Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787

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Thomas Gage, British military officer and last royal governor of Mass., was commander-in-chief in North America, 1763-1773.

From the description of Letters : New York, to Sir Wm. Johnson, 1766-1771. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 37737851

From the description of Letter : New York, to Honorable Lt. Governor Penn, 1766 July 2. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 37737693

From the description of Letter : Montreal, to Monsr. L'anglade, 1763 July 17. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 37723995

Second son of Viscount Gage, born in 1721. Lt. 48 foot regt. 1741; gen. 1782, was with Braddock at Monongahela, 1775; with Abercrombie at Ticonderoga, 1758; with Amherst at Montreal, 1760. From 1760-63 military gov. of Montreal; from 1763-72 commander-in-chief Brit. forces in North America; 1774 gov. of Mass. 1775 commander-in-chief in N. Am., but resigned and returned to England, where he died, Apr. 2, 1789. He married Margaret Kembal (from Dict. Can Biog.) (blue index cards

From the description of Thomas Gage papers, 1763-1761. (Detroit Public Library). WorldCat record id: 379117222

British general and colonial governer in America.

From the description of Letter signed : New York, to Sir William Johnson, 1767 Sept. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269597397

British general and colonial governor in America.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to Col. Bradstreet, 1766 June 9. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269575517

From the description of Letter signed : New York, to Abraham Mortier, 1764 Apr. 18. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269597411

From the description of Document signed : New York, 1769 Jan. 23. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269595436

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to Ensign Hutchins, 1771 June 17. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269575535

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to Governor John Penn, 1766 Feb. 17. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269575540

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to Col. Bradstreet, 1763 Nov. 19. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269575499

Commander-in-chief of British forces in North America (1763-1773, 1775) and last royal governor of Massachusetts (1774-1775).

From the description of Letter, 1775. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 39352895

British soldier who came to America in 1754. Fought in French and Indian War. Commander-in-chief, North America, 1763-1773. Last royal governor of Massachusetts, 1774-1775.

From the description of Letter: New York, to W[illia]m Johnson, 1766 March 17. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 31023873

From the description of Document: New York, 1771 Feb. 9. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 31023715

Governor of Massachusetts and British army officer.

From the description of Thomas Gage letter, 1765. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 701330763

Thomas Gage was commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, based in New York City, from 1763 to 1775, and military governor of Massachusetts from 1774. In October of 1775 he was replaced by General William Howe.

From the description of Thomas Gage collection, 1765-1770. (New-York Historical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 709967005

Thomas Gage was born in Firle, Sussex, England, in 1719 or early 1720, to Thomas Gage, 1st Viscount Gage, and his first wife, Benedicta Hall. At eight he entered the Westminster public school, where he studied until 1736. In 1741, he purchased a commission as lieutenant in Colonel Cholmondely’s Regiment of Foot. He obtained the rank of captain-lieutenant in May 1742, and became captain in January 1743. Gage served as an aide-de-camp to the Earl of Albemarle; he was present at the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 and participated in the Battle of Culloden in 1746. He served in Ireland with the 44th Regiment of Foot, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel on March 2, 1751. In the fall of 1754, his regiment was ordered to America under Major General Edward Braddock as part of an effort to counter the French in the Ohio Valley.

