Women's Equity Action League

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WEAL was founded in 1968 by a group of professional women, mostly lawyers, in Cleveland, Ohio, who originally hoped to begin a NOW (National Organization for Women) chapter. Realizing NOW's agenda would not garner widespread support in Cleveland, they began their own group and limited their concerns to education, legislation, and the economic rights of women. WEAL challenged sex discrimination on college campuses, in the military, and in the work place. The WEAL Fund was established in 1972 as the tax deductible arm of WEAL; the two organizations merged in 1981. WEAL ceased to exist in 1989.

From the description of Audiotapes [sound recording]. 1973-1987. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 543658319

The Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) was a national membership organization, with state chapters and divisions, dedicated to improving the status and lives of all women by concentrating on economic advancement and using as methods education, litigation, and legislation. Objecting to the National Organization for Women's (NOW) support of women's right to abortion, as well as to NOW's tactics of picketing and demonstrating in pursuit of its goals, Betty Boyer and other Ohio members of NOW founded WEAL in 1968. The WEAL Fund was incorporated in 1972 to help secure legal rights for women and to carry on educational and research projects on sex discrimination. It was the tax-deductible arm of the Women's Equity Action League until 1981, when it merged with WEAL. WEAL took steps toward dissolution in 1989.

From the description of Records, 1966-1979 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 122561739

The Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) was a national membership organization, with state chapters and divisions, dedicated to improving the status and lives of all women by concentrating on economic advancement primarily through education, litigation, and legislation. Objecting to the National Organization for Women's (NOW) support of women's right to abortion, as well as to NOW's tactics of picketing and demonstrating in pursuit of its goals, Betty Boyer and other Ohio members of NOW founded WEAL in 1968. The WEAL Fund was incorporated in 1972 to help secure legal rights for women and to carry on educational and research projects on sex discrimination. It was the tax-deductible arm of the Women's Equity Action League until 1981, when it merged with WEAL. WEAL took steps toward dissolution in 1989.

From the description of Records, 1967-1990 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 122557940

WEAL was founded in 1968 by a group of professional women, mostly lawyers, in Cleveland, Ohio, who originally hoped to begin a NOW (National Organization for Women) chapter. Realizing NOW's agenda would not garner widespread support in Cleveland, they began their own group and limited their concerns to education, legislation, and the economic rights of women. WEAL challenged sex discrimination on college campuses, in the military, and in the work place. The WEAL Fund was established in 1972 as the tax deductible arm of WEAL; the two organizations merged in 1981. WEAL ceased to exist in 1989. For more historical information, see the finding aids for the WEAL Records, MC 500 and MC 311 .

From the guide to the Audiotapes, 1973-1987, (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute)

An organization founded in 1968 that worked tom improve the social, economic, and legal status of all women. The Women in the Military Project was just one of many WEAL activities.

From the description of Women in the Military Project, 1984-1987. (Texas Woman's University Library). WorldCat record id: 60694274

The Women's Equity Action League was a national membership organization, with state chapters and divisions, dedicated to improving the status and lives of all women primarily through education, litigation, and legislation. Its sister organization, the WEAL Fund, was incorporated in 1972 "to help secure legal rights for women and to carry on educational and research projects on sex discrimination." The Fund was not a membership organization, and under federal tax law, as a 501(c)3 organization (non-profit and tax-exempt), could not engage in legislative activities. The two organizations merged in 1981 (see below), following changes in the tax code in 1976 that clarified the extent to which public charities could lobby without jeopardizing their tax status.

WEAL had its beginnings in Cleveland, Ohio. Objecting to the National Organization for Women's (NOW) support of women's right to abortion, as well as to NOW's tactics of picketing and demonstrating in pursuit of its goals, Elizabeth ("Betty") Boyer and other Ohio members of NOW founded WEAL in 1968. Boyer, first national president, explained why and how WEAL was organized (see #1.27).

"In 1966 and earlier many of us saw a need for concentrated activity in the women's rights area. We saw a need for an organization that would coordinate other organizations and concentrate on economic advancement for women.... To explore the possibilities, we asked Martha Griffiths to come to speak in the spring of 1968. Nearly 300 persons came. From this attendance list we circulated a letter inquiring whether they would be interested in an organization such as WEAL. The response was encouraging."

"We held several small planning meetings that summer and by autumn we had lined up nearly a hundred members, mostly Clevelanders. In October we held an incorporating meeting to apply for corporate status as an Ohio nonprofit corporation. In early November the actual incorporation took place...."

WEAL's stated purposes were the following:

to promote greater economic progress on the part of American women; to press for full enforcement of existing antidiscriminatory laws on behalf of women; to seek correction of de facto discrimination against women; to gather and disseminate information and educational material to investigate instances of, and seek solutions to, economic, educational, tax, and employment problems affecting women; to urge that girls be prepared to enter more advanced career fields; to seek reappraisal of federal, state and local laws and practices limiting women's employment opportunities; to combat by all lawful means, job discriminations against women in the pay, promotional or advancement policies of governmental or private employers; to seek the cooperation and coordination of all American women, individually or as organizations to attain these objectives, whether through legislation, litigation, or other means, and by doing any and all things necessary or incident thereto.

