink such as malt, chocolate, and coffee; manufactured goods such as wire, glass, and paper; and services such as the granting of licenses.
From the guide to the Excise Tax Income Book, 1700-1774, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
During the Civil War, intelligence on enemy forces was gathered from a variety of sources, from refugees, deserters, prisoners of war, and covert observation, to name just a few. The length and massive scale of the operations during the Petersburg Campaign of 1864-65 made intelligence gathering of vital importance.
From the guide to the Union intelligence officer's notebook, Union intelligence officer, 1864-1865, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Two American travelers, Billie and Blanche, visited several destinations in England and continental Europe in 1891. They sailed from New York City to England on the City of Paris in July and returned on the Friesland in October.
From the guide to the Journal of our Trip Through Europe, Journal of Our Trip Through Europe, 1891, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
During World War I, Charles Miller joined Special Services Unit 649, an ambulance unit that served in France as part of the Convois Automobiles. After serving in Paris, Miller's unit joined a United States Army division elsewhere in France. Special Services Unit 649 received a commendation for bravery during its time overseas. After the Armistice, Miller's unit moved into Germany; Miller sailed back to the United States in May 1919.
From the guide to the Charles Miller letters, Miller, Charles letters, 1918-1919, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This collection contains surveys of lands made in the early 19th century.
From the guide to the New York Surveyors collection, 1795-1851, 1803-1821, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
John Warnock Echols was born in Clarksville, Pennsylvania, on May 13, 1849, and attended Westminster College and Lafayette University. He practiced law in Washington, D.C., and in Virginia, and published the Washington Republic in the 1890s. In the mid-1890s, Echols was supreme president of the American Protective Association, an anti-Catholic society. During World War I, he served as United States Army librarian; after the war, he taught law in vocational schools. He and his wife, Katherine (or Katrina) Hine (1868-1954), had at least one son, Warnock. John W. Echols died in Vienna, Virginia, on March 13, 1932.
From the guide to the John W. Echols collection, Echols, John W. collection, 1890-1932, 1890-1898, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The female author and her traveling companion, Isabella, set out from Hartford, Connecticut, in February and spent approximately two months visiting New York City, Washington, D. C., and South Carolina. The women met several luminaries during their journey and returned home in late March. Internal evidence suggests the diary was written during the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881).
From the guide to the Connecticut Woman's travel diary, [ca. 1877-1881?], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This sergeant first class, who signed himself "Herb," served with Company D of the United States Army's 103rd Engineer Regiment at Camp Hancock, Georgia, between August and December 1917. In mid-December, he anticipated being promoted to lieutenant. His letters indicate that he was from the area around Pottsville, Pennsylvania.
From the guide to the Camp Hancock letters, 1917, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The owner of this account book leased domestic and commercial properties in Ann Arbor, Michigan, from the late 1880s to the early 1890s. The landlord's properties included homes, sometimes divided into suites of rooms, and storefronts.
From the guide to the Ann Arbor (Mich.) rent receipt ledger, 1887-, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
In the early 19th century, New York City held elections bi-annually, in April and November. The governor, lieutenant governor, and state legislators were elected each April, and city representatives such as aldermen, assistant aldermen, assessors, collectors, and constables were elected each November. Each of the city's wards appointed a board of three election inspectors, who tallied and certified the results.
From the guide to the New York City Elections collection, 1769, 1809-1811, 1809-1811, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume, compiled by "I. C. Junr." between 1791 and 1793, is the third volume of a 3-volume work. It contains detailed geographical, historical, and other descriptive accounts of Western Europe and the Americas, as well as a general history of astronomy. Appendices include an index of geographic locations and a general timeline of world history, with a focus on Biblical events and European affairs.
From the guide to the History of the Four Quarters of the Globe, 1791-1793, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume was created by a British spy stationed in Paris in 1780. The author had access to important French naval reports and communications through informants in Brest, Madrid, and Cadiz. The intelligence may have been collected for Lord Stormont, who had spies placed in a number of French ports at this time. The title page of this volume is labeled "Jackson Papers.”
From the guide to the Correspondence from Paris on the Motions of the French Navy, 1780, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
During the first third of the 19th century, the APS acquired a large number of books and manuscripts in non-western languages, thanks to Peter Stephen Duponceau's philological and comparative linguistic interests. One of his correspondents, John P. Brown (APS 1856), donated a series of books in Turkish and Arabic.