Gage and his regiment departed England in early January 1755 and had landed in Virginia by March. He commanded Braddock’s advance guard in the march toward the forks of the Ohio River, and led the guard during the defeat at Monongahela on July 9. After the battle, Gage applied for the colonelcy of the 44th, which he did not receive. His regiment spent the winter in Albany, and, after months of inactivity, they set out for Oswego on August 12, 1756, on an expedition to inspect troops, examine forts, and build storehouses along the way. Upon receiving word that Oswego had been attacked, Gage's forces demolished the forts between Albany and Oswego, before retreating down the Mohawk and spending the winter in Albany. During the campaign of 1757, Gage traveled with Loudoun’s expedition to attack the French fortress of Louisbourg, but this did not materialize. In December, Gage proposed to Loudoun that a regiment of light infantry specially trained for woodland combat be organized under Gage's command. Loudoun agreed, and formed the 80th Regiment of Light-Armed Foot. Gage set up recruiting headquarters in late December at Brunswick, New Jersey. He reported back to Albany in February 1758 and prepared for the coming campaign. On July 8, 1758, Gage led the light infantry screen in James Abercromby’s failed attack on Ticonderoga, known as the Battle of Carillon. In November, he met with Jeffery Amherst in New York, and there received the news that he had been appointed brigadier general. He continued on to Brunswick and married New Jersey native Margaret Kemble (c.1734--1824) on December 8. They returned to Albany in mid-January 1759, where he took command of Albany and the surrounding forts. Following the siege of Niagara in July, Amherst ordered Gage to take command on Lake Ontario, capture La Galette, and hold that position. Gage refused to take La Galette, focusing instead on strengthening Niagara and Oswego. He was again placed in charge of Albany and its surroundings for the winter of 1759. In 1760, during the final continental campaign, Gage commanded the rearguard in Amherst’s army and, in September, Amherst appointed him military governor of Montréal and its surrounding regions, a post he held until October 1763.

In 1761, Gage was promoted to major-general, and in 1762, he received the colonelcy of the 22nd Regiment. When Amherst was granted leave to return to England, Gage was ordered to New York where, on November 17, 1763, he was offered, and accepted, a temporary appointment as commander-in-chief for North America. He was formally commissioned by the King on November 16, 1764. He held the position for twelve years and maintained his headquarters in New York until moving his headquarters to Boston in 1774. In handling Pontiac’s Rebellion, Gage approved of Amherst’s plan of asking the colonies exposed to Indian attacks to raise 3,500 troops. He also ordered John Bradstreet and Henry Bouquet to move against the Delawares and Shawnees, while William Johnson made peace with Pontiac himself. Political troubles and civil unrest, catalyzed by such legislation as the Sugar and Stamp Acts, necessitated an increase of troops in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. In the summer of 1768, he ordered the abandonment of many forts along the western, northern, and southern perimeter of the British colonies and indicated in June that only a few posts, including Detroit and Ticonderoga, were necessary to maintain the interior. By March 1769, he wanted troops concentrated on the eastern seaboard. On March 5, 1770, tensions boiled over in Boston, when a group of troops fired into a mob of civilians and killed five citizens. Though this conflict, now known as the Boston Massacre, fostered further mistrust between the citizens and the British troops, the event was followed by a period of relative peace (1771-1772). By 1773, however, the Americans resumed revolutionary activities, unhappy with restrictive Parliamentary acts.

Gage sailed to England upon leave of absence in June 1773. During his time in England, he advised King George III that stronger measures would tame the Americans, and in September met with Lord North and Lord Dartmouth to discuss the problem of addressing French settlement in the American West. He and his wife spent time in Bath and made London their home, until his return to America. The cabinet announced his appointment as governor of Massachusetts on April 2, 1774, replacing Thomas Hutchinson. Gage returned to America, arriving in Boston Harbor on May 13. As the situation became more tenuous, he transferred more troops to Boston. On January 27, 1775, the Earl of Dartmouth sent a secret dispatch to Gage ordering him "to arrest and imprison the principal actors & abettors in the Provincial Congress," the leaders of rebellion. He did not receive this letter until mid-April. Early in the morning of April 19, Gage sent a column to Concord, where the Massachusetts Provisional Congress had met and the rebels held known stores of munitions. The following day, British troops skirmished with militia at Lexington and Concord, before being rescued by a larger brigade sent out by Gage early that morning. On June 12, Gage declared martial law and called a council of war. He decided, along with the recently arrived William Howe, Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne, to attack the rebels. The British won the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, but with a heavy loss of almost forty percent of their troops. Gage received orders on September 26 to return as soon as possible to London, and left Boston on October 10, the same day that Howe became the new commander-in-chief.