The following brief chronology for 1968-1980 combines information from Betty Boyer (prepared for the 1975 convention) and various WEAL publications. The national newsletters, as well as Board minutes and mailings, are excellent sources of detailed information; additional historical material is in #1.27-1.36.

  • 1968: WEAL was founded in Cleveland, Ohio; the members elected Betty Boyer to be their first president. An early project was de-sexing help-wanted ads. WEAL member Vera Glazer wrote "The Female Revolt," prominently mentioning WEAL, thus obtaining for it nationwide and Congressional Record coverage.
  • 1969: WEAL was invited to appear before a number of Congressional committees including those on guidelines for holders of federal contracts. Complaints of discrimination in education were received from all over the country. By the end of the year, WEAL had members in 22 states.
  • 1970: Nancy Dowding was elected national president. WEAL began publishing a national newsletter. The New York division was organized, and WEAL membership nationwide continued to expand. Bernice Sandler began filing complaints against colleges and universities for sex discrimination under Executive Order 11246.
  • 1971: State- divisions numbered 16 by the end of the year (New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, District of Columbia, Maryland, California, Colorado, Texas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ohio, Hawaii, and Virginia). The WEAL Washington Report (WWR), a summary of federal legislation of interest to women, began publication. The WEAL Legal Defense and Education Fund was incorporated.
  • 1972: Norma Raffel was elected national president. WEAL membership increased and several more state divisions were convened. The national office opened in Washington, D.C. With other women's organizations, WEAL successfully lobbied for the ERA, Title IX of the Educational Amendments, and extensions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and of the Equal Pay Act. Under the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, WEAL filed the first sex discrimination charges against a city government (Dallas). Filing charges of sex discrimination in higher education continued to be a major activity, as was pressing the federal government to investigate. WEAL conducted studies of sex bias in appointments to state boards and commissions, in the granting of fellowships, and in the drug industry. The WEAL Legal Defense and Education Fund was dissolved and the WEAL Educational and Legal Defense Fund was incorporated.
  • 1973: Arvonne Fraser was elected national president, and the national office was fully budgeted and staffed, with Bert Hartry as director. Jessie Baum succeeded Hartry in June. WEAL trained lobbyists and other volunteers, and organized a roster of lawyers and other experts to file WEAL briefs and respond to proposed federal regulations. The WEAL Fund qualified for an IRS Section 501(c)3, making contributions tax-deductible and the Fund tax-exempt.
  • 1974: The Higher Education Committee shifted its focus from filing individual complaints to a how-to-do-it advisory role. New state divisions were convened; WEAL was represented in all 50 states by the end of the year. The Schlesinger Library became the repository of the WEAL archive.
  • 1975: Doris Seward was elected national president and began a program stressing enforcement of anti-discrimination laws. The annual convention date was changed from December to May.
  • 1976: Eileen Thornton was elected national president. Continuing its work for the Equal Rights Amendment, WEAL pledged $3000 to ERAmerica for education and publicity. WEAL established a Women and Health Committee, created the Womanpower Roster (Talent Bank), and polled U.S. presidential candidates on their positions on women's issues.
  • 1977: WEAL hired its first paid lobbyist, Leslie Gladstone. WEAL members participated in the Women's Equality Day march (August 26), and in the International Women's Year Conference in Houston (November). The WEAL Fund set up the Marguerite Rawalt Trust Fund for litigation of sex discrimination cases in education, employment, credit, and economic areas; WEAL's suit against HEW and the Labor Department was settled in December, with HEW committing itself to hire 898 new employees in its Office of Civil Rights, to eliminate a backlog of 3000 discrimination complaints, and to begin major civil rights investigations of universities and school districts.
  • 1978: WEAL celebrated its 10th Anniversary. It presented its first WEAL Economic Equity Awards (also known as Big WEALs Awards) to honor "America's Outstanding Women in Business and Labor."
  • 1979: WEAL hired its first full-time Executive Director, Meredith Homet. WEAL began publication of WEAL Informed, an update of pending legislation pertaining to women. Patricia Blau Reuss was hired in October as Acting Executive Director.
  • 1980: Carol Grossman became the first paid president, serving also as Executive Director. The WEAL president moved to the Washington, D.C., headquarters for the first time. Possibilities of merger of WEAL and WEAL Fund raised.

By 1980, it was apparent that WEAL and the WEAL Fund had identity problems in the larger public that were harming the fundraising efforts of each organization. With overlapping structures and interests, they were competing for the same scarce resources. After months of study and negotiation, a merger proposal was brought before the membership at the annual meeting. In May 1981, after months of discussion and negotiation, WEAL (incorporated in Ohio) and WEAL Fund (incorporated in the District of Columbia) merged, with WEAL Fund designated the surviving corporation. WEAL transferred all remaining assets to WEAL Fund, all members of WEAL became members of WEAL Fund, and WEAL Fund changed its name to Women's Equity Action League (WEAL).

