Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss, 1816-1894

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Born in Waltham, Mass., Nathaniel Prentiss Banks worked as a child laborer in a cotton mill and as a mechanic before studying law. He served in the Massachusetts State House of Representatives and was elected to the U.S. Congress as a Democrat in 1853. Reelected as a Republican in 1856, Banks resigned his seat in 1857 and served as governor of Massachusetts from 1858-1861. In the Civil War he was given command in the Department of the Shenandoah, where he was defeated by Stonewall Jackson at Front Royal and Winchester and then at Cedar Mt. during the second battle of Bull Run. In late 1862, Banks replaced Benjamin F. Butler at New Orleans and cooperated with Grant in opening up the Mississippi by capturing Port Hudson in July of 1863 and in participating in the Red River expedition of 1864. After the war he served several terms as a Republican representative of Massachusetts in the U.S. Congress.

From the description of Orders of General Nathaniel Banks, 1864 July. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat record id: 219644679

American politician and soldier who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861-1865).

From the description of Autograph, 1856. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 367575332

Nathaniel P. Banks, congressman, governor of Massachusetts, and Union soldier, was born in Waltham, Massachusetts. In spite of his informal education, he was admitted to the bar at the age of 23. Banks married Mary I. Palmer in 1847. He was elected as a state representative in 1849 and made speaker of the House. He was elected to Congress in 1853 and was governor of Massachusetts from 1858-1860. One year later he was commissioned Major General of volunteers in the Union army. Banks was involved in several major battles including those at Front Royal, Winchester, Cedar Mountain, and Port Hudson. He led some 20,000 Federal troops in the Red River campaign. Following the war, Banks was immediately elected to fill a vacancy in the U. S. House of Representatives, where he served until 1872. He briefly served in the Massachusetts Senate (1874) but soon returned to Congress where he remained until 1879, at which time he was appointed U. S. marshal for Massachusetts (1879-1888). Banks was again elected to Congress, however, he retired before the end of his term due to ill health. He died in 1894 and was survived by a son and two daughters.

From the description of Nathaniel P. Banks letterpress copybook, 1863 Aug. 1-1864 Feb. 18. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122655671

American politician and general

From the guide to the Nathaniel Prentiss Banks letters, 1854, 1856, 1865, 1865, 1873, undated, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Nathaniel P. Banks was a congressman, governor of Massachusetts, and general in the Federal Army during the Civil War. Banks commanded the Department of the Gulf and participated in battles including Front Royal, Winchester, Cedar Mountain, Port Hudson, and Baton Rouge.

From the description of Nathaniel Prentiss Banks letter, 1866 June 19. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122418494

U.S. representative (1853-1857), governor of Massachusetts (1858-1860), and General serving with U.S. Army during Civil War, of Waltham, Mass.

From the description of General Nathaniel P. Banks collection, [18--]-[19--]. (Waltham Public Library). WorldCat record id: 70970223

Union officer and U.S. Representative, of Waltham, Mass.

From the description of Papers, 1850-1880. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 19106172

Born in Waltham, Mass., Nathaniel Prentiss Banks worked as a child laborer in a cotton mill and as a mechanic before studying law. He served in the Massachusetts State House of Representatives and was elected to the U.S. Congress as a Democrat in 1853. Reelected as a Republican in 1856, Banks resigned his seat in 1857 and served as governor of Massachusetts from 1858-1861. In the Civil War he was given command in the Dept. of the Shenandoah, where he was defeated by Stonewall Jackson at Front Royal and Winchester and then at Cedar Mt. during the second battle of Bull Run. In late 1862, Banks replaced Benjamin F. Butler at New Orleans and cooperated with Grant in opening up the Mississippi by capturing Port Hudson in July, 1863, and in participating in the Red River expedition of 1864. After the war he served several terms as a Republican representative of Massachusetts in the U.S. Congress.

From the description of General orders no. 122, 1864 Sept. 7. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat record id: 226233096

From the description of General orders no. 105, 1864 Aug. 1. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat record id: 214325604

Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (1816-1894) was a Massachusetts politician and Union general, whose career in public life spanned the period 1849 to 1891. He served several terms in the Massachusetts General Court (1849-1853; 1874), in the U.S. House of Representatives (1853-1857; 1865-1873; 1875-1879; 1889-1891), and as Governor of Massachusetts (1858-1861). His tempestuaous career as a Union general was highlighted by his capture of Port Hudson in 1863. Banks also served as a U.S. Marshall in Massachusetts from 1879 to 1888. He had attended the common schools in his hometown of Waltham, Mass., was trained as a machinist and lawyer, and was proprietor of the _Middlesex Reporter_. He also served as an inspector in the Boston customhouse and was a candidate seven times before his election to the Massachusetts House and the national House, and was regarded as a politician of tact and integrity.