On April 13, 1781, Gage accepted a position on Amherst’s staff to prepare for the defense of Kent, in case of a possible French invasion. He was made a full general on November 20, 1782. Thomas Gage died in his home in Portland Place, London, on April 2, 1787.

From the guide to the Thomas Gage papers, Gage, Thomas, papers, 1754-1807, 1759-1775, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)

Warrants, though commonly used today with regard to property search and seizure, have historically represented a variety of legal purposes and functions, including payment authorization for civil or military functions. During the second half of the eighteenth century, the British forces in North America used two main types of warrants: subsistence warrants and warrants for extraordinary expenses.

Subsistence warrants were used to disburse Parliament-approved funding for soldiers' pay and rations (including clothing, medical care, and pensions), and were usually created on behalf of individual regiments. As commander-in-chief of His Majesty's forces on the continent, Thomas Gage (1721-1787) controlled disbursement by issuing warrants to the deputy paymaster general in North America, who would then transfer the funds to individual regiments' paymasters. Each warrant was copied in triplicate for use by the warrant issuer, the War Office in London, and the recipient of the relevant funds.

Warrants for extraordinary expenses covered other expenditures incurred by the army, including frontier expeditions, building costs for fortifications or barracks, transportation, and payments to local Native American tribes. Because these funds were approved by Parliament after they had been spent, they were first issued by the Paymaster General in London through various private (civilian) merchants. These middlemen would directly pay the contractors supplying the necessary equipment or labor, submitting the receipts to Gage. Gage would then issue a warrant for the relevant amount, sending the original to London and retaining a copy for his own records.

Various other financial documents, including vouchers, receipts, and accounts, were also generated during these processes, which relied more heavily on the issuing of credit than on actual monetary transactions.

