Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003

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James Strom Thurmond Sr. (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American military officer and politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the Dixiecrat candidate on a States' rights platform supporting racial segregation. He received 2.4% of the popular vote and 39 electoral votes, failing to defeat Harry Truman. Thurmond represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, at first as a Southern Democrat and, after 1964, as a Republican.

A magnet for controversy during his nearly half-century Senate career, Thurmond switched parties, primarily because of his vehement opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and endorsed Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater. In the months before switching, he had "been critical of the Democratic Administration for ... enactment of the Civil Rights Law", while Goldwater "boasted of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act, and made it part of his platform." Thurmond left office as the only member of either chamber of Congress to reach the age of 100 while still in office, and as the oldest-serving and longest-serving senator in U.S. history (although he was later surpassed in the latter by Robert Byrd and Daniel Inouye). Thurmond holds the record as the longest-serving member of Congress to serve exclusively in the Senate. He is also the longest-serving Republican member of Congress in U.S. history. At 14 years, he was also the longest-serving Dean of the United States Senate in U.S. history.

In opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, he conducted the longest speaking filibuster ever by a lone senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length. In the 1960s, he opposed the civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 to end segregation and enforce the constitutional rights of African-American citizens, including basic suffrage. Despite being a pro-segregation Dixiecrat, he insisted he was not a racist, but was opposed to excessive federal authority, which he attributed to Communist agitators.

Starting in the 1970s, he moderated his position on race, but continued to defend his early segregationist campaigns on the basis of states' rights in the context of Southern society at the time. He never fully renounced his earlier positions.