From the description of Correspondence, c. 1852-1885. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 191259142

Army officer, governor of Massachusetts, speaker of U.S. House of representatives.

From the description of Papers, 1840-1860 [microform] : from the collections of the Illinois State Historical Library. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 25980991

Massachusetts state representative (1849-1852); Congressman (1853-1857, 1865-1873, 1875-1879, 1889-1891); Governor (1858-1860); Major General of Volunteers, Union Army (1861-1865); United States Marshal for Massachusetts (1879-1888).

From the description of Papers, 1840-1896. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 608337211

U.S. representative and governor of Massachusetts; and army officer.

From the description of Nathaniel Prentiss Banks papers, 1829-1911 (bulk 1860-1880). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71068668

Massachusetts state legislator and U.S. representative, U.S. Army general during the Civil War, leader of Red River Expedition (1864); resident of Waltham, Mass.

From the description of Nathaniel Prentiss Banks correspondence, 1863 and undated. (Maine Historical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 285455597

Biographical Note

  • 1816, Jan. 30: Born, Waltham, Mass.
  • 1839: Admitted to the Massachusetts bar
  • 1848: Married Mary Theodosia Palmer
  • 1849 - 1852 : Member, Massachusetts house of representatives; speaker of the house, 1851-1852
  • 1853: President, Massachusetts Constitutional Convention
  • 1853 - 1857 : Representative from Massachusetts, United States Congress; speaker of the House of Representatives, 1856-1857
  • 1858 - 1860 : Governor of Massachusetts
  • 1861: Managing director, Illinois Central Railroad Appointed major general of Volunteers by President Abraham Lincoln
  • 1865 - 1873 : Representative from Massachusetts, United States Congress; chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs
  • 1873 - 1874 : Member, Massachusetts senate
  • 1875 - 1879 : Representative from Massachusetts, United States Congress
  • 1879 - 1888 : United States Marshal, Boston District, Boston, Mass.
  • 1889 - 1891 : Representative from Massachusetts, United States Congress
  • 1894, Sept. 1: Died, Waltham, Mass.