From the guide to the Thomas Gage warrants, Gage, Thomas warrants, 1763-1775, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Thomas Gage papers, 1754-1807, bulk 1759-1775. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letter signed : New York, to Sir William Johnson, 1767 Sept. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Thomas Gage papers, Gage, Thomas, papers, 1754-1807, 1759-1775 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Steuart, James, Sir, 1712-1780. James Steuart Denham papers, 1775-1778. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Account book and ledger of British Army in America, 1759-1760 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Thomas Gage letter, 1765. Library of Congress
creatorOf Rogers, Robert, 1731-1795. Robert Rogers papers, 1760-1843. Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Autograph letter signed : New York, to Col. Bradstreet, 1763 Nov. 19. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Samuel Finley Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition, Finley, Samuel, Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition, 1764, 1846-1849, 1764 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Pryor, John Edward, d. ca. 1768. Account books, 1759-1772. New-York Historical Society
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. [Letter] 1769 March 27 New York to Ensign Huthins. Indiana Historical Society Library
referencedIn Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774. Papers, 1733-1808. American Periodical Series I
creatorOf Hancock family. Papers III, 1747-1865. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn George Sackville Germain papers, Germain, George Sackville papers, 1683-1785 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774. Sir William Johnson letters [manuscript copy], 1761-1772. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn William Petty, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne papers, Shelburne, William Petty, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of, papers, 1665-1885 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Colden, Cadwallader, 1688-1776. Cadwallader Colden Papers, 1677-1832 (bulk 1711-1775). Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Pope, Richard,. Journal of an officer of the 47th Regiment of Foot, after 1783. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Clarence Edwin Carter Papers, 1761-1961, (bulk 1925-1956) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Hill, William H. Collection, 1755-1800. American Periodical Series I
creatorOf Hutchinson, Thomas, 1711-1780. Transcripts, 1741-1773. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Gamble, Thomas, Letter, 1772 University of West Florida Libraries
referencedIn Wharton, Samuel, 1732-1800. Letter : New York, [N.Y.], to [John Baynton and George Morgan, Philadelphia, Pa.], 1765 Mar. 19. Newberry Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letter, 1764 April 4, New York, N.Y., to Col. John Bradstreet. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Hancock, John, 1737-1793. AM, 1775 August 11 : Cambridge, [MA]. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letter : New York, to Honorable Lt. Governor Penn, 1766 July 2. Newberry Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Autograph letter signed : New York, to Ensign Hutchins, 1771 June 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Autograph File, G, 1641-1991. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Robert Rogers papers., 1760-1843. Minnesota Historical Society.
referencedIn Bradstreet, John, 1711-1774. Papers, 1754-1782. American Antiquarian Society
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. ALS, 1764 December 25, New York, to Colonel [John] Bradstreet. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn B.F. Stevens & Brown, Ltd. Penobscot Expedition papers, 1717-1902. Maine Historical Society Library
referencedIn Shippen, Joseph, 1732-1810. Papers of Joseph Shippen, 1727-1783. Library of Congress
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Thomas Gage collection, 1765-1770. New-York Historical Society Library
referencedIn Chalmers, George, 1742-1825. George Chalmers collection,1641-1825 [microform]. Memorial University/Newfoundland, Elizabeth II
creatorOf Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774. Sir William Johnson letters, 1755-1773. Newberry Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Certificate directed to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, 7 July 1775. Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letter, 1765. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Document signed : New York, 1769 Jan. 23. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Portrait file: Guide. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Charles Townshend papers, Townshend, Charles papers, 1660-1804, 1748-1767 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Mackenzie, Frederick, d. 1824. Frederick Mackenzie papers, 1760-1783. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Edwards Brothers, inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. Edwards American Revolution lithoprinted facsimiles, 1945. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Autograph letter signed : New York, to Governor John Penn, 1766 Feb. 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Great Britain. Secretary of State. A List of Offices in the North American and West Indian Colonies, 1775 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Massachusetts. Council. Transcripts of letters concerning the Governor's Council, 1774-1776. Commonwealth of Massachusetts State Archives