Six months after Thurmond died at the age of 100 in 2003, his mixed-race, then 78-year-old daughter Essie Mae Washington-Williams (1925–2013) revealed he was her father. Her mother Carrie Butler (1909–1948) had been working as his family's maid, and was either 15 or 16 years old when 22-year-old Thurmond impregnated her in early 1925. Although Thurmond never publicly acknowledged Essie Mae Washington, he paid for her education at a historically black college and passed other money to her for some time. She said she kept silent out of respect for her father and denied the two had agreed she would not reveal her connection to Thurmond. His children by his marriage eventually acknowledged her. Her name has since been added as one of his children to his memorial at the state capitol.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Typescript address at the U. Va. broadcast over WCHV [manuscript] 7 Oct. 1948. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond interim series. 1955-1956. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
referencedIn Records of the U.S. Senate, 1789 - 2015. Correspondence and Subject Files, 1947 - 2011 National Archives Library, National Archives Records Administration
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond speeches series 1935- Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
referencedIn Quattlebaum, Paul, 1886-1964. Quattlebaum family papers. 1817-2003, (bulk 1880-1963). Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
creatorOf Lyndon Baines Johnson Archives Collection. 1931 - 1968. Congressional Correspondence Files Lyndon Baines Johnson Library
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creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond military assistant. 1962-, 1970-1986. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond cartoons series. 1869-1985 : 1954-1985. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
creatorOf White House Staff Member and Office Files (Nixon Administration). 1/20/1969 - 8/9/1974. Bryce N. Harlow's Files
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referencedIn Records of the Women's Equity Action League, 1966-1979 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
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referencedIn Harrell, Flynn T., 1934-. Flynn T. Harrell papers, 1948-1981 : collection of photographs and letters, chiefly of national political figures. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond memorabilia series, 1918- Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
referencedIn Arthur W. Kramer sound recording collection, 1958-1965 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
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referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1939-2004, 1955-1989 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
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creatorOf Dixon, Frank M. (Frank Murray), 1892-1965. Papers, 1924-1965. Alabama Department of Archives and History
creatorOf Napier, John Light, 1947-. John Light Napier papers, 1970, 1973, 1978-1983, (bulk 1981-1982) Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
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creatorOf Harris, Fred R., 1930-. Papers, 1963-1976. University of Oklahoma, Bizzell Memorial Library
creatorOf James, William B. (William Blakely), 1903-1989. William B. James papers, 1893-1989. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
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creatorOf Clemson University. Office of University Relations. Office of University Relations records, 1965-1996, (bulk 1980-1992) Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
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creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond State Senate Series. 1932-1939. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
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creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond certificates series, 1922-1985. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
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referencedIn Terry Sanford Papers, 1946-1993 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection
referencedIn Records of the Environmental Protection Agency, 1944 - 2006. Controlled Correspondence of the Deputy Director, 1986 - 1/1993 National Archives Library, National Archives Records Administration
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creatorOf Kilpatrick, James Jackson, 1920-. Papers of James J. Kilpatrick [manuscript], 1959-1985. University of Virginia. Library
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creatorOf Duffy, James, 1932-. James Duffy papers. 1960-1973. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
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referencedIn Brown family. Brown family papers, 1862-1967. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond John William Thurmond series, 1894-1934. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond Military series, 1940-1959. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
creatorOf Thurmond, Strom, 1902-2003. Strom Thurmond Gubernatorial series, 1923-1955, (bulk 1946-1951) Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
Role Title Holding Repository
contributorOf Records of the U.S. Sentencing Commission, 1984 - . Congressional Correspondence Individual Members Files, 2015 - 2019 National Archives Library, National Archives Records Administration
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associatedWith Hamby, Lottie D., 1918-2001. person
associatedWith Hammond, James H. (James Henry), 1885-1970. person
associatedWith Harrell, Flynn T., 1934- person
associatedWith Harrigan, Anthony H. person
associatedWith Harris, Fred R., 1930- person
correspondedWith Harvard Law School Forum corporateBody
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correspondedWith Haynsworth, Clement F. (Clement Furman), 1912-1989. person
associatedWith Heinemann, Ronald L. person
associatedWith Heller, Max M. (Max Moses), 1919- person
associatedWith Helms, Jesse. person
correspondedWith Hemphill, Robert W. (Robert Witherspoon), 1915-1985. person
correspondedWith Herbert, Robert Beverley, b. 1879. person
associatedWith Hester, Hugh B. (Hugh Bryan), 1895-1983. person
correspondedWith Holley, Kay, 1917-1994. person
associatedWith Hollings, Ernest F., 1922- person
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associatedWith Hoover, J. Edgar (John Edgar), 1895-1972. person
associatedWith Horn, Stanley Fitzgerald, 1889-1980. person
associatedWith Hudgens, Robert Watts, 1896-1973 person
associatedWith Humphrey, Hubert H. (Hubert Horatio), 1911-1978. person
associatedWith James, William B. (William Blakely), 1903-1989. person
associatedWith Jervey, Frank J. (Frank Johnstone), 1893-1983. person
associatedWith Johnson, Floyd Drayton. person
associatedWith Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973. person
associatedWith Johnston, Olin D. (Olin Dewitt), 1896-1965. person
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associatedWith Jones, Bob, 1911- person
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associatedWith Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968. person
associatedWith Kenney, Edward B. person
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associatedWith Ku Klux Klan (1915- ) corporateBody
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associatedWith Lide, Lanneau Du Rant, 1876-1953. person
associatedWith L. Mendel Rivers (Submarine) corporateBody
associatedWith Lovett, Robert A. (Robert Abercrombie), 1895-1986. person
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correspondedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
associatedWith Mauldin, Bill, 1921-2003. person
correspondedWith Maybank, Burnet R. (Burnet Rhett), 1899-1954. person
associatedWith Mayer, William. person
associatedWith Mays, Calhoun, 1884-1967. person
associatedWith McCollough, Alex. person
associatedWith McCullough, Alex. person
associatedWith McElroy, Hargrave S. person
associatedWith McLeod, Daniel Rogers, 1913-1985. person
associatedWith McLeod, Thomas G. (Thomas Gordon), 1868-1932. person
associatedWith McMasters, Henry D. person
associatedWith McMillan, John L. (John Lanneau), 1898-1977. person