From the guide to the Turkish Manuscripts, 19th century?, (American Philosophical Society)
The Zebra was built in Gravesend, England, in 1780, and its first captain was John Bourchin. The ship spent the first months after its launch in the English Channel, and sailed to the Caribbean in the summer of 1781. The ship took part in several battles, including the 1794 capture of Martinique. In 1800, the Zebra was converted to a bomb vessel, and in 1812 it was sold.
From the guide to the HM Sloop Zebra log book, Zebra, HM Sloop log book, 1780-1781, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
No biographical information about the diary’s author is available. The diary was found in Saarburg by the donor, who arrived to the German town during World War II with occupation troops. According to donor’s letter, the town was deserted at the time of the diary’s discovery.
Saarburg is a small town of the Trier-Saarburg district in the Rhineland-Palatinate state of Germany, on the banks of the Saar River in the hilly country a few kilometers upstream from the Saar's junction with the Moselle. This area is part of a fascinating landscape replete with significant historical places in Germany. The area borders (from the north and clockwise) North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse, Baden-Württemberg, France, Saarland, Luxembourg and Belgium.
The history of the city begins with the construction of the now-ruined castle by Graf Siegfried of Luxembourg in 964. It received its town charter in 1291. The city has a bell foundry, the Glockengießerei Mabilion, which has been in operation since the 1770s, and as of 2003 the only one in Germany that makes bronze bells. The area around Saarburg is noted for the cultivation of Riesling grapes.
Information about the Saarburg and its region compiled from several entries found in www.wikipedia.com.
From the guide to the Anonymous Girl's Diary, Saarland, Germany MS 274., 1939-1941, (Woodson Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University, Houston, TX)
The collection of 25 cuneiform tablets were donated in 2007 by an anonymous donor who wished to name the collection after Cumberland Clark.
While the exact provenience of this collection is unknown, it has been established that the corpus of texts came from an ancient Mesopotamian school environment called an eduba (literally, "house of tablets"). It was at the eduba that scribes received their training in the scribal arts. A student would train from early childhood to adulthood to become a dubsar (literally, "tablet writer"). Their curriculum, as represented in this collection, was comprised of learning sign formations, copying lexical lists, learning mathematics, and popular epics of the Mesopotamian culture.
The majority of the texts come from the Old Babylonian period, which began after the fall of the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2000 BCE) and continued until the Hittites conquered Babylon in 1595 BCE. Most of the Old Babylonian period was spent in political fragmentation, which created smaller independent scribal traditions at different cities. Only under the reign of King Hammurabi (c. 1795-1750 BCE) was there a degree of centralization. This political environment had a direct impact on the scribal curriculum as a uniform course of instruction would indicate a state-run school, whereas a variegated curriculum would seem to refer to privately run schools.
It is within this context that the Cumberland Clark Cuneiform Tablet Collection exists. The content of the texts suggests significant editing of previously standardized lexical lists and literary passages. However, the general pattern and progression of instruction remain constant as the collection exhibits examples from the simplest sign exercises to advanced Sumerian literary exercises.
From the guide to the Cumberland Clark Cuneiform Tablet collection, Old Babylonian Period (ca. 2000-1600 BCE), (University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections.)
In 1982, two Temple University Law School students, Richard Brown and Loretta DeLoggio, accused the university of violating the Philadelphia Fair Practices Ordinance. The case challenged Temple's policy of letting the United States military recruit workers through the Law School's employment office. The complaint argued that since the military discriminated against homosexuals, Temple should not let it interview students on campus. In 1983, the staff of the Commission on Human Relations issued its own complaint against Temple on the same grounds. In reply, Temple framed the case as a First Amendment issue. The university further argued that the Commission on Human Relations, as a municipal body, had no jurisdiction over the U.S. military. Even if the case had not raised those issues, Temple's attorneys said, an employment agency should not be held accountable for the discriminatory practices of employers who use it.
In 1985, the Commission ruled that Temple's policy "aided and abetted" a discriminatory employer, and ordered the university to stop letting the military recruit on campus. The next year, a federal appeals court ruled that the City of Philadelphia had no authority to ban military recruitment from universities.