referencedIn Carter, Clarence Edwin, 1881-1961. Clarence Edwin Carter papers, 1761-1961 (bulk 1925-1956). Library of Congress
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referencedIn Wheildon, William W. (William Willder), 1805-1892. William Willder Wheildon papers, 1838-1889. Concord Free Public Library, Special Collection
creatorOf Great Britain. Army. British headquarters papers, 1775-1783. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Clinton, Henry, Sir, 1738?-1795. Henry Clinton papers, 1736-1850. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Washington Irving's Life of George Washington, Volume III, Miscellany, 1756-1807. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Autograph letter signed : New York, to Col. Bradstreet, 1766 June 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Dorchester, Guy Carleton, Baron, 1724-1808. Papers of Guy Carleton, Baron Dorchester, 1774-1777. Library of Congress
referencedIn Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, 1732-1809. Correspondence, 1771-1778. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library
referencedIn Romans, Bernard, 1741?-ca. 1784. A map of part of West Florida done under the direction of the honourable John Stuart esqr: & by him humbly inscribed to his excellency Thomas Gage esquire general and commander in chief of all his majesty's forces in North-America / survey'd & drawn by Bernard Romans beteen the month of June 1772 & January 1773. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Sawhill, John Alexander, 1892-1976. John A. Sawhill collection, 1756, 1775, 1779, 1796, 1798, 1815, 1848. James Madison University Libraries
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Document: New York, 1771 Feb. 9. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
creatorOf Amherst, Jeffery Amherst, Baron, 1717-1797. Jeffery Amherst papers, 1758-1764. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letter, 1775. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn U.S. History mss., 1612-1977 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Edwards, Ogden, 1781-1862. Papers of Ogden Edwards, 1753-1876. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn DePeyster family. Papers, 1706-1816. American Periodical Series I
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. [Letter] 1769 Feb. 6, New York [to] Bradstreet / Tho. Gage. Smith College, Neilson Library
creatorOf William L. Clements Library. William Petty, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne papers, 1665-1885. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
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referencedIn Bouquet, Henry, 1719-1765. Bouquet's Expedition against the Indians, 1764. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Great Britain. Army. Account book and ledger of British Army in America, 1759-1760. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Forbes, John, 1707-1759. Papers of John Forbes [manuscript], 1755-1759. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letters : New York, to Sir Wm. Johnson, 1766-1771. Newberry Library
referencedIn Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians, 1764 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Norwich Committee of Correspondence. Norwich Committee of Correspondence records, 1775. New London County Historical Society
creatorOf Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787. Letter, 1772 Nov. 30, New York, N.Y., to Sir William Johnson. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Vernon, Edward, 1684-1757. Vernon-Wager papers, 1654-1773. Library of Congress
creatorOf Canavan, M. J. (Michael Joseph). M. J. Canavan collection, 20th century. Lexington Historical Society
referencedIn Deming, Sarah Winslow, 1722-1788. Sarah Winslow Deming journal, 1775. Massachusetts Historical Society
creatorOf Croghan, George, d. 1782. George Croghan letters, 1763-1770. Newberry Library
creatorOf Grew family. Grew Family Papers, 1767-1904; bulk=1815-1866. Peabody Essex Museum
referencedIn Chandler, Thomas Bradbury, 1726-1790. A proposal : AD (draft), 1775 Apr. 27, Elizabeth, N.J. Rosenbach Museum & Library