This newly named WEAL was headquartered and incorporated in the District of Columbia, with its stated purposes being:

To be operated exclusively for charitable and educational purposes within the meaning of sections 501(c)3 and 170(c)2 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and of any subsequent amendments or revisions thereof; To promote greater economic progress on the part of American women; To promote educational equity for women and girls; To press for full enforcement of existing anti-discrimination laws on behalf of women; To seek correction of de facto discrimination against women; To conduct research, collect, collate, acquire, compile and publish facts, information and statistics concerning facilities, services, privileges, rights and opportunities of all kinds, the use or enjoyment of which is denied, restricted, or otherwise conditioned to anyone on the basis of sex, race, religion, national origin, handicap or marital status, and to combat any such discrimination by legal action, whether through legislation, litigation or other means; To render legal assistance and services to bring women within the full ambit and application of the Unites States Constitution and of the federal, state and local laws and practices to insure their full recognition and participation in the educational and economic activities and other facets of American life without discrimination on account of sex, race, religion, national origin, handicap or marital status; to provide legal support and advice to those seeking employment benefits without discrimination because of sex, race, religion, national origin, handicap or marital status.

The first Board of Directors was formed by merging the two existing boards for one year. There were seven standing committees: Executive, Legal, Program, Legislative, Finance and Development, Membership, and Editorial. Special and advisory committees were appointed as deemed necessary. Fund acting executive director Char Mollison was hired as the executive director for the new organization; she served through April 1989, when she left for another job.

At the annual May meetings, the membership traditionally reviewed WEAL's activities for the past year, and set the agenda for the next. After the merger, the original WEAL's "action agenda" expanded to include public policy initiatives in the Executive branch, as well as legislation. Throughout the 1980s, WEAL's economic agenda stressed the following issues: Title IX; women in the military; reproductive health; equity in the workplace (pensions, insurance, family and medical leave, child and dependent care, pay equity, affirmative action, enforcement of anti-discrimination laws, health insurance, sexual harassment); women as entrepreneurs; ERA; women and the Federal budget; Social Security; violence, abuse and harassment; health; homemakers; and lifestyles. They participated in issue-based coalitions, conducted research, and testified before Congressional committees and other government agencies.

From a dependence on federal government funding, which at one time provided 50% of their income, WEAL shifted to raising money entirely from the private sector: predominantly foundations, corporate fundraising events, and membership dues, and sales of publications. By the late 1980s, difficult economic times nationally, as well as a right-wing, anti-feminist shift in the political climate, took its toll. Unable to secure necessary funding for its many projects and activities, WEAL took steps to dissolve its corporation in late 1989.

Listed below are the presidents and executive directors of the two organizations, with their terms of office.

  • 1968 - 1969 : Elizabeth Boyer
  • 1969 - 1970 : Nancy Dowding
  • 1970: Lizabeth Moody
  • 1971: Sally Mann
  • 1971 - 1972 : Norma Raffel
  • 1972 - 1974 : Arvonne Fraser
  • 1975 - 1976 : Doris Seward
  • 1976 - 1978 : Eileen Thornton
  • 1978 - 1980 : Cristine Candela
  • 1980 - 1982 : Carol Burroughs Grossman
  • 1982 - 1988 : Mary Gray
  • 1989 - 1989 : Doris Etelson
  • 1978: Jessie Baum
  • 1979: Meredith Homet (first full-time Executive Director)
  • 1979 - 1980 : Pat Reuss
  • 1981 - 1989 : Char Mollison
  • 1989: Vicki Almquist (Acting Executive Director)
  • 1989: Mary McCain
  • 1972 - 1979 : Ellen Dresselhuis
  • 1979 - 1980 : Marguerite Rawalt
  • 1980 - 1981 : Margaret Moses
  • 1976 - 1980 : Carol Parr
  • 1980 - 1981 : Char Mollison

From the guide to the Records, 1967-1990, (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute)

The Women's Equity Action League was a national membership organization, with state chapters and divisions, founded in 1968 and dedicated to improving the status and lives of all women primarily through education, litigation, and legislation. Its sister organization, the WEAL Fund, was incorporated in 1972 "to help secure legal rights for women and to carry on educational and research projects on sex discrimination." The Fund was not a membership organization, and under federal tax law, as a 501(c)3 organization, could not engage in legislative activities. The two organizations merged in 1981 (see WEAL Records, MC 500 ), following changes in the tax code.

WEAL had its beginnings in Cleveland, Ohio. Objecting to the National Organization for Women's (NOW) support of women's right to abortion, as well as to NOW's tactics of picketing and demonstrating in pursuit of its goals, Elizabeth ("Betty") Boyer and other Ohio members of NOW founded WEAL in 1968. Boyer, first national president, explained why and how WEAL was organized (see MC 500, #1.27):

"In 1966 and earlier many of us saw a need for concentrated activity in the women's rights area. We saw a need for an organization that would coordinate other organizations and concentrate on economic advancement for women...To explore the possibilities, we asked Martha Griffiths to come to speak in the spring of 1968. Nearly 300 persons came. From this attendance list we circulated a letter inquiring whether they would be interested in an organization such as WEAL. The response was encouraging." "We held several small planning meetings that summer and by autumn we had lined up nearly a hundred members, mostly Clevelanders. In October we held an incorporating meeting to apply for corporate status as an Ohio nonprofit corporation. In early November the actual incorporation took place."