associatedWith McNamara, Andrew T. person
associatedWith Meese, Edwin. person
associatedWith Menefee, M. J. (Marvin James), 1894-1983. person
correspondedWith Merritt, Lewie Griffith, 1897-1974. person
associatedWith Mickel, Buck, 1925- person
associatedWith Military Government Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Milliken, Roger, 1915-2010. person
associatedWith Mollenhoff, Clark R., 1921- . person
correspondedWith Moore, William Reid, 1921-2008. person
associatedWith Morrah, Bradley. person
associatedWith Morrah, P. Bradley, 1915-1992. person
associatedWith Napier, John. person
associatedWith Napier, John Light, 1947- person
associatedWith National Union of Hospital and Health Care Employees. corporateBody
associatedWith Nilson Van and Storage (Columbia, S.C.) corporateBody
associatedWith Nitze, Paul H. person
associatedWith Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994. person
associatedWith Nunn, Sam, 1938- person
associatedWith Padwee, Michael. person
associatedWith Palmer, Kate Salley. person
associatedWith Pantronics, Inc. (Charleston, S.C.) corporateBody
associatedWith Patriots Point Development Authority (S.C.) corporateBody
associatedWith Paul A. Freund person
associatedWith Payne, Gene. person
associatedWith Perkins, Courtland D. person
associatedWith Phinney, Richard A. person
associatedWith Pierce Brothers. corporateBody
correspondedWith Pollitzer, Anita, 1894-1975. person
associatedWith Poole, Robert F. (Robert Franklin), 1893-1958. person
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associatedWith Quattlebaum, Paul, 1912-2003. person
associatedWith Radford, Arthur W. person
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associatedWith Ravan, Jack E. person
associatedWith Ravenel, Charles D. person
associatedWith Rayburn, Sam, 1882-1961 person
associatedWith Reagan, Ronald. person
associatedWith Reserve Officers Association of the United States. corporateBody
associatedWith Reserve Officers Association of the United States. South Carolina Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Riley, Joseph P. person
associatedWith Riley, Richard W. (Richard Wilson) person
associatedWith River, Lucius Mendel. person
associatedWith Rivers, L. Mendel (Lucius Mendel), 1905-1970. person
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correspondedWith Roberts, Charles Wesley, 1916- person
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associatedWith Sanford, Terry, 1917-1998 person
associatedWith Sanford, Terry, 1917-1998. person
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associatedWith Sasser, James. person
correspondedWith Savage, Henry, 1903-1990. person
correspondedWith Schofield Normal and Industrial School (Aiken, S.C.) corporateBody
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associatedWith Self, James Cuthbert, 1876-1955. person
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associatedWith Sneeden, Emory M., 1927- person
associatedWith South Carolina. Dept. of Highways and Public Transportation. corporateBody
associatedWith South Carolina. Dept. of Highways and Public Transportation. corporateBody
correspondedWith South Carolina (Frigate) corporateBody
associatedWith South Carolina. Governor. corporateBody
associatedWith South Carolina Power Company. corporateBody
associatedWith South Carolina (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Southern Packaging and Storage Company (Mullins, S.C.) corporateBody
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spouseOf Thurmond, Jean Crouch. person
spouseOf Thurmond, Jean Crouch. person
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spouseOf Thurmond, Nancy Moore. person
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associatedWith Timmerman, George Bell, 1912-1994. person
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associatedWith United States. Air Force. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Civil Affairs Division, 1st. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Military Government Area Headquarters, 352nd. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Military Government Area Headquarters, 360th. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. Armed services committee. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. Senate corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Federal Election Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Federal Trade Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Food and Drug Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Marine Corps. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Navy. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Supreme Court. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Works Progress Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Oklahoma. Political Commercial Archive. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Virginia corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. corporateBody
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associatedWith Walker, Edwin A. (Edwin Anderson), 1909-1993. person
associatedWith Walker, Morton. person
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associatedWith Wallace, Tom, 1874-1961. person
associatedWith Waring, Julius Waties, 1880-1968. person
associatedWith Waring, Thomas R. person
associatedWith Warner, John W., 1927- person
associatedWith Watson, Albert. person
associatedWith West, John Carl, 1922- person
associatedWith West, John C. (John Carl), 1922- person
associatedWith Whitener, Basil Lee, 1915- person
associatedWith Whitener, Basil Lee, 1915-1989. person
associatedWith Williams, Jack Kenny, 1920- person
associatedWith Williams, John F. person
associatedWith Winthrop College. corporateBody
associatedWith Wofford, Thomas. person
correspondedWith Women's Equity Action League corporateBody
associatedWith Workman, William D. (William Douglas), 1914-1990. person
associatedWith Wright, Fielding (Fielding Lewis), 1895-1956. person
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Place Name Admin Code Country
Charleston SC US
Edgefield SC US
Aiken SC US
Edgefield SC US
District of Columbia DC US
Subject
Public welfare
Vietnam War, 1961-1975--Atrocities
Lynching
Military widows
Ballistic missile defenses
Foreign trade and employment
Military government
Political Campaigns
Segregation
Farm tenancy--History
Legislators--Election--1978
Railroads--Freight--Rates
Military service, Voluntary
Military education
Presidents--Elections--1968
Health
Anti-communist movements
World War, 1939-1945--Occupied territories
Anti-missile missiles
Governors--Biography
Harbors
Interstate agreements
Labor
Gear industry
Education
Rural electrification
Elections
Loyalty oaths
Arms control
New Deal, 1933-1939
Legislators--Election--1966
Military supplies
Elections--Corrupt practices
Governors--Election--1938
Advertising, political
Judges--Election
Legislators--Election--1972
Patronage, Political
World War, 1939-1945--Refugees
Alcohol--Law and legislation
States' rights (American politics)
Postal service
School integration
Military policy
Agriculture and state
Busing for school integration--Law and legislation
Television advertising
Labor policy
Civil rights
Missing in action
Piers
Military pensions--Law and legislation
Automobile dealers
Weapons systems
Propaganda, Anti-communist
Foreign trade regulation
Federal aid to education
Commercial crimes
Censorship
Pressure groups
Prisoners of war
Presidents--Election--1948
Railroads--Freight
Taxation
Legislators--Election--1950
Presidents--Election--1964
Legislators--Election--1960
Governor
Governors--Election--1946
Politics, Practical
World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns
Legislators--Election--1954
Finance, Public
Military Bases
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
Governors--Election--1970
Radio advertising
Postage-stamp albums
Social security
Textile industry
Agriculture
Presidents--Election--1960
Roads
State rights
Vietnam War, 1961-1975
Veterans
Judges--Selection and appointment
Civil defense
Soldiers--Education, non-military
Military spouses
Occupation
Army officers
Teachers
Governors--South Carolina
Senators, U.S. Congress--South Carolina
State politicians
Superintendents of schools
Farmers
Judges
Function

Person

Birth 1902-12-05

Death 2003-06-26

Male

Americans

English

Information

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