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referencedIn Records of the British garrison of Gibraltar, with copies of the accounts of the siege of Gibraltar and the battle of Bunker Hill, 1783, not before. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Gay, Frederick Lewis, 1856-1916. Transcripts, 1632-1786. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Gates, Horatio, 1728-1806. American Revolution collection : military matters, 18th-20th centuries. Lexington Historical Society
referencedIn Conway, Henry Seymour, 1721-1795. Diplomatic correspondence, 17. Yale University, Lewis Walpole Library
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referencedIn Jared Sparks collection of documents concerning the American Revolution, 1740-1866 . Houghton Library.
referencedIn James Steuart Denham papers, Denham, James Steuart papers, 1775-1778 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
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referencedIn Washington Irving's Life of George Washington, Volume I, Miscellany, 1745-1856. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Native American History collection, 1689-1921 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
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referencedIn George Washington collection, Washington, George, 1758-1799 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
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referencedIn Rosengarten, J. G. (Joseph George), 1835-1921. The German allied troops in the North American war of independence, and related materials, ca. 1767-1893. University of Pennsylvania Library
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creatorOf Adams, John, 1735-1826. Massachusetts papers, 1749-1777 Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Skene, Philip Wharton, 1725-1810. Papers, 1765-1789. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Chalmers, George, 1742-1825. George Chalmers collection, 1640-1825. Library of Congress
creatorOf Calef, John, 1725-1812. John Calef memorials and petitions, 1766-1782. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
creatorOf Thomas Gage warrants, Gage, Thomas warrants, 1763-1775 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Cooper, Samuel, 1725-1783. Diary and miscellaneous accounts of Samuel Cooper, 1775, Apr. 10 -- Sept. 23. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn British headquarters papers, 1775-1783 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
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referencedIn Baldwin, Loammi, 1740-1807. Letters, 1775-1789. Brown University, John Hay Library
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referencedIn Walsh, Ralph, Papers, 1766 University of West Florida Libraries
referencedIn Frederick Mackenzie papers, Mackenzie, Frederick papers, 1760-1783 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Sackville, George Germain, Viscount, 1716-1785. George Sackville Germain papers, 1683-1785. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Jeffery Amherst papers, Amherst, Jeffery papers, 1758-1764 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
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referencedIn John Calef memorials and petitions, Calef, John, memorials and petitions, 1766-1782 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf William L. Clements Library. Native American History collection, 1689-1921. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Great Britain. Army. American forces. Orderly book, 1774. New-York Historical Society
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associatedWith Ellis, Welbore, 1st baron Mendip, 1713-1802 person
associatedWith Emmett collection corporateBody
associatedWith Etherington, G. (George), 1722 or 3-1802. person
associatedWith Farmar, Robert, 1717-1778. person
associatedWith Farquhar, William, d. 1759 person
associatedWith Finley, Samuel person
associatedWith Five Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith Forbes, John, 1707-1759. person
associatedWith Ford collection corporateBody
associatedWith Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.) corporateBody
associatedWith Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 person
associatedWith Franklin, William, 1731-1813. person
associatedWith Fraser, Alexander, 1735-1798. person
associatedWith Furnis, James. person
associatedWith Gamble, Thomas person
associatedWith Gaspée (Schooner) corporateBody
associatedWith Gay, Frederick Lewis, 1856-1916. person
associatedWith Germaine, George Sackville, 1st viscount Sackville, 1716-1785 person
associatedWith Gladwin, Henry, 1729-1791. person
associatedWith Gould Morgan, Sir Charles, 1726-1806 person
associatedWith Grant, James, 1720-1806. person
associatedWith Great Britain. Army. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Army. 18th Regiment. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Army. American forces. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Board of Trade. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Customs. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Ordnance. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Privy Council. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Royal Navy. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Treasury. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Treaties, etc. Six Nations, 1768 Nov. 5. corporateBody
