World Jewish Congress.

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According to their own constitution, the World Jewish Congress is a voluntary association of representative Jewish bodies, communities and organisations throughout the world, organised to assure the survival and to foster the unity of the Jewish people. Its origins lie in the immediate aftermath of World War I in the cooperative efforts by Jewish communities around the world in religious, legal, political and relief matters. In the aftermath of World War II the World Jewish Congress played a central role in the creation of Jewish policies with regard to peace treaties, the prosecution and trial of Nazi war criminals and reparations for Holocaust survivors.

From the guide to the World Jewish Congress Conference on Antisemitism: records (microfilm), 1961-1962, (Wiener Library)

The World Jewish Congress (WJC), is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. Its headquarters are in New York City, USA; its research institute is located in Jerusalem. It maintains international offices in Paris, France, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Geneva, Switzerland and most recently, Miami, Florida.

The WJC includes Jewish organizations from across North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, Israel and the Pacific. It attempts to build consensus between different Jewish groups of varying political and religious orientations; it works to act as a diplomatic envoy for the worldwide Jewish community. It is a Zionist organization, strongly supporting the State of Israel.

In 1951, Nahum Goldmann, then president of the WJC, cofounded the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany -the Claims Conference, as a body to engage the German government in negotiations for material compensation for Jewish victims of Nazi persecution. The World Jewish Congress designate two members to the Board of Directors of the Conference.

In 1992 the WJC established the World Jewish Restitution Organization (WJRO) as an organization for the restitution of Jewish property in the rest of Europe (outside Germany). It has been active in the claims against Swiss banks.

In 2000 the World Jewish Congress shaped the policy debate about looted art by criticizing museums for waiting for artworks to be claimed by Holocaust victims instead of publicly announcing that they have suspect items.

The WJC is involved in inter-faith dialogue with Christian and Muslim groups. One of its major new programmes is concerned with the plight of Jewish refugees from Arab lands.

From the guide to the World Jewish Congress: Central files (microfilm), 1919-1976, (Wiener Library)

The World Jewish Congress ( WJC ) was established in 1936 under the leadership of Stephen S. Wise and Nahum Goldmann . Instrumental in its founding were the American Jewish Congress ( AJC ), established in 1918, and the Comité des Délégations Juives ( Committee of Jewish Delegations ), which was founded in 1919. The Comité des Délégations Juives was an ad hoc committee initiated by the Zionist Organization and established for the sole purpose of representing Jewish interests on behalf of all Jewish communities worldwide at the Paris Peace Conference following World War I. The Comité was also interested in the foundation of a permanent “worldwide Jewish organization which would be recognized by Jews and non-Jews alike as the Jewish representative body for the problems of the Diaspora.” 1

The first preparatory meeting for the World Jewish Congress, called the First Preparatory World Jewish Conference, took place in Geneva in August 1932. After two more preparatory conferences, in 1933 and 1934, the First Plenary Assembly formally established the World Jewish Congress in August 1936. The purpose of the new organization was to unify Jews and strengthen Jewish political influence in order to assure the survival of the Jewish people. The creation of a Jewish state was part of that goal.

As Nazism took hold of Europe and the situation for Jews grew increasingly worse during the 1930s, the need for a representative body to support Jewish interests became evident. Even before the 1936 Plenary, the Preparatory Committee, often represented by Nahum Goldmann, began dealing with Jewish problems in Europe - such as establishing contacts with governments and the League of Nations; leading an economic boycott against Germany; organizing rescue and relief efforts for Jews in Nazi-controlled territory; and investigating and documenting the condition of Jews in Europe. Once the WJC was founded, with headquarters located in Paris and another European office in Geneva, its main activities focused on the situation of European Jews. Among the WJC 's activities were efforts concerning Jewish rights, antisemitism, and immediate relief (both political and economic) and rescue efforts. The WJC also concentrated on security for Jewish refugees and victims of the war. The WJC leadership began planning for post-war activities as well, including indemnification and reparations claims against Germany, as well as punishment of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

With the outbreak of war in September 1939, the Paris office was moved to Geneva to facilitate communications with Jewish communities in Europe. Then, in the summer of 1940, with most of Europe overrun by the Nazis, the main headquarters of the World Jewish Congress were moved to New York to share office space with the American Jewish Congress while a special office was set up in London. At the end of the war, the emphasis of the WJC 's activities shifted to rebuilding European Jewish communities. These activities included assisting displaced persons and survivors of the Holocaust, advocating restitution and reparations from Germany, and assisting in punishment of war crimes. Another main focus was the World Jewish Congress's involvement in the creation of the State of Israel and working toward the prevention of future catastrophes like the Holocaust.

Many of the same activities, now relating to reconstruction of Jewish communities and support for Israel, continued into the 1980s. The WJC continued to champion the rights and safety of Jews worldwide - for example for North African and Soviet Jewry - but the struggle for Jewish rights expanded to include a fight for human rights. Work for reparations claims for Holocaust survivors continued into the 1970s and was revived in the early 1990s. The WJC has played an important role in the adoption of principles regarding crimes against humanity and assisted in the punishment of war criminals. The organization has worked with governments, the United Nations, Jewish and non-Jewish organizations (such as the Red Cross and Christian churches), as well as Jewish communities throughout the world to fulfill its purpose “to assure the survival, and to foster the unity of the Jewish people…” and “to cooperate with all peoples on the basis of universal ideals of peace, freedom and justice.” 2

As the WJC adjusted its activities to meet changing needs various departments were created or disbanded. Political, legal, organizational, and research departments were created around 1936 in the European offices, and some of the same personnel who worked in these offices immigrated to the United States to work in similar departments when the WJC moved to New York during the war. At the New York office in the 1940s, the major departments were: Political Department, Institute of Jewish Affairs (research and legal work), Relief and Rescue departments (under various names), Department for Culture and Education (or Culture Department), and Organization Department.