From the guide to the Commission on Human Relations, Brown and DeLoggio v. Temple University Law School collection, circa 1982-1984, (John J. Wilcox Jr. GLBT Archives of Philadelphia)
In 1845, A. M. Gould served as the register and clerk for the Supreme Court in Michigan's Second Judicial District, comprised of Washtenaw, Jackson, and Livingston counties. As part of his duties, he transcribed the costs of filing various kinds of paperwork for mortgage foreclosures and legal disputes.
George Miles, a member of the Michigan Supreme Court, was born in Allegany County, New York, where he practiced law before moving to Ann Arbor, Michigan, around 1835. He died in Ann Arbor in 1850.
The third owner of this volume worked with the Washtenaw County Circuit Court between 1847 and 1858.
From the guide to the Washtenaw County (Mich.) account book and court records, 1839-1858, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Dutch-built sloop De Braak, constructed in 1781, was captured and repurposed by Great Britain's Royal Navy in 1795. In 1797, James Drew became captain of the re-named Braak, and the next year the ship sailed to the West Indies to participate in Britain's war against Spain, capturing the Don Francisco Xavier en route to the United States. Before reaching its destination, the Braak sank in a squall in Delaware Bay on May 25, 1798, claiming the lives of several crew members and Spanish prisoners.
In 1888, Philadelphia's Ocean Wrecking Company attempted to salvage treasure from the sunken Braak using their steamer City of Long Beach . When their efforts proved unsuccessful, the company began to raise funds for a subsequent venture to take place the following year. The Braak nonetheless remained undiscovered until a salvage crew found the wreck in 1986 and recovered everyday objects rather than the expected haul of gold and silver.
From the guide to the HMS Braak Salvage collection, Braak, HMS Salvage collection, 1888-1928, 1888-1889, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Brattle Street church had been founded in the 1690s by a group of merchants seeking an alternative to the authority exercised by Increase and Cotton Mather in Boston's existing congregations. Despite these beginnings, the church remained Congregational through the 18th century. At the time of the Revolution, Brattle Street counted such figures as John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Joseph Warren, and John and Abigail Adams among its parishioners.
Dr. Samuel Cooper, a graduate of Harvard, headed the church between 1747 and 1783. During the time period addressed in the diary, the congregation left their old wooden meeting house and built a new one of brick. Until services in this new meeting house began in July 1773, the Brattle Street congregation worshipped in conjunction with Boston's First Church.
The writer of this spiritual diary has not been identified, but a half-sheet of paper sewn into the body of the diary indicates that the diarist made a public declaration of faith and joined the church in April 1756.
From the guide to the Brattle Street Church diary, 1772-1775, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The New Jersey legislature first convened on August 27, 1776, following the creation of the New Jersey Constitution in July 1776. The body consisted of a general assembly, made up of three representatives from each county, and a legislative council, composed of one representative from each county. In 1844, the amended state constitution created a 60-member general assembly, as well as a senate composed of one member from each county.
The centennial New Jersey State Senate convened in Trenton on January 11, 1876, presided over by General William Joyce Sewell (1835-1901). Sewell, an Irish immigrant, served in the Union Army during the Civil War and in the New Jersey State Senate between 1872 and 1881, including several terms as president. He also served in the United States Senate from 1881 to 1887 and from 1895 to 1901.
From the guide to the Centennial Senate of New Jersey portraits, 1876, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The travel diary, from 1838, two years after Texas became an independent republic, was written by a man prospecting routes for stagecoach lines across northern Texas. Neither the author nor the identities of the prospecting team are known. In concise prose, the author records distances traveled, the availability of timber, grass and potable water, the presence of Indians, and major geographical features.
The expedition traveled 2,100 miles, from Jefferson City, Missouri, through Fort Smith, Texas, to Franklin, Texas (now El Paso), and back to the Texas-Oklahoma border at Preston. They averaged 21 miles per day and completed the journey in 14 weeks and 2 days (Monday January 4th- through Sunday April 11, 1838).
From the guide to the Texas travel diary, 1838, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The first owner of the volume was born in New York City on January 27, 1800, the eldest of nine children. In August 1830, he relocated to Clarkstown, New York, for health reasons, and in early 1831, he moved again to Haverstraw, New York. In Haverstraw, he found himself drawn to Christianity, and he soon joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, led by James V. Poots. He received an exhorting license on March 1, 1834, and may have eventually become a preacher.