WEAL's stated purposes were the following:

to promote greater economic progress on the part of American women; to press for full enforcement of existing antidiscriminatory laws on behalf of women; to seek correction of de facto discrimination against women; to gather and disseminate information and educational material; to investigate instances of, and seek solutions to, economic, educational, tax, and employment problems affecting women; to urge that girls be prepared to enter more advanced career fields; to seek reappraisal of federal, state and local laws and practices limiting women's employment opportunities; to combat by all lawful means, job discriminations against women in the pay, promotional or advancement policies of governmental or private employers; to seek the cooperation and coordination of all American women, individually or as organizations to attain these objectives, whether through legislation, litigation, or other means, and by doing any and all things necessary or incident thereto.

The following brief chronology for 1968-1979 combines information from Betty Boyer (prepared for the 1975 convention) and various WEAL publications. Addenda in the WEAL Records ( MC 500 ) contains national newsletters, as well as Board minutes and mailings, that are excellent sources of detailed information.

  • 1968: WEAL was founded in Cleveland, Ohio; the members elected Betty Boyer to be their first president. An early project was de-sexing help-wanted ads. WEAL member Vera Glazer wrote "The Female Revolt," prominently mentioning WEAL, thus obtaining for it nationwide and Congressional Record coverage.
  • 1969: WEAL was invited to appear before a number of Congressional committees including those on guidelines for holders of federal contracts. Complaints of discrimination in education were received from all over the country. By the end of the year, WEAL had members in 22 states.
  • 1970: Nancy Dowding was elected national president. WEAL began publishing a national newsletter. The New York division was organized, and WEAL membership nationwide continued to expand. Bernice "Bunny" Sandler began filing complaints against colleges and universities for sex discrimination under Executive Order 11246.
  • 1971: State divisions numbered 16 by the end of the year (New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, District of Columbia, Maryland, California, Colorado, Texas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ohio, Hawaii, and Virginia). The WEAL Washington Report (WWR), a summary of federal legislation of interest to women, began publication. The WEAL Legal Defense and Education Fund was incorporated.
  • 1972: Norma Raffel was elected national president. WEAL membership increased and several more state divisions were convened. The national office opened in Washington, D.C. With other women's organizations, WEAL successfully lobbied for the ERA, Title IX of the Educational Amendments, and extensions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and of the Equal Pay Act. Under the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, WEAL filed the first sex discrimination charges against a city government (Dallas). Filing charges of sex discrimination in higher education continued to be a major activity, as was pressing the federal government to investigate. WEAL conducted studies of sex bias in appointments to state boards and commissions, in the granting of fellowships, and in the drug industry. The WEAL Legal Defense and Education Fund was dissolved and the WEAL Educational and Legal Defense Fund was incorporated.
  • 1973: Arvonne Fraser was elected national president, and the national office was fully budgeted and staffed, with Bert Hartry as director. Jessie Baum succeeded Hartry in June. WEAL trained lobbyists and other volunteers, and organized a roster of lawyers and other experts to file WEAL briefs and respond to proposed federal regulations. The WEAL Fund qualified for an IRS Section 501(c)3, making contributions tax-deductible and the Fund tax-exempt.
  • 1974: The Higher Education Committee shifted its focus from filing individual complaints to a how-to-do-it advisory role. New state divisions were convened; WEAL was represented in all 50 states by the end of the year. The Schlesinger Library became the repository of the WEAL archive.
  • 1975: Doris Seward was elected national president and began a program stressing enforcement of anti-discrimination laws. The annual convention date was changed from December to May.
  • 1976: Eileen Thornton was elected national president. Continuing its work for the Equal Rights Amendment, WEAL pledged $3000 to ERAmerica for education and publicity. WEAL established a Women and Health Committee, created the Womanpower Roster (Talent Bank), and polled U.S. presidential candidates on their positions on women's issues.
  • 1977: WEAL hired its first paid lobbyist, Leslie Gladstone. WEAL members participated in the Women's Equality Day march (August 26), and in the International Women's Year Conference in Houston (November). The WEAL Fund set up the Marguerite Rawalt Trust Fund for litigation of sex discrimination cases in education, employment, credit, and economic areas; WEAL's suit against the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) and the Labor Department was settled in December, with HEW committing itself to hire 898 new employees in its Office of Civil Rights, to eliminate a backlog of 3000 discrimination complaints, and to begin major civil rights investigations of universities and school districts.
  • 1978: WEAL celebrated its 10th anniversary. It presented its first WEAL Economic Equity Awards (also known as Big WEALs Awards) to honor "America's Outstanding Women in Business and Labor."
  • 1979: WEAL hired its first full-time Executive Director, Meredith Homet. WEAL began publication of WEAL Informed, an update of pending legislation pertaining to women. Patricia Blau Reuss was hired in October as Acting Executive Director.