From the guide to the Nathaniel Prentiss Banks Papers, 1829-1911, (bulk 1860-1880), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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referencedIn Brenner, Ernest W. Letter: to N. P. Banks /by Ernest W. Brenner [1869?]. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Spencer, Elizabeth, 1830-fl. 1870. Correspondence, 1861-1862. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
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referencedIn Rosenstock autograph collection, 1800-1950 L. Tom Perry Special Collections20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
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creatorOf Haskell, Clinton H. Clinton H. Haskell Civil War collection, 1841-1895. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
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referencedIn Clinton H. Haskell Civil War collection, Haskell, Clinton H., Civil War collection, 1841-1895 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn United States. General Land Office. A communication to the Hon. N.P. Banks, Chairman, Com. on Foreign Relations, House of Reps., from the Commissioner of the Gen. Land Office relative to the recent purchase from Russia by treaty of 30 March 1867, 1868 May 12. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss, 1816-1894. Papers, 1857-1890. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Cottle, Edmund. Letters, 1862-1863. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
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referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Abraham Lincoln Papers, 1774-1948 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
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referencedIn Babcock, Willoughby, 1832-1864. Willoughby Babcock and family papers, 1836-1963. Minnesota Historical Society Library
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referencedIn Thorne, Emma S. G. Emma S.G. Thorne autograph letter signed, 1863 Dec. 12. Maine Historical Society Library
referencedIn B. A. G. Fuller autograph collection, 1620-1920. Houghton Library.
referencedIn William Warland Clapp correspondence, 1790-1891 (inclusive), 1840-1891 (bulk). Houghton Library.
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creatorOf Nathaniel Prentiss Banks letters, 1854, 1856, 1865, 1865, 1873, undated New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Edes, Edward Louis, 1845-1864. Letters, 1861-1865. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Military Operations in Texas Collection 81-171., 1862-1864 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Woodward, Ashbel, 1804-1885. Ashbel Woodward biography collection, undated. Connecticut Historical Society
creatorOf Pope, John, 1822-1892. Colonel John S. Clark, testimonials & letters of recommendation. Allen County Public Library, ACPL
referencedIn Whiting Griswold Correspondence, 1843-1874 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
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referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part III: The Civil War: The Union, 1804-1915. Houghton Library.
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referencedIn Thompson, Gilbert, 1839-1909. Gilbert Thompson journal, 1857-1901. Library of Congress
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referencedIn Brown, John. John Brown letters, 1862-1863. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
creatorOf Augur, Christopher Columbus, 1821-1898. Papers, 1847-1887 (bulk 1861-1887). Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Additional letters from various correspondents, 1849-1931. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Kintner, Jacob C., 1838-1886. Kintner, Jacob C. 1838-1886 1857-1886 Papers. The Filson Historical Society
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referencedIn Holabird, Samuel Beckley, 1826-1907. S. B. Holabird and earlier family papers, ca. 1760-1905 (bulk 1846-1884). Chicago History Museum
referencedIn Letters from occupied New Orleans, 1862-1863. Tulane University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library
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referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Smith, William Farrar, 1824-1903. Report of Special Commission, 1865. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Scott, Winfield, 1786-1866. Winfield Scott letter, 1863 Jan. 1. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
correspondedWith Abert, J. W. (James William), 1820-1897. person
associatedWith Adams, Henry Sylvanus, 1842-1883. person
correspondedWith Allen, S. M. person
associatedWith American Party. corporateBody
associatedWith Ashmun, George, 1804-1870. person
associatedWith Augur, Christopher Columbus, 1821-1898. person
associatedWith Aylesworth, Barton O. (Barton Orville), 1860-1933 person
associatedWith Babcock, Willoughby, 1832-1864. person
associatedWith Baker, E. Jarvis. person
associatedWith Banks family. family
correspondedWith Banks, Mary Theodosia Palmer person
associatedWith Barry, William F. (William Farquhar), 1818-1879. person
associatedWith Barton, William Eleazar, 1861-1930, person
associatedWith B., Charles F. person
associatedWith Beall, Joseph S. person
associatedWith Beebe, William S. person
associatedWith Belcher, F. A. (Francis A.) person
associatedWith Benjamin, Park, 1809-1864. person
