Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Maria Mitchell and her father William Mitchell were astronomers. In 1869, Maria Mitchell was one of the first women elected into the American Philosophical Society.

From the description of Papers, ca. 1825-1887. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122624294

From the guide to the Maria Mitchell papers, ca. 1825-1887, Circa 1825-1887, (American Philosophical Society)

Astronomer and teacher.

From the description of Letter to Mr. Alger [manuscript], 1871January 25. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647874754

Maria Mitchell was an astronomer and educator. For biographical information, see Notable American Women, 1607-1950.

From the description of Papers, n.d. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 122386993

Astronomer and educator.

From the description of Note of Maria Mitchell, undated. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79454580

Maria Mitchell was an American astronomer.

From the description of Maria Mitchell letter to Mrs. Millington, ca. 1838-1889. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 48062982

Astronomer.

Mitchell taught astronomy at Vassar from 1865 to 1888. She was a founder of the Association for the Advancement of Women and the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

From the description of Maria Mitchell Papers, 1853-2007, 1853-1889 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 51576559

Astronomer.

Mitchell taught astronomy at Vassar from 1865 to 1888. She was a founder of the Association for the Advancement of Women and the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

From the description of Papers, 1853-1974, 1853-1889 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 155519500

Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867) was an important scientific reformer during the early nineteenth century. From his position as superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, and through leadership roles in the scientific institutions of the time, Bache helped bring American science into alignment with the professional nature of its European counterpart. In addition, Bache fostered the reform of public education in America.

On July 19, 1806 Alexander Dallas Bache was born into one of Philadelphia's elite families. The son of Richard Bache and Sophia Dallas, he was Benjamin Franklin's great-grandson, nephew to George Dallas (vice president under James K. Polk), and grandson to Alexander James Dallas (secretary of the treasury under James Madison). In 1821, Bache was admitted to the United States Military Academy at the age of 15, graduating first in his class four years later. He remained at the Academy for an additional two years to teach mathematics and natural history. While serving as a lieutenant in the Army Corps of Engineers, working on the construction of Fort Adams in Newport, R.I., he met Nancy Clarke Fowler whom he would later marry.

Bache left the Army in 1828 to begin an academic career, accepting an appointment as professor of natural philosophy and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. Although his scientific interests were broad, he had a particular interest in geophyscial research. While in Philadelphia, he constructed a magnetic observatory, and made extensive research into terrestrial magnetism, and during the 1830s he began to be recognized as a leading figure in the city's scientific community. Bache was an active member of the American Philosphical Society and the Franklin Institute, seeking to raise the professional standards of both institutions and urging them to place a stronger emphasis on original research. While at the Franklin Institute from 1830-1835, Bache led a Federally-funded investigation into steam-boiler explosions, the government's first use of technical experts to examine a matter involving public policy.

In 1836 Bache became interested in educational reform when he was asked to help organize the curriculum at Girard College, of which he later served as president. Bache spent two years in Europe visiting over 250 educational institutions. The result of his visit was a 600 page study, Report on Education in Europe, to the Trustees of the Girard College for Orphans published in 1839. Although Bache was unable to apply the report at Girard College because of its delayed opening, it proved useful in overhauling the curriculum of Philadelphia's Central High School, where he was superintendent from 1839-1842, and was widely influential among American educational reformers, helping to introduce the Prussian educational model to the United States.

After meeting many of the leading savants during a European tour, including Alexander von Humboldt, Francois Arago, and Karl Friedrich Gauss, Bache became convinced of the need to professionalize American science. His opportunity to make an impact came in 1843 with the death of Ferdinand Hassler, superindendent of the U.S. Coast Survey. In the years before the Civil War, the Coast Survey supported more scientists then any other institution in the country, and Bache and his colleagues saw the Survey as a means of gaining federal patronage for science. After a campaign by his friends and colleagues, Bache was named as Hassler's replacement. Over the next two decades Bache transformed the Coast Survey into one of the nation's leading scientific institutions, becoming an important patron of science himself in the process . Bache was not just an administrator, but remained personally involved in field work.