From the guide to the Records, 1966-1979, (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute)

The Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) (1968-ca. 1989) was a national organization founded in Cleveland, Ohio, committed to combating sex discrimination and advocating for economic equality for women through education and litigation. WEAL was an offshoot of the National Organization for Women and took a more conservative stance on issues such as abortion rights and the Equal Rights Amendment. The organization's membership remained small throughout its duration but benefited from the prestige of the high-profile women in academia, business, and government who joined WEAL. Growing out of WEAL was the Women's Law Fund, a non-profit organization co-founded in 1972 by attorneys Jane M. Picker and Lizbeth A. Moody, both professors at Cleveland State University's Cleveland-Marshall College of Law. The Women's Law Fund evolved out of divisions within WEAL concerning the mission, structure, and funding of the organization.

click here to view the Encyclopedia of Cleveland History entry for the Women's Law Fund

From the guide to the Women's Equity Action League Records, 1969-1984, (Western Reserve Historical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Alexander, Dolores. Papers, 1960-1973 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Madden, Roberta. Roberta M. Madden papers, 1968-2010 (bulk 1970-1990). Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Records, 1969-1971 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Committee on the Status of Women at Harvard. Records, 1969-1971 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1870s-1989 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Kefauver, Lee, 1934-. Lee Kefauver papers, 1970-1985 (bulk 1972-1977) University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Women's Equity Action League of Massachusetts. Records, 1971-1992 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Robin Chandler Lynn Duke Papers, [ca. 1930]-2009 David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Papers of NOW officers, 1960-1973 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Hartry, Bert, 1929-. Papers, 1970-1979 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Virginia B. Whitehill. Texas Woman's University Library, Mary Evelyn Blagg-Huey Library
referencedIn Chase Going Woodhouse Papers., undated, 1900-1984. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Center.
referencedIn Carden, Maren Lockwood. Papers, 1969-1979 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Rawalt, Marguerite, 1895-. Papers, 1870s-1989 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Dorothy Sucher Collection, 1970-1981, 1977-1979 State of Maryland and Historical Collections
creatorOf Women's Equity Action League. Women in the Military Project, 1984-1987. Texas Woman's University Library, Mary Evelyn Blagg-Huey Library
creatorOf Records, 1967-1990 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Boyer, Elizabeth. Papers, 1965-1972 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Records of the Women's Equity Action League, 1966-1979 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Audiotapes, 1973-1987 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Women's Equity Action League. Audiotapes [sound recording]. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Fraser, Arvonne S. Arvonne S. Fraser papers, 1947-1999 (bulk 1970-1994). Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
creatorOf Women's Equity Action League Records, 1969-1984 Western Reserve Historical Society
creatorOf Women's Equity Action League. Records, 1967-1990 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1957-1993 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Audiotape collection, 1953-1979 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Records, 1971-1992 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Hunt, Vilma R. Papers, 1952-1993 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Thatcher, Diana,. Diana Thatcher miscellany relating to the Women's Movement, 1966-1971. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Women's Equity Action League. Records, 1966-1979 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1952-1993 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Sandler, Bernice Resnick. Papers, 1970-1980 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Cussler, Margaret Thekla, 1911-. Papers, 1957-1977 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn East, Catherine Shipe. Papers of Catherine Shipe East. 1941-1995 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Candela, Christine. Papers. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1969-1979 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Ohmart, Joline Moore. Papers, 1971-1979. Indiana Historical Society Library
referencedIn Arvonne S. Fraser papers., 1947-1999 (bulk 1970-1994). Minnesota Historical Society
referencedIn Organizational records., 1978-2002. Minnesota Historical Society
referencedIn Draper, Lucy Hargrett,. Lucy Hargrett Draper U.S. Equal Rights Amendment (1921-1982) research collection, ca. 1920-ongoing. Georgia State University