associatedWith Benjamin, Park, 1849-1922 person
correspondedWith Bennett, James Gordon, 1795-1872. person
correspondedWith Bigelow, John, 1817-1911 person
correspondedWith Bird, F. W. (Francis William), 1809-1894 person
correspondedWith Blaine, James Gillespie, 1830-1893 person
associatedWith Blair, Montgomery, 1813-1883. person
associatedWith Boothby, Charles W., b. 1837. person
associatedWith Boutwell, George S. (George Sewall), 1818-1905. person
associatedWith Bowles, Samuel, 1826-1878. person
associatedWith Brenner, Ernest W. person
associatedWith Brien, James O., Colonel. person
associatedWith Brown, John. person
correspondedWith Burlingame, Anson, 1820-1870 person
associatedWith Butler, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1818-1893. person
associatedWith Butler-Gunsaulus Collection (University of Chicago. Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Carr, Edwin, 1840-1862. person
associatedWith Carter, Robert, 1819-1879 person
associatedWith Cary, Richard, 1836-1862. person
correspondedWith Chandler, Zachariah, 1813-1879. person
associatedWith Clapp, William Warland, 1826-1891 person
associatedWith Cottle, Edmund. person
associatedWith Davenport, Edwin, 1839-1863. person
associatedWith Dawes, Elizabeth F., collector. person
correspondedWith Day, Horace H., 1813-1878 person
associatedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876, person
correspondedWith Dix, Dorothea Lynde, 1802-1887 person
correspondedWith Donnell, M. S. O. person
associatedWith Drake, George Bernard, 1838-1921. person
associatedWith Eastman, William H., 1839-1912. person
associatedWith Eaton, Adnah, b. 1833. person
associatedWith Edes, Edward Louis, 1845-1864. person
associatedWith ELLIS GRAY LORING FAMILY family
correspondedWith Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1803-1882 person
associatedWith Farragut, David Glasgow, 1801-1870. person
associatedWith Fearing, Hawkes, 1826-1908. person
associatedWith Flanders, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin), 1816-1896. person
correspondedWith Forbes, John Murray, 1813-1898 person
associatedWith Frémont, Jessie Benton, 1824-1902. person
associatedWith Frémont, John Charles, 1813-1890. person
correspondedWith French and American Claims Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith French, Benjamin B. (Benjamin Brown), 1800-1870. person
associatedWith Fuller, B. A. G. (Benjamin Apthorp Gould), 1879-1956 person
associatedWith Fulton, Charles Carroll. person
associatedWith Gaudin, Edward. person
correspondedWith Gist, William Henry, 1807-1874. person
associatedWith Goodwin family. family
associatedWith Gordon, George H. (George Henry), 1825?-1886. person
associatedWith Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. person
correspondedWith Griswold, Whiting, 1814-1874. person
associatedWith Halleck, H. W. (Henry Wager), 1815-1872. person
associatedWith Hamrick, Solomon Simpson, 1830-1863. person
associatedWith Haskell, Clinton H. person
associatedWith Haskell, Clinton H. person
associatedWith Hatch, John Porter, 1822-1901. person
associatedWith Hawes, Josiah Johnson, 1808-1901, person
correspondedWith Hay, John, 1838-1905 person
associatedWith Hemenway, Amy, collector. person
associatedWith Henshaw, Samuel, 1852-1941 person
associatedWith Herron, Francis Jay, 1837-1902. person
associatedWith Holabird, Samuel Beckley, 1826-1907. person
associatedWith Hooper, Samuel, 1808-1875 person
associatedWith Hope (Ship). corporateBody
correspondedWith Howe family. family
associatedWith Hoyt, Stephen. person
associatedWith Hugg, Joseph. person
associatedWith Hunton, Hamilton Morris, 1908- person
associatedWith Hyer, Frances C. person
associatedWith Ives, Captain, person
associatedWith Jackson, Stonewall, 1824-1863. person
associatedWith Jerrard, Simon G. person
associatedWith Jewett, Thomas E., b. 1837? person
associatedWith Jocknick, Gustavus F., b. 1817. person
associatedWith Johnson, Jarvis J. person
associatedWith Kelton, J. C. (John Cunningham), 1828-1893. person
associatedWith Kintner, Jacob C., 1838-1886. person
associatedWith Kitson, Henry Hudson, 1863?-1947. person
correspondedWith Law, George, 1806-1881 person
associatedWith Leavitt, I. P. person
correspondedWith Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865 person
correspondedWith Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865. person
associatedWith Lockwood, Philip Case, 1844-1897 person
associatedWith Luce, Stephen Bleecker, 1827-1917. person
correspondedWith McClellan, George Brinton, 1826-1885. person
associatedWith McClellan (Ship) corporateBody
correspondedWith McDowell, Irvin, 1818-1885 person
associatedWith Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Commandery of the State of Massachusetts, collector. corporateBody
associatedWith Nast, Thomas, 1840-1902. person
associatedWith Nelson, Solomon, 1827?-1882. person
associatedWith Page, Edward, Jr. person
correspondedWith Palfrey family. family
correspondedWith Patterson, Robert, 1792-1881 person
associatedWith Pease, Charles G. person
correspondedWith Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884 person
associatedWith Piatt, Donn, 1819-1891. person
correspondedWith Pierce, Edward Lillie, 1829-1897 person
correspondedWith Plumb, Edward Lee, 1827-1912. person
correspondedWith Pope, John, 1822-1892 person
associatedWith Porter, David D. (David Dixon), 1813-1891. person
correspondedWith Porter, Fitz-John, 1822-1901 person
associatedWith Porter, Lucia Chauncey. person
associatedWith Potts, John, d. 1872. person