associatedWith Grew family. family
associatedWith Haldimand, Frederick, Sir, 1718-1791. person
associatedWith Halifax, George Montagu-Dunk, Earl of, 1716-1771. person
associatedWith Hamilton, Otho, 1690?-1770. person
associatedWith Hancock family. family
associatedWith Hancock, John, 1737-1793. person
associatedWith Hancock, Thomas, 1703-1764. person
associatedWith Harris, Robert. person
associatedWith Haviland, William, 1718-1784 person
associatedWith Hay, John, 1733-1810 person
associatedWith Hillsborough, Wills Hill, 1st marquis of Downshire, 1st earl of, 1718-1793 person
associatedWith Hill, William H. person
associatedWith Hooker, Roger, 1751-1830. person
associatedWith Howe, Richard Howe, Earl, 1726-1799 person
associatedWith Howe, William Howe, Viscount, 1729-1814. person
associatedWith Hutchins, Ensign, person
associatedWith Hutchinson, Thomas, 1711-1780. person
associatedWith Johnson, Guy, ca. 1740-1788. person
associatedWith Johnson Hall (Johnstown, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774. person
associatedWith Johnstone, George, 1730-1787. person
associatedWith Joncaire-Chabert, Daniel de. person
associatedWith Lansdowne, William Petty, Marquis of, 1737-1805. person
associatedWith Legge, Francis, 1719-1783 person
associatedWith Leybourne, William, d. 1775 person
associatedWith Loftus, Arthur, Major 22nd Regiment. person
associatedWith Loring, Joshua, 1716-1781. person
associatedWith Loudoun, John Campbell, Earl of, 1705-1782. person
associatedWith Mackenzie, Frederick, d. 1824. person
associatedWith Massachusetts. Council. corporateBody
associatedWith Massachusetts. Provincial Congress. corporateBody
associatedWith Maturin, Gabriel. person
associatedWith Maturin, Gabriel, d. 1774 person
associatedWith McEvers, Charles. person
associatedWith Melville, Robert, 1723-1809 person
associatedWith Mendip, Welbore Ellis, Baron, 1713-1802. person
associatedWith Monckton, Robert, 1726-1782. person
associatedWith Morris, Samuel person
associatedWith Mortier, Abraham, d. 1769, person
correspondedWith Mouet de Langlade, Charles-Michel, ca. 1729-1801 person
associatedWith Murray, James, 1721-1794. person
associatedWith Newberry Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Norwich Committee of Correspondence. corporateBody
associatedWith O'Reilly, Alejandro, 1725-1794 person
associatedWith Otis, James, 1725-1783 person
associatedWith Patterson, Gov. Walter, d. 1798 person
associatedWith Penn, John, 1729-1795. person
associatedWith Penn, Richard, 1735-1811 person
associatedWith Penn, Richard, ca. 1736-1811. person
associatedWith Pigot, Sir Robert, 2nd bart., 1720-1796 person
associatedWith Pontiac, Ottawa Chief, d. 1769. person
associatedWith Prevost, Augustine, 1725-1786 person
associatedWith Prévost, Augustine, ca. 1725-1786. person
associatedWith Pryor, John Edward, d. ca. 1768. person
associatedWith Putnam, Israel, 1718-1790 person
associatedWith Ramsay, John, of New York. person
associatedWith Revere, Paul, 1735-1818 person
associatedWith Richmond and Lennox, Charles Lennox, Duke of, 1735-1806. person
associatedWith Robertson, James, 1717-1788. person
associatedWith Robertson, James, 1720? -1788 person
associatedWith Rogers, Robert, 1731-1795. person
associatedWith Romans, Bernard, 1741?-ca. 1784. person
associatedWith Rosengarten, J. G. (Joseph George), 1835-1921. person
associatedWith Sackville, George Germain, Viscount, 1716-1785. person
associatedWith Sawhill, John Alexander, 1892-1976. person
associatedWith Schuyler, Philip John, 1733-1804. person
associatedWith Sharpe, Horatio, 1718-1790. person
associatedWith Shelburne, William Petty, Earl of, 1737-1805 person
associatedWith Shippen, Edward, 1703-1781 person
associatedWith Shippen, Joseph, 1732-1810. person
associatedWith Six Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith Skene, Philip Wharton, 1725-1810. person
associatedWith Sons of Liberty. corporateBody
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Stephenson Capt. person
associatedWith Steuart, James, Sir, 1712-1780. person
associatedWith Stuart, Charles, Sir, 1753-1801 person
associatedWith Stuart, John, 1718-1779. person
associatedWith Townshend, Charles, 1725-1767 person
associatedWith Townshend, George Townshend, Marquis, 1724-1807. person
associatedWith Trumbull, Jonathan, 1710-1785 person
associatedWith Tryon, William, 1729-1788. person
associatedWith Ulloa, Antonio de, 1716-1795 person
associatedWith United States. Continental Congress. corporateBody
correspondedWith Vernon, Edward, 1684-1757. person
associatedWith Waller, John, Lieutenant. person
associatedWith Walsh, Ralph person
associatedWith Warren, James, 1726-1808 person
associatedWith Warren, Joseph, 1741-1775 person
associatedWith Washington, George, 1732-1799. person
associatedWith Wentworth, John, 1737-1820. person