referencedIn Papers, 1957-1977 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Washington Area Women's Center. Dorothy Sucher Collection, 1970-1981, (bulk 1977-1979). University of Maryland Libraries
referencedIn Lee Kefauver Papers, 1970-1985, 1972-1977 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
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associatedWith Bellamy, Carol person
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associatedWith Bird, Caroline. person
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associatedWith Burroughs-Grossman, Carol person
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associatedWith Dorothy Orr. person
associatedWith Dowding, Nancy Elsi, 1924- person
associatedWith Dowding, Nancy Elsie, 1924- person
associatedWith Doyle, Terry person
associatedWith Draper, Lucy Hargrett, person
associatedWith Dresselhuis, Ellen. person
associatedWith DuBoise, Nancy person
associatedWith Dubrow, Evelyn person
associatedWith Duke, Robin Chandler Lynn person
associatedWith DuPre, Carole person
associatedWith DuPre, Carole. person
correspondedWith Dworkin, Claire person
associatedWith East, Catherine person
associatedWith East, Catherine, 1916-1996. person
associatedWith Easterling, Barbara person
correspondedWith Edmund S. Muskie person
correspondedWith Edward M. Kennedy person
associatedWith Eleanor Smeal. person
correspondedWith Elisabeth W. Hogan. person
correspondedWith Elizabeth Janeway person
correspondedWith Elizabeth J. Kuck person
correspondedWith Elizabeth K. Mandell. person
correspondedWith Elizabeth Wright. person
associatedWith Ellen Clear person
associatedWith Ellen Sulzberger Straus person
correspondedWith Elly M. Peterson person
associatedWith Erica Jong person
correspondedWith Ernest F. Hollings person
correspondedWith Ernest Hollings. person
correspondedWith Esther M. Westervelt person
correspondedWith Esther Peterson. person
correspondedWith Etelson, Doris person
correspondedWith Ethel Bent Walsh person
correspondedWith Eunice P. Howe person
associatedWith Evans, Jane person
associatedWith Farians, Elizabeth person
correspondedWith Faust, Jean person
associatedWith Federbush, Marcia, 1934- person
correspondedWith Felice N. Schwartz person
correspondedWith Fenwick, Millicent person
associatedWith Fields, Daisy B. person
associatedWith Fippinger, Grace person
associatedWith Fitzgerald, Laurine E. person
associatedWith Flaherty, Tina person
correspondedWith Flinn, Nancy person
associatedWith Florence Howe. person
correspondedWith Florence P. Dwyer person
associatedWith Ford, Lee Ellen. person
correspondedWith Fortney H. (Pete) Stark person
associatedWith Foxworth, Jo person
associatedWith Frances Lear. person
correspondedWith Frances Tarleton Farenthold person
correspondedWith Frances T. Farenthold person
correspondedWith Franziska P. Hosken person
associatedWith Fraser, Arvonne S. person
correspondedWith Freeland, Joyce person
associatedWith Freeman, Jo person
correspondedWith Fundraising in the Public Interest, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Gates, Margaret. person
associatedWith George McGovern. person
correspondedWith Georgette, Frances person
associatedWith Geraldine Ferraro person
associatedWith G. G. Michelson person
correspondedWith Gibson, Judy person
associatedWith Ginsburg, Ruth Bader. person
associatedWith Gladstone, Leslie person
associatedWith Gladstone, Leslie. person
associatedWith Glaser, Vera person
associatedWith Glaser, Vera. person
correspondedWith Goldhar, Joel person
associatedWith Goodwin, Carolyn person
associatedWith Goodwin, Carolyn person
associatedWith Goodwin, Carolyn. person
associatedWith Goodwin, Carolyn. person
correspondedWith Gore, Louise person
associatedWith Graham, Katharine person
associatedWith Grant, Loraine person
associatedWith Grant, Loraine. person
associatedWith Gray, Mary W., 1938- person
associatedWith Green, Edith, 1910-1987. person
associatedWith Gregg, Dorothy person
associatedWith Griffiths, Martha W. 1912-2003. person
associatedWith Griffiths, Martha Wright, 1912- person
correspondedWith Gwendolyn S. Cherry person
correspondedWith Harold D. Donahue person
correspondedWith Harrison A. Williams, Jr. person
associatedWith Hartry, Bert, 1929- person
correspondedWith Harty, Bert person
associatedWith Haywood, Doris person
correspondedWith Heagstead, Nina person
associatedWith Heckler, Margaret person
associatedWith Heckler, Margaret. person
correspondedWith Heitman, Betty person
associatedWith Hennessey, Alice person
correspondedWith Henry M. Jackson person
correspondedWith Hersh, Esther person
associatedWith Hewitt, Frankie person
associatedWith Hillman, atricia person
correspondedWith H. Minton Francis. person
correspondedWith Holcomb, Luther person
associatedWith Holmes, Olive. person
correspondedWith Holm, Jeanne person
correspondedWith Holtzman, Elizabeth person
associatedWith Homet, Meredith person
associatedWith Homet, Meredith. person
associatedWith Honnet, Ellen Porter. person
associatedWith HUB Co-Ventures for Women. corporateBody
correspondedWith Hubert H. Humphrey person
associatedWith Humphrey, Muriel person
associatedWith Hunt, Vilma R. person
correspondedWith Huston, Perdita person
correspondedWith Hutar, Patricia person
correspondedWith Indritz, Phineas person
correspondedWith Ireton, Barbara person
associatedWith Ivy, Madie person