associatedWith Rand, Arnold A. (Arnold Augustus), 1837-1917. person
associatedWith Rantoul family. family
associatedWith Rantoul, Robert, 1805-1852. person
associatedWith Redman, William Henry, b. 1840. person
associatedWith Rellet, Susan. person
associatedWith Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- ) corporateBody
associatedWith Rosenstock, Fred A., b. 1895 person
correspondedWith Ryan, Albert M. (Albert Morse), b. 1846. person
correspondedWith Schurz, Carl, 1829-1906 person
associatedWith Scott, Winfield, 1786-1866. person
correspondedWith Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872 person
correspondedWith Sherman, Isaac, 1788-1863 person
correspondedWith Sherman, Isaac, 1818-1881. person
associatedWith Sherman, John, 1823-1900. person
correspondedWith Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891 person
associatedWith Shertmore, John P. person
correspondedWith Shields, James, 1810-1879 person
associatedWith Sigel, Franz, 1824-1902. person
associatedWith Smalley, P. J. (Palemon Jared), 1842-1912. person
associatedWith Smith, Jerome Van Crowninshield, 1800-1879. person
associatedWith Smith, William Farrar, 1824-1903. person
associatedWith Snell, S. F. (Smardus F.), 1837 or 8-1911. person
associatedWith Solger, Reinhold, 1817-1866. person
associatedWith Spencer, Elizabeth, 1830-fl. 1870. person
associatedWith Spoor, Oliver C. person
correspondedWith Stanton, Edwin McMasters, 1814-1869 person
associatedWith Styre, Samuel. person
associatedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874. person
associatedWith Thayer, William Sydney. person
associatedWith Thayer, William Sydney, 1830-1864. person
correspondedWith Thompson, Gilbert, 1839-1909. person
associatedWith Thorne, Emma S. G. person
associatedWith United States. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Department of the Gulf, 1862-1865 corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Dept. of the Gulf (1862-1865) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Dept. of the Gulf (1862-1865) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Dept. of the Gulf (1862-1865) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army. Dept. of the Gulf (1862-1865) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. House. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Corps d'Afrique. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. General Land Office. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Kansas-Nebraska Act. corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Army Department of the Gulf corporateBody
correspondedWith Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 1794-1877 person
correspondedWith Venter, Julian DeForest, person
associatedWith Welch, William Wickham, 1818-1892. person
correspondedWith Welles, Gideon, 1802-1878 person
associatedWith Wells, James Madison, 1808-1899. person
associatedWith Whitney, Henry Clay, 1831-1905. person
correspondedWith Whittier, John Greenleaf, 1807-1892 person
associatedWith Whittlesey, George. person
associatedWith Wilford, Cyrus. person
associatedWith William E. Barton Collection of Lincolniana (University of Chicago) corporateBody
associatedWith Wilson, Henry, 1812-1875. person
associatedWith Wilson, James Grant, 1832-1914. person
associatedWith Winthrop (Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith Wood, Ephraim A., 1841- person
associatedWith Woodward, Ashbel, 1804-1885. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Massachusetts
United States
Red River
Maryland
Louisiana--New Orleans
Massachusetts
Waltham (Mass.)
Mobile (Ala.)
New Orleans (La.)
Boston (Mass.)
Italy
Massachusetts
Massachusetts--Waltham
United States
Louisiana
Shenandoah River Valley (Va. and W. Va.)
Cuba
United States
United States
New Orleans (La.)
Maryland
United States
Canada
Maryland
United States
United States
Confederate States of America
Switzerland
Massachusetts--Waltham
Massachusetts
United States
Switzerland
Massachusetts
Ireland
Canada
United States
Massachusetts
Louisiana
United States
Alaska
New Orleans (La.)
Louisiana--New Orleans
United States
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Massachusetts--Waltham
Washington (D.C.)
Italy
Virginia
Louisiana
Mexico
United States
Virginia
Cuba
Port Hudson (La.)
France
Central America
New Orleans (La.)
Louisiana
Spain
Massachusetts--Waltham
Alaska
United States
France
United States
Massachusetts
Ireland
Shenandoah River Valley (Va. and W. Va.)
Central America
Spain
Subject
Patronage, Political
Red River Expedition, 1864
Monett's Ferry, Battle of, La., 1862
Generals--Correspondence
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Cedar Mountain (Culpepper County, Va.), Battle of, 1862
Slavery--United States
Cedar Mountain, Battle of, Va., 1862
Mormons
Generals--Autographs
Skilled labor
Canals, Interoceanic
Representatives, U.S. Congress
Cane River, Battle of, La., 1862
Slavery
Cotton trade
Politicians--Autographs
Statues
Bounties, Military
Strikes and lockouts
Freedmen
Mechanics (Persons)
Military discipline
Fenians
Occupation
Army officers
African American soldiers--United States
Generals--Massachusetts--Waltham
Adjutants--United States
Generals--United States
Soldiers--United States
Representatives U.S. Congress--Massachusetts
Legislators--United States
Governor--Massachusetts
Function

Person

Birth 1816-01-30

Death 1894-09-01

Information

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Ark ID: w6nz880q

SNAC ID: 51844922