The second of the three authors, C. W. Vanderpool, was born August 21, 1842, in Buffalo, New York. His father was a preacher and led a Sabbath school in St. Joseph, Michigan, where he lived in 1866. C. W. Vanderpool's mother, Helen Elmira Vanderpool, gave him the journal on March 30, 1866.
The third author of the book joined the YMCA in early 1885, and was likely quite young when he composed these journal entries.
From the guide to the Vanderpool religious journal, 1833-1841, 1866, 1885, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
James Blanding (1781-1870), the son of William Blanding V and Lydia Ormsbee, had at least one brother, William Blanding VI, who was a physician in Rehoboth, Massachusetts. On April 24, 1811, James Blanding married Elizabeth Carpenter (1784-1865), the daughter of Revolutionary War veteran Caleb Carpenter, also of Rehoboth, Massachusetts. They had eight children: Susannah Carpenter, Elizabeth Parthenia, Nancy Augusta (1816-1887), Juliet (Juliette) Marie, William Willett, Abraham Ormsbee, Lephe H., and Sarah Murray. Nancy Augusta Blanding married John G. Nattinger, a merchant from Ottawa, Illinois, on September 25, 1856. Susannah Carpenter, Elizabeth Carpenter Blanding's sister, married Elizabeth's brother-in-law, William Blanding VI.
Noah Blanding (1795-1851), James Blanding's third cousin, married Rosanna Carpenter (1799-1859) on November 15, 1819. They had six children: Abby R. (b. March 5, 1822), Horatio N. (b. November 21, 1824), Esther B. (b. July 26, 1826), Noah H. (b. October 23, 1828), Elizabeth Carpenter (July 18, 1832), and Frances R. (January 31, 1839).
From the guide to the Blanding-Carpenter papers, 1818-1854, 1841-1852, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Daniel Morgan was born in 1735 or 1736, the son of Welsh immigrants James and Eleanor Morgan. Morgan moved to Frederick County, Virginia, around the age of 18, where he was a farm laborer and wagon driver. After the French and Indian War, he owned his own farm near Winchester, Virginia, and served as a captain in the local militia. During the Revolutionary War, Morgan raised and led a company of riflemen, and he participated in many engagements in the northern and southern theaters of the war. After the war, he became a major general in the Virginia militia that helped suppress the Whiskey Rebellion. He also served in the United States House of Representatives. He had one son out of wedlock, Willoughby, and had two daughters with his wife, Abigail Curry. Daniel Morgan died on July 6, 1802.
Willoughby Morgan spent much of his early life in South Carolina and later moved to Winchester, Virginia. After the War of 1812, he became a professional army officer. He died in 1832.
From the guide to the Daniel Morgan collection, Morgan, Daniel collection, 1764-1951, 1764-1832, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
William Dunbar (1749-1810) was born in Scotland and emigrated to North America in 1771. After arriving in Philadelphia, he traveled south to Mississippi and Louisiana, where he established plantations with Scottish merchant John Ross near present-day Baton Rouge and Natchez. Dunbar became surveyor general for the Natchez District of Spanish West Florida before 1798. He spent most of his later years as a naturalist. At the urging of President Thomas Jefferson, Dunbar led government-funded expeditions to the western boundaries of the Louisiana Territory in 1804-1805.
Valentine Layssard, son of French immigrant Dr. Ennemond Meullion (1737-1820), served as the surveyor and commandant in Rapides Parish, Louisiana, from 1795-1798.
Carlos Trudeau (ca. 1750-1816) served as a surveyor-general of Spanish Louisiana in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
From the guide to the Louisiana Surveys collection, 1782-1803, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Cotton Mather was born in 1663 to Increase Mather (1639-1723) and Maria Cotton (1642-1714). Cotton Mather had a talent for languages. He learned to read before attending formal school, quickly learned the Latin and Greek languages, and, by the age of 11, took notes in Latin on sermons given in English. He graduated from Harvard in 1678, at the age of 16. After his ordination at Boston's Old North Church, he preached alongside his father until Increase Mather's death in 1723. As a prominent New England minister, Cotton Mather is remembered for his involvement in the ousting of the Royal Governor Edmund Andros in 1689, and for his public support of the persecution of persons alledged to be witches in New England, 1692-1693.