Bache also led the reform of American science through his leadership of an elite group known as the "Lazzaroni" or scientific beggars. The goal of the Lazzaroni was to ensure that the nation's leading scientists kept control of the nation's scientific institutions, and they were instrumental in reforming the American Association for the Advancement of Science (of which Bache was president of in 1850). In his remarkably busy schedule, Bache was a member of the Lighthouse Board (1844-1845), superintendent of the Office of Weights and Measures (1844), and a prominent regent for the Smithsonian Institution, where he convinced fellow Lazzaroni Joseph Henry to become its first secretary. Bache also played a leading role in the creation of the National Academy of Sciences, serving as its first president. When the Americn Civil War broke out, Bache focused the Coast Survey to support the war effort, was vice president of the Sanitary Commision, a consultant to the army and navy on battle plans, a superintended for Philadelphia's defence plans, and a member of the Permanent Commission of the navy in charge of evaluating new weapons. Bache died in Newport, R.I. on February 17, 1867.

From the guide to the A. D. Bache Collection, 1833-1873, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Carole Oles, Papers, 1983-2007 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library
referencedIn United States Naval Observatory Records, 1830-1900 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Additional papers, 1848-1915 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867. Papers, 1835-1864. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 60: Meteorological Project, 1849 1875.
creatorOf Severance, Caroline M. Seymour (Caroline Maria Seymour), 1820-1914. Papers of Caroline Maria Seymour Severance, 1830-1980 (bulk) 1860-1914. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Maria Mitchell letter to Mrs. Millington, ca. 1838-1889. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn United States Naval Observatory. Records of the United States Naval Observatory, 1830-1900. Library of Congress
referencedIn Ezra Cornell papers, (bulk), 1746-1888, 1844-1870 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Brock, Eliza Spencer, 1810-1899. Biographies/Yager collection, 1825-1892. Nantucket Hist Association
referencedIn American Philosophical Society. Alexander Dallas Bache Papers.
referencedIn Maria Mitchell Association. Mitchell Memorabilia In Maria Mitchell Lib. (Mf).
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Papers, n.d. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Dall, Caroline Wells Healey, 1822-1912. Caroline Wells Healey Dall letters and autograph [manuscript], 1867 and 1875. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue, 1830-1908. Additional papers, 1848-1915 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Maria Mitchell papers, ca. 1825-1887, Circa 1825-1887 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Friends' Social Union (New York, N.Y.). Minutes, 1869-1872. Swarthmore College, FRIENDS HIST LIBR
referencedIn Clark, Alvan, 1804-1887. Correspondence, 1857-1893. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Parsons, Samuel, 1774-1841. Parrish Family Papers, 1780-1966. Swarthmore College, FRIENDS HIST LIBR
referencedIn Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891. Papers, 1861-1891. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Blackwell family. Papers, 1784-1944 (inclusive), 1832-1939 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 33: Office Of The Secretary, Outgoing Corres..
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. William Jones Rhees Collection.
referencedIn May family. Papers of the May and Goddard families, 1766-1912 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Library Of Congress, Manuscript Division. Naval Observatory Records.
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 7001 (Henry) Or Ru 7053 (Bache) Per Author.
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Note of Maria Mitchell, undated. Library of Congress
referencedIn Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue, 1830-1908. Papers, 1834-1959 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Hoffleit, Dorrit. Papers, 1906-2005 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Papers, 1766-1912 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 26: Office Of The Secretary, Incoming Corres..
referencedIn James Freeman Clarke additional correspondence, 1787-1886. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Caroline Maria Seymour Severance Papers, 1830-1980 The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Manuscripts Department
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 52: Assistant Secretary, Incoming Correspondenc.