associatedWith Wharton, Samuel, 1732-1800. person
associatedWith Whately, Thomas, d. 1772 person
associatedWith Wheildon, William W. (William Willder), 1805-1892. person
associatedWith Wilkins, John, 1761-1816. person
associatedWith William L. Clements Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Williamson, George, 1704-1781 person
associatedWith Wilmot, Montague, d. 1766 person
associatedWith Woods, Lawrence C., Jr., 1900-1990. person
associatedWith Wright, James, Sir, 1716-1785. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Redstone Creek (Pa.)
Falkland Islands
Fort Johnson (N.Y.)
Newfoundland and Labrador.
Canada
Northwest, Old
Bermuda Islands.
United States
Pennsylvania
Erie, Lake.
Fort Edward (N.Y.)
Charleston (S.C.)
Old Fort Niagara (N.Y.)
Michigan
Great Britain
New York (State)
Ohio River.
West Indies
Great Britain
Cambridge (Mass.)
Québec (Québec)
Fort Stanwix (Rome, N.Y.)
Huron, Lake.
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
Crown Point (N.Y.)
Oswegatchie River (N.Y.)
Québec--Montréal
Fort de Chartres (Ill.)
Fort Ninety-six (S.C.)
George, Lake.
Great Britain
Massachusetts
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Fort Pitt (Pa.)
Barbados.
Fort Amherst (St. John's, N.L.)
Ile aux Noix (Québec)
Great Britain
Greenwich (London, England)
Rhode Island
Mississippi River.
Fort Charlotte (S.C.)
Fort Saint Joseph (Mich.)
Albany (N.Y.)
Fort Ticonderoga (N.Y.)
Halifax (N.S.)
Montréal (Québec)
Sandusky River (Ohio)
Fort Cumberland (N.B.)
America
Fort Butte La Rose (La.)
Fort Duquesne (Pa.)
Georgia.
Kaskaskia (Ill.)
Boston (Mass.)
Randolph County (Ill.)
North Carolina
Detroit (Mich.)
Maurepas, Lake.
America
Michigan, Lake.
United States
Georgia
Illinois
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
Florida
United States
Castle Island (Mass.)
Boston (Mass.)
St. John's (N.L.)
Montréal (Québec)
West Indies
Whitehall (London, England)
Connecticut.
Maryland.
New York (State)
Fort Frederick (Me.)
Fort Ontario (N.Y.)
Pennsylvania
Canada
Cheat River (W. Va. and Pa.)
Redstone (Pa.)
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Charlestown (Boston, Mass.)
West Florida.
Northwest, Old
United States
Annapolis Royal (N.S.)
Fort Charlotte (Mobile, Ala.)
Burlington (N.J.)
United States
Apalachicola Bay (Fla.)
Perth Amboy (N.J.)
Augusta (Ga.)
Massachusetts
Bahamas.
United States
Great Lakes (North America)
Louisbourg (N.S.)
New York (N.Y.)
America
Acadia.
Hispaniola
Fort Detroit (Mich.)
Fort Pitt (Pa.)
Fort Erie (Ont.)
New Jersey
Niagara Frontier (N.Y.)
Illinois Territory.
Nova Scotia.
United States
Jamaica.
South Carolina
Illinois
Apalachee Bay (Fla.)
Fort Cumberland (Cumberland, Md.)
Champlain, Lake.
Placentia Bay (N.L.)
Savannah (Ga.)
United States
Fort Chambly (Chambly, Québec)
New Orleans (La.)
Superior, Lake.
East Florida.
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Canada
Mobile (Ala.)
Saint Vincent Island (Fla.)
United States
Fort Albany (N.Y.)
United States
Great Britain
Fort Constitution (N.H.)
Trois-Rivières (Québec)
Spain
New York (State)
Fort Oswego (Oswego, N.Y.)
Virginia
New York (State)
New York (State)
New York (State)
America
Fort Frederica (Ga.)
Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City, Mich.)
Great Britain
New York (State)--New York
Fort Detroit (Detroit, Mich.)
Ontario, Lake.
Manchac, Bayou (La.)
Oneida, Lake.
Pensacola (Fla.)
Subject
Ticonderoga, Battle of, N.Y., 1758
Indians of North America--Arkansas
French,
Seneca Indians--Government relations
Concord, Battle of, Concord, Mass., 1775
Stamp act, 1765
Onondaga Indians
Cherokee Indians
Carib Indians
Pontiac's Conspiracy, 1763-1765
Copper mines and mining--Superior, Lake, Region
Indians of North America
Military supplies
Indians of North America--Government relations--to 1789
Chickasaw Indians
Manuscripts--English
Indigenous peoples--Great Britain--Colonies
Choctaw Indians
Pontiac's Conspiracy, 1763-1765--Sources
Seneca Indians
Gage Maps
Potawatomi Indians--History--18th century--Sources
Indians of North America--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Chippewa Indians
Delaware Indians
Maps, Manuscript
British
Mohawk Indians
Wyandot Indians
Ojibwa Indians
Governors--History--18th century
Shawnee Indians--History--18th century--Sources
Creek Indians
Miami Indians
Lexington, Battle of, Lexington, Mass., 1775
Boston Massacre, 1770
Iroquois Indians
Mingo Indians
Boston Port Bill, 1774
Ottawa Indians
Bunker Hill, Battle of, Boston, Mass., 1775
Fortification--History
Requisitions, Military
Kickapoo Indians
American loyalists
Indians of North America--Government relations
Ottawa Indians--History--18th century--Sources
Minutemen (Militia)
Scalping
Shawnee Indians
Potawatomi Indians
Oneida Indians
Indians of North America--Government relations--18th century--Sources
Slave trade--America--History
Kaskaskia Indians
Boston Tea Party, 1773
Occupation
Governors
Soldiers
Governor--Massachusetts
Army officers, British
Function

Person

Birth 1721

Death 1787-04-02

Britons

English

Information

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