associatedWith Jane Kratovil person
associatedWith Jane Loeb person
correspondedWith Jane O'Reilly person
correspondedWith Janeway, Elizabeth person
correspondedWith Janice K. Mendenhall person
correspondedWith Janney, Mary person
associatedWith Jean Lipman-Blumen person
correspondedWith Jensen, Mari person
associatedWith Jessie Bernard person
correspondedWith Jettie Pierce Selvig person
associatedWith Jimmy Carter person
associatedWith Jing Lyman person
associatedWith Joan Joesting. person
correspondedWith Jo Ann Evans Gardner person
correspondedWith Jo-Ann Orlinsky person
associatedWith Jo Freeman. person
correspondedWith John H. Powell, Jr. person
correspondedWith Johnnetta Cole person
associatedWith John Pratt person
correspondedWith Johnson, Diane person
associatedWith Johnson, Gloria person
correspondedWith Johnson, Marlene person
correspondedWith John V. Tunney person
correspondedWith Joost-Gaugier person
associatedWith Joyce Miller person
correspondedWith Joyce Miller. person
correspondedWith Joy R. Simonson person
associatedWith J. Stanley Pottinger. person
correspondedWith Judith Koll Healey person
correspondedWith Julia T. Apter person
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correspondedWith Juliet F. Brudney. person
associatedWith Kaity Miller person
correspondedWith Karen De Crow. person
correspondedWith Karen DeCrow. person
correspondedWith Karen Keesling. person
associatedWith Karen R. Keesling person
associatedWith Katen, Karen person
correspondedWith Kate Rand Lloyd person
correspondedWith Kathleen Galiher Ott person
correspondedWith Kathryn Clarenbach person
correspondedWith Kathryn F. Clarenbach person
correspondedWith Kathy Collins person
associatedWith Kay Whyburn person
associatedWith Kefauver, Lee, 1934- person
associatedWith Kellogg, Marion person
associatedWith King, Jean L. person
associatedWith King, Jean L. person
associatedWith King, Jean L. person
associatedWith King, Jean L. person
associatedWith King, Joan person
correspondedWith Kitchen, Alice person
associatedWith Kitty D'Alessio person
correspondedWith Kohn, Margaret person
associatedWith Komer, Odessa person
associatedWith Komer, Odessa person
associatedWith Koontz, Elizabeth D. 1919- person
correspondedWith Korb, Lawrence person
associatedWith Kramer, Irmgard person
correspondedWith Krupansky, Blanche person
correspondedWith Lakes, Anthony person
associatedWith Lansing, Sherry person
correspondedWith Lasley, Roberta person
associatedWith Laurie, Marilyn person
associatedWith Lawson, Louise person
associatedWith Leadership Conference on Civil Rights corporateBody
correspondedWith Lee Kefauver person
correspondedWith Les Aucoin person
correspondedWith Leslie, Linda person
correspondedWith Letty Cottin Pogrebin. person
correspondedWith Lichtman, Judith person
associatedWith Linda Grant De Pauw person
correspondedWith Lindy Boggs person
correspondedWith Lindy Boggs. person
correspondedWith Lionel Van Deerlin person
correspondedWith Liz Carpenter. person
correspondedWith Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. person
correspondedWith Lowell W. Perry person
associatedWith Lucy Draper person
associatedWith Lucy Wilson Benson. person
correspondedWith Mabel H. Brandon. person
associatedWith Madden, Roberta. person
associatedWith Madelyn P. Jennings person
associatedWith Mady Segal person
associatedWith Mandell, Elizabeth person
correspondedWith Mandel, Maurice person
correspondedWith Marcia R. Lieberman person
associatedWith Maren Carden. person
correspondedWith Margaret Chase Smith person
associatedWith Margaret Dunkle person
associatedWith Margaret Leister person
associatedWith Margaret McKenna person
correspondedWith Margaret Moses person
associatedWith Margaret Thekla Cussler person
associatedWith Marguerite Rawalt, 1895- person
correspondedWith Maria Elena Torralva person
correspondedWith Mariam Chamberlain person
associatedWith Marianne Feuber person
correspondedWith Marion J. Harron person
correspondedWith Marlow W. Cook person
associatedWith Marna Tucker person
correspondedWith Mary E. King person
correspondedWith Mary Elizabeth Freeman person
associatedWith Mary Emanuel person
correspondedWith Mary Jean Tully person
correspondedWith Mary Lou Thompson person
correspondedWith Maudine Rice Cooper person
associatedWith McCabe, Jewell person
associatedWith McClendon, Sarah person
correspondedWith McCoy, Adrienne person
correspondedWith McGovern, George person
associatedWith Meinzen, Polly person
associatedWith Meinzen, Polly. person
associatedWith Mendelsohn, Micaela person
associatedWith Meyer, Sandra person
correspondedWith Midge Costanza person
correspondedWith Mildred Jeffrey person
associatedWith Miller, Joyce person
correspondedWith Miller, Maya person
correspondedWith Milton R. Young person
associatedWith Minnesota Coalition of Organizations for Sex Equity in Education. corporateBody
correspondedWith Miranda, Lourdes person
associatedWith M. Jacqueline McCurdy person
associatedWith Mollison, Char, 1945- person
associatedWith Mollison, Char, 1945- person
associatedWith Moody, Lizabeth A. person
correspondedWith Morag Simchak. person
correspondedWith Moxon, Barbara person
correspondedWith Muhich, Dolores person
correspondedWith Muriel Siebert. person
associatedWith Murray, Pauli person
associatedWith Nameless Sisterhood corporateBody