referencedIn Dorothea Lynde Dix papers, 1798-1893 (inclusive), 1827-1887 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Maria Mitchell Papers, 1853-2007, 1853-1889 (bulk). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Larcom, Lucy, 1824-1893. Letter [manuscript] : Beverly, Mass., to Susan Hayes Ward, 1865 September 4. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891. Benson J. Lossing papers, 1861-1891. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Anthony, Susan B. (Susan Brownell), 1820-1906. Collection of material pertaining to American women of the 19th and 20th century. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Cope, E. D. (Edward Drinker), 1840-1897. Papers, 1848-1940 (bulk 1855-1896). Haverford College Library
referencedIn Bacon, Delia Salter, 1811-1859. Papers of Delia Salter Bacon [manuscript], 1820-1952 (bulk 1827-1859). Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Papers, 1834-1959 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers, 1829-1956 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Papers, 1853-1974, 1853-1889 (bulk). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Papers, ca. 1825-1887. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Dall, Caroline Wells Healey, 1822-1912. Papers, 1829-1956 (inclusive), 1837-1916 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Cone, John Wesley,. Miscellaneous family and personal documents collection, 1852-1870. Lynn Historical Society Library
referencedIn Amy Hemenway collection of autographs, 1791-1873. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Vassar College Libraries, Archives & Special Collections. Maria Mitchell Papers. Vassar College
referencedIn National Archives And Records Administration. Rg 78: Naval Observatory.
referencedIn Joseph Bradley Murray collection, 1706-1958 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. James Henry Coffin Papers.
referencedIn May family. Papers of the May and Goddard families, 1766-1912 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Letter to Mr. Alger [manuscript], 1871January 25. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn New England Women's Club. Records, 1843-1970 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf A. D. Bache Collection, 1833-1873 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Papers, 1784 (1832-1939) 1944 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Murray, Joseph Bradley, 1888-1961,. Joseph Bradley Murray collection, 1706-1958 (inclusive). Yale University Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873 person
associatedWith Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. person
associatedWith American Academy of Arts and Sciences. corporateBody
correspondedWith Arnold, Helen person
associatedWith Association for the Advancement of Women. corporateBody
associatedWith Babbage, Charles, 1791-1871 person
associatedWith Babbitt, Mary King, 1861-1912. person
associatedWith Babcock, Rufus, 1798-1875. person
associatedWith Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867. person
associatedWith Bache, Albert Dabadie, 1832-1895 person
correspondedWith Bache, Alexander Dallas person
correspondedWith Bacon, Delia Salter, 1811-1859. person
associatedWith Barnes, H. B. (Henry Broughton) person
associatedWith Bishop, Nathan, 1808-1880. person
associatedWith Blackwell family. family
associatedWith BLACKWELL FAMILY family
associatedWith Bond, W. C. (William Cranch), 1789-1859 person
associatedWith Brewster, David, Sir, 1781-1868 person
associatedWith Brewster, Sir David person
associatedWith British Museum corporateBody
associatedWith CAROLINE WELLS HEALEY DALL, 1822-1912 person
associatedWith Centennial Exhibition (Philadelphia, 1876) corporateBody
correspondedWith Century Company corporateBody
associatedWith Chambers, Robert, 1802-1871 person
associatedWith Cheney, T. Apoleon (Theseus Apoleon), 1830-1878 person
associatedWith Clark, Alvan, 1804-1887. person
associatedWith Clark, Alvin. person
associatedWith Clarke, James Freeman, 1810-1888 person
associatedWith Combe, George, 1788-1858 person
associatedWith Cooper, Peter, 1791-1883 person
associatedWith Cope, E. D. (Edward Drinker), 1840-1897. person
associatedWith Cornell, Ezra, 1807-1874 person
associatedWith Dall, Caroline Wells Healey, 1822-1912. person
associatedWith Dana, James Dwight, 1813-1895. person
correspondedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith Dibner, Bern, person
associatedWith Dickins, Asbury, 1780-1861 person
associatedWith Dix, Dorothea Lynde, 1802-1887.600. person
associatedWith Farrar, Charles. person
associatedWith Fessenden, W. P. (William Pitt), 1806-1869 person
associatedWith Folger, Walter, 1765-1849. person
associatedWith Friends' Social Union (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Gould, Benjamin A., (Benjamin Apthorp), 1787-1859 person
associatedWith Gould, Benjamin Apthorp. person
associatedWith Greeley, Horace person
associatedWith Hale, Charles person
associatedWith Hale, Charles, 1831-1882 person
associatedWith Hale, Edward Everett, 1822-1909. person
associatedWith HARRIET GOODHUE HOSMER, 1830-1908 person