As relief work decreased late in the 1940s, the Relief and Rehabilitation Department was discontinued, but remaining relief work was handled by the Relief Desk of the Political Department. At the Second Plenary Assembly in 1948, the Executive Committee of the WJC was split among three major offices: New York, London, and Israel, but the New York office continued as a leading office for global, as well as Western Hemisphere, activities. The Political Department was split between the London and New York offices, and the Culture Department was headquartered in London, with a branch office in New York. The main office of the Organization Department was moved from New York to Geneva in 1960. For more detailed information on the major departments of the New York office, see the series descriptions for the collection.

- Ina Remus

References 1. Unity in Dispersion: A History of the World Jewish Congress, World Jewish Congress, New York, 1948, p. 28. 2. Constitution of the World Jewish Congress, Adopted at the Plenary Assembly of the World Jewish Congress June 27 – July 6, 1948 at Montreux, Switzerland, Article 2; Box A42, Folder 8. World Jewish Congress Records, American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio.

From the guide to the World Jewish Congress Records, 1918-1982, 1940-1980, (The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf World Jewish Congress Records, 1918-1982, 1940-1980 The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Baron, Salo W. (Salo Wittmayer), 1895-1989. Salo Wittmayer Baron papers, ca. 1900-1980. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Wells, Leon Weliczker, 1925-. Leon Weliczker Wells papers, 1918-2009 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Rosensaft, Hadassah. Bergen-Belsen related records Bergen-Belsen memorial planning information memoranda notes minutes articles. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Shad Polier Papers, 1916-1976 (bulk 1940-1970) American Jewish Historical Society
creatorOf World Jewish Congress Conference on Antisemitism: records (microfilm), 1961-1962 Wiener Library
referencedIn Klutznick, Philip M. Papers, 1914-1999 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Papers of A.Z. Steinberg, 1897-1977 University of Southampton Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection Records relating to the career of Joseph Tenenbaum Scrapbooks and photographs scrapbooks photographs. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Fate of Hungarian Jewry, 1943-1994 Wiener Library
referencedIn Papers of the Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1913-1991 University of Southampton Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn American Association for Ethiopian Jews (AAEJ), records, undated, 1960-1961, 1963, 1965-1968, 1970-1995, 2001-2002 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America. Zionist political history collection, 1894-1985. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Henry Wise, Papers, 1941-2010 American Jewish Historical Society
creatorOf World Jewish Congress. [Publications on political and social conditions in pre-and post-war England and Germany] Princeton University Library
creatorOf American Jewish Congress. Records of the American Jewish Congress, the Canadian Jewish Congress, and the World Jewish Congress, 1942-1945. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Jacobs, Harold M. Harold M. Jacobs papers 1888-1994 1950-1994 Yeshiva University
creatorOf World Jewish Congress: Central files (microfilm), 1919-1976 Wiener Library
referencedIn Rosensaft, Hadassah. Bergen-Belsen related records Evacuation of the Hohne camp and Glyn Hughes hospital letters lists minutes memoranda. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Rosensaft, Hadassah. Bergen-Belsen related records copies of photographs articles correspondence scrapbooks. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Levine, Louis. Papers, 1932-1953. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Emigration Collection, 1864-1995 Leo Baeck Institute Archives
referencedIn Records, 1940-1951. Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School
referencedIn Baron, Salo W. Papers, 1900-1980 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Warburg, Felix M. (Felix Moritz), 1871-1937. Papers, 1895-1937. American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations Interested in Migration. Conference documents, 1950. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Selected documents from the Military-Historical Institute, Prague directives orders reports diaries memoranda name lists. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Goldmann, Nahum, 1895-1982. Letter : Paris, France , 1948 October 22, to Rev. Dr. M.L. Perlzweig / Nah. Goldmann. Haverford College Library
referencedIn Vaad Hatzala (New York, N.Y.). Records, 1940-1963, 1942-1949 (bulk) Yeshiva University
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection Records relating to organizations. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Booth, Mary M. Booth Family papers letters affidavits articles. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection Records relating to the career of Joseph Tenenbaum Articles, essays, and speeches articles essays speeches pamphlets booklets research notes. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Papers of Julius Jung, 1955-1970 University of Southampton Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn American Jewish Congress, records, undated, 1916-2006 (bulk 1949-2003) American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Alcalay, Isaac A. (Isaac Abraham). Isaac Abraham Alcalay photographs and other materials 1942 - 1978. Yeshiva University
referencedIn Graenum Berger Papers, undated, [1825]-2002 (bulk 1923-2001) American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Gore Vidal papers, 1875-2004 (inclusive), 1936-2000 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Joseph. Dr. Joseph and Sheila Tenenbaum collection papers. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Rosensaft, Hadassah. Bergen-Belsen related records Emigration of Jewish displaced persons to Palestine reports memoranda. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Earl Browder Papers, 1879-1990 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
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