Cotton Mather wrote extensively. Included among his works are Declaration of the Gentlemen, Merchants, and Inhabitants of Boston and the County Adjacent (1689), justifying the revolt against Edmund Andros; The Wonders of the Invisible World (1692), justifying the witch trial proceedings; and Magnalia Christi Americana: or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England… (1702).
From the guide to the Manuscript Passages from the Greek Testament, with English Translations by Cotton Mather, Mather, Cotton Manuscript Passages from the Greek Testament, Undated, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
This volume contains copies of legal documents regarding real estate and roads in Pennsylvania, written in a printed guide by Collison Read (1751-1815) entitled Precedents in the Office of a Justice of Peace... (1801). Some of the copied legal documents concern George Rapp (1757-1847) and his adopted son Frederick (1775-1834).
George Rapp, a German immigrant, founded a religious sect called the Harmony Society, and built the town of Harmony (or Harmonie), Pennsylvania, in 1805. The Harmony Society relocated to Indiana in 1815 and returned to Pennsylvania in 1824, where Rapp and his followers founded the town of Economy. Frederick Rapp oversaw the communities' finances and business affairs.
From the guide to the Pennsylvania Legal Documents, copied in Collinson Read's Precedents in the Office of a Justice of Peace..., 1801, 1804-1816, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The Fair American was built in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1792, and was later acquired by Philadelphia merchant Stephen Dutilh. Under Captain John Christian Brevoor, the ship transported domestic and imported goods between Philadelphia and Havana. On October 8, 1798, the French privateer L'Enfant de la Grande Revanche seized the Fair American, though Captain Brevoor, seaman John Schier, and cook Anthony Fachtman recaptured the ship on October 26 and returned it safely to Charleston, South Carolina. Brevoor, Schier, and Fachtman successfully filed a salvage claim in 1800.
On January 3, 1801, the Fair American embarked for Havana carrying foodstuffs and manufactured goods. The ship was captured by the French privateer Marguerite, and taken to Puerto Rico.
From the guide to the Fair American collection, 1801-1802, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
From the guide to the Papers of: Virtudes del Balsamo Peruano, late 18th century, (Wellcome Library)
On April 28, 1889, two residents of Flagler, Colorado, discovered the body of Henry Hatch, who had moved to Colorado several years prior. Hatch's nephew, Clark W. Hatch, had visited shortly before the alleged murder and became the primary suspect in the presumed murder.
Clark W. Hatch was born in Nelson, New York, around 1848, and lived with his uncle in Michigan in the 1860s. On March 19, 1878, he married Ella Poppleton of Birmingham, Michigan, and in 1889 the couple lived in Boston, Massachusetts, where Hatch was an agent for the Travelers Insurance Company. Hatch was acquitted of Henry Hatch's murder at a preliminary trial in Burlington, Colorado, in May 1889, and at a jury trial in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in April 1890. In February 1891, his former employer charged him with forgery and fraud. He disappeared around May 27, 1891, shortly after being released from arrest.
From the guide to the Clark W. Hatch collection, Hatch, Clark W. collection, 1889-1891, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
The town of Carrollton, a northern suburb of New Orleans, was incorporated in 1845. Carrollton replaced Lafayette as the seat of Jefferson Parish in the early 1850s until Carrollton became part of New Orleans in 1874.
The 80th United States Colored Regiment was raised in Port Hudson, Louisiana, in September 1863. The regiment served with the Corps d'Afrique until March 1864, when it returned to Port Hudson. On April 4, 1864, the regiment was renamed the 80th United States Colored Troops.
The 1st Alabama Siege Artillery Regiment became the 7th United States Colored Heavy Artillery Regiment in April 1864, serving at Fort Pickering and Fort Pillow, Tennessee.
From the guide to the District of Carrollton (La.) letters, 1864, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Amos Fellows (1789-1869) and Lovina Holcomb (1796-1877) of Richland, New York, had at least six children: Charles Amos, Mariette, Arabel, Ira G., Maria, Emily, Orrelia, and Louisa Anna. Charles A. Fellows moved to Racine, Wisconsin, around 1843, and later lived in Pontiac and Ottawa, Illinois.
Walter Hollister was born around 1830 and lived in Mexico, New York, where he worked as a farmer. He and his wife Lydia had at least three children: Carrie, Edward, and Bert.