associatedWith Nameless Sisterhood. corporateBody
correspondedWith Nancy E. Stanley person
associatedWith Nancy Jetton person
correspondedWith Nancy Landon Kassebaum person
correspondedWith Nancy Pelosi person
associatedWith National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education. corporateBody
associatedWith National Coalition for Women in Defense corporateBody
associatedWith National Collegiate Athletics Association. corporateBody
associatedWith National Organization for Women. corporateBody
associatedWith National Women's Conference corporateBody
correspondedWith Nelson, Resa person
associatedWith Nies, Judith person
associatedWith Ohmart, Joline Moore. person
associatedWith Olga M. Madar. person
correspondedWith Ordes, Diane person
correspondedWith Orr, Dorothy person
associatedWith Overton, Ellen S., 1925- person
correspondedWith Palmer, Paige person
associatedWith Parr, Carol person
associatedWith Parr, Carol, 1941- person
associatedWith Parry, Carol person
correspondedWith Particia Reilly Hitt person
correspondedWith Patermaster, Mara person
correspondedWith Patricia Budd Kepler person
correspondedWith Patricia Schroeder person
correspondedWith Patricia S. Lindh. person
associatedWith Patricia Stillwell Cook person
associatedWith Pat Schroeder. person
correspondedWith Pauli Murray. person
associatedWith Pave, Irene person
correspondedWith Pendergast, Dorothy person
correspondedWith Perdita Huston. person
correspondedWith Perry, Deborah person
correspondedWith Peter J. Brennan person
correspondedWith Philip A. Hart. person
associatedWith Phyllis B. Davis person
associatedWith Picker, Jane Moody. person
correspondedWith Polly Pettit person
associatedWith Polowy, Carolyn. person
correspondedWith Porter, Sylvia person
associatedWith Powell, Judy person
associatedWith POWER corporateBody
correspondedWith Pressman, Sonia person
associatedWith Preston, Frances person
correspondedWith Procope, Ernesta person
associatedWith Proctor, Barbara person
correspondedWith Proxmire, William person
associatedWith Raffel, Norma K. person
associatedWith Rawalt, Marguerite, 1895- person
associatedWith Ray Marshall person
correspondedWith Ray Marshall person
associatedWith Reuss, Pat person
associatedWith Reuss, Pat. person
associatedWith Reynolds, Nancy person
associatedWith Rhoads, Geraldine person
correspondedWith Richard Gephardt person
correspondedWith Richard Schweiker person
correspondedWith Richard. S. Salant. person
correspondedWith Richard S. Schweiker person
associatedWith Ride, Sally person
correspondedWith Rigby, Sandra person
associatedWith Robens, Jane. person
associatedWith Roberta Madden person
correspondedWith Roberts, Hope person
correspondedWith Robert Taft, Jr. person
associatedWith Robin Hardy person
correspondedWith Rosabeth Moss-Kanter person
correspondedWith Rosalynn Carter person
associatedWith Rosenbach, Margo person
associatedWith Rosensweig, Marge person
associatedWith Rosensweig, Marge. person
correspondedWith Rovner, Suzanne person
correspondedWith Roxanne Barton Conlin. person
correspondedWith Roy Wilkins. person
correspondedWith Ruth Church Gupta. person
correspondedWith Ruth Petkoff person
associatedWith Ruth S. Block person
associatedWith Sabra F. Woolley person
associatedWith Sally Van Wagenen Keil person
correspondedWith Sandi Risser. person
associatedWith Sandler, Bernice Resnick. person
correspondedWith Santi, Tina person
correspondedWith Sarah Hughes. person
correspondedWith Sarah T. Hughes. person
correspondedWith Sarah Weddington person
associatedWith Satenig St. Marie person
correspondedWith Scarf, Maggie person
associatedWith Scheffler-Wiggen, Beata person
associatedWith Scheffler-Wiggen, Beata. person
correspondedWith Schellberg, Ruth person
associatedWith Schiffer, Clara person
associatedWith Schoonover, Jean person
correspondedWith Schroeder, Patricia person
associatedWith Scott, Hugh person
associatedWith Sena, Rosemarie person
associatedWith Seward, Doris person
associatedWith Seward, Doris person
associatedWith Seward, Doris. person
associatedWith Seward, Doris. person
correspondedWith Sharon Johnson person
correspondedWith Sheila Tobias. person
correspondedWith Shirley Amiel. person
correspondedWith Shirley Chisholm person
associatedWith Siebert, Muriel person
associatedWith Sikora, Lynn person
correspondedWith Simchak, Morag person
correspondedWith Simms, Margaret person
correspondedWith Sinchak, Morag person
correspondedWith Smerling, Beverly person
correspondedWith Sonia Pressman. person
associatedWith Sonia Pressman Fuentes person
associatedWith Sports Project Referral and Information Network. corporateBody
correspondedWith Stabenow, Debbie person
associatedWith Steele, Clelia person
correspondedWith Steele, Diana person
associatedWith Steers, Newton person
correspondedWith Stephen M. Young person
correspondedWith Stokes, Louis person
associatedWith Sucher, Dorothy person
correspondedWith Sudow, Ellen person
correspondedWith Susan Deller Ross person
associatedWith Ted Turner person
associatedWith Thatcher, Diana, person
associatedWith Theodore, Athena. person
correspondedWith Thomas F. Eagleton person
correspondedWith Thorne, Barrie person
associatedWith Thornton, Eileen person
associatedWith Thornton, Eileen, 1942- person
correspondedWith Thurmond, Strom