associatedWith Hemenway, Amy, collector. person
associatedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878. person
associatedWith Herschel, John F. W. (John Frederick William), Sir, 1792-1871. person
associatedWith Herschel, Lady person
associatedWith Hilgard, Julius Erasmus, 1825-1891 person
associatedWith Hoffleit, Dorrit. person
associatedWith Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue, 1830-1908. person
associatedWith Howe, Julia Ward, 1819-1910. person
associatedWith Humboldt, Alexander von, 1769-1859. person
associatedWith Kendall, Phoebe Mitchell person
associatedWith Kendall, Phoebe Mitchell. person
associatedWith Kendall, William Mitchell. person
associatedWith King, Horatio, 1811-1897 person
associatedWith Larcom, Lucy, 1824-1893. person
associatedWith Lee, Samuel Phillips, 1812-1897 person
associatedWith Leverrier, U. J. J. person
associatedWith Lossing, Benson John, 1813-1891. person
correspondedWith Maury, Matthew F. person
associatedWith Maury, Matthew Fontaine, 1806-1873. person
associatedWith May family. family
associatedWith May family. family
associatedWith MAY-GODDARD FAMILY family
associatedWith Mitchell, William person
associatedWith Mitchell, William, 1791-1869. person
associatedWith Morse, Ann Eliza. person
associatedWith Murray, Joseph Bradley, 1888-1961, person
correspondedWith Newcomb, Simon person
associatedWith New England Women's Club. corporateBody
associatedWith Oles, Carole person
associatedWith Oliver, James Edward, 1829-1895. person
associatedWith Paine, Robert Treat, 1803-1885 person
associatedWith Paine, R. T. person
associatedWith Potter, Alonzo, 1800-1865 person
associatedWith Quetelet, Adolphe, 1796-1874 person
associatedWith Raymond, Cornelia Morse, 1861-1952. person
associatedWith Raymond, John H. (John Howard), 1814-1878. person
associatedWith Redfield, W. C. (William C.), 1789-1857 person
associatedWith Royal Astronomical Society corporateBody
associatedWith Ruggles, Samuel B., (Samuel Bulkley), 1800-1881 person
correspondedWith Russell, Charles P. person
associatedWith Schofield, John McAllister, 1831-1906 person
associatedWith Schumacher, Heinrich Christian, 1780-1850 person
associatedWith Searle, Arthur. person
associatedWith Severance, Caroline M. Seymour (Caroline Maria Seymour), 1820-1914. person
associatedWith Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872 person
associatedWith Somerville, Mary person
associatedWith Sparkes, Jared person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Spencer, Charles Achilles, 1813-1881 person
associatedWith Stevenson, Alan, 1807-1865 person
associatedWith Stevenson, David person
associatedWith Stevenson, David, 1815-1886 person
associatedWith Stevenson, Robert, 1772-1850 person
associatedWith Swan, Cyrus. person
associatedWith Taylor, James Monroe, 1848-1916. person
associatedWith Tilghman, Tench, 1810-1874 person
associatedWith Toucey, Isaac, 1792-1869 person
associatedWith United States Naval Observatory. corporateBody
associatedWith Upsher, Able Percey person
associatedWith Vassar College corporateBody
associatedWith Vassar College. Astronomy Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Vassar College. Astronomy Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Vassar College. Board of Trustees. corporateBody
associatedWith Vassar College. Board of Trustees. corporateBody
associatedWith Vassar College. Observatory. corporateBody
associatedWith Vroom, Peter Dumont, 1791-1873 person
correspondedWith Whitney, Andrew person
associatedWith Whitney, Mary Watson, b. 1847. person
associatedWith Wright, Helen, 1914-1997. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Jupiter (Planet)
Southern States
Southern States
Soviet Union
Rome (Italy)
Jupiter (Planet)
West (U.S.)
Moon
Saturn (Planet)
Rome (Italy)
New York (State)--Poughkeepsie
Europe
West (U.S.)
Moon.
Saturn (Planet)
Study and teaching
Europe
Soviet Union
New York (State)--Poughkeepsie
Subject
Science and technology
Smithsonian Building
Science In America
Geology
Europeans On America
Meteorology--Observations
Comets
United States Coast Survey
Women astronomers
Smithsonian Board Of Regents
Lectures, Popular
Cooper Union
Geological Survey of the State of New Jersey
Exchanges Of Publications
Light House Board
Natural history
Women scientists
Astronomy--Observations
Education
Antebellum Politics
Meteorology
Astronomy--Study and teaching
Scientific organizations
Women's colleges
Americans On Europe
Early National Politics
Smithsonian Publications
Astronomy
Henry, Joseph, Personality, Etc
Astronomers
Smithsonian Institution
Telegraph
Lighthouse
Girard College
Nautical almanacs
Solar eclipses--1831
Scientific publications
Women--Education
National Academy of Sciences
Smithsonian Exchange
Occupation
Women college teachers
Astronomers
Educators
Function

Person

Birth 1818-08-01

Death 1889-06-28

Americans

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6xs62qn

Ark ID: w6xs62qn

SNAC ID: 46845363