From the guide to the Fellows family and Walter Hollister letters, 1845-1892, 1845-1857, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Ann Greene (1774-1818) was the daughter of Benjamin Greene and Elizabeth Hubbard, of Boston, Massachusetts. In October 1805, she married John Grew (1780-1821), a native of Birmingham, England, who emigrated to the United States in 1795 with his parents, John Grew (1752-1800) and Mary Coltman (1756-1834), and siblings. John Grew, Sr., moved his family to Boston to establish a mercantile store, and son John eventually followed in his father's footsteps. John Grew and Ann Greene had six children: John (b. 1806), Henry (b. 1808), Charles (1810-1831), Ann, Edward, and George. At least three of their sons attended the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, in the 1810s and 1820s. After Ann's death in 1818, John Grew married Margaret Sarah Page, with whom he had one daughter, Sarah Page Grew (b. 1821).
William James Potts, a descendant of Sarah Page Grew, owned this volume in 1872, after receiving it from his cousin, Alicia Cooper.
From the guide to the Grew Family collection, 1790, 1795, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Elias Durand was born Élie Maloire Durand in Mayenne, France, on January 25, 1794. In 1808, he apprenticed with a local pharmacist, and in 1812 he moved to Paris, where he became certified as a pharmacist for Napoléon's army. Durand spent the next year studying in Paris, and in 1813 received a military commission as Pharmacien sous aide for the Fifth Corps. After being taken prisoner in present-day Germany, Durand escaped to Nantes, France, where he continued his pharmacological and botanical studies. He served in the National Guard following Napoléon's return from exile and moved to the United States in July 1816.
Durand worked for several pharmacists in Boston and Baltimore before moving to Philadelphia in 1824, where he established his own pharmacy. Capitalizing on his knowledge of scientific developments in Europe, he became a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and a corresponding member of the Societé de Pharmacie of Paris. After his retirement in 1852, he pursued his interest in botany, establishing a large herbarium. Durand married twice, to Polymnia Rose Ducatel (d. 1822) and Marie Antoinette Berauld. He died on August 14, 1873.
From the guide to the Elias Durand biography: Some Recollections of an Old Corner, Durand, Elias biography: Some Recollections of an Old Corner, 1886, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
Boxing (also known as pugilism or prize fighting) originated in antiquity, but the sport was relatively unrecognized in Great Britain until the 18th century. James Fig, a boxing champion prominent in the early 1700s, helped increase its appeal, and Jack Broughton's set of rules codified and tamed the sport in 1743, outlawing hits below the waist or against a fallen opponent. Despite a 1750 law prohibiting the sport in England, prize fighting increased in popularity throughout the century. Members of all social classes participated in bouts, and the sport was particularly popular among the working class in urban areas, drawing large crowds and significant monetary wagers.
Prize fighting maintained its popularity in England until around 1825, just as it began to win followers in the United States. As the sport's popularity waned in England, famed boxers moved to North America, where the sport continued to develop.
From the guide to the Famous Boxers manuscript, [ca. 1830s], (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)
From the guide to the Mexico: Recipe book for diseases, 1823-1840, (Wellcome Library)
At the Conference of Berlin in 1884-1885, Belgium was granted sovereignty over a large region of central Africa, and King Léopold II immediately set out to turn his new possession into profits. The Congo Free State was established in the lower Congo River Valley in 1885 and extended upriver into the mineral-rich Katanga Province by 1891. From the beginning, its economy was geared toward the development of agricultural products for export, particularly rubber, and the exploitation of mineral resources. Administered through indirect rule, using local chiefs as intermediaries between the state and the tribes, the Free State quickly earned a reputation for its unusually harsh and exploitative ways, using mercenaries from other regions of Africa to help extend their dominion and crush resistance.
The most lucrative resource in the Free State during its brief existence was rubber. After declaring all uncultivated lands state property, the government imposed a tax on the indigenous population, which they paid by extracting latex from wild lianas. Permitting their agents to use as much force as they felt necessary to deliver the tax and other goods, the Free State became associated with forced labor and coercion. The activity of Arab slavers in eastern Congo was diminished in the mid-1890s.
By shortly after the turn of the century, the Congo had become the world's largest exporter of rubber, but the repression resulted in a significant international outcry, led by Protestant missionaries eager to ply the Congolese waters. In 1908, the Belgian Parliament voted to annex the Free State, renaming it Belgian Congo.
From the guide to the L'État Indépendant du Congo, 1895, (American Philosophical Society)
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