Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973Alternative names
Hamilton Fish Armstrong was born April 8, 1893, in the house on West 10th Street in New York City where he lived all his life. Following his Princeton graudation in 1916, he worked for the New Republic until he entered the army during World War I. At war's end, he served as a military attache to Serbia which kindled his lifelong interest in foreign affairs. After leaving the army, Armstrong became a foreign correspondence for the New York Evening Post.
In 1922 Armstrong returned to New York as executive director of the newly-formed Council on Foreign Relations and as managing editor of the Council's journal, Foreign Affairs. Upon the death of its first editor, Archibald Cary Coolidge, in 1928, Armstrong narrowed the scope of his labors, but broadened his influence, by assuming the single role of editor, a position he held until his retirement in 1972. Armstrong died on April 24, 1973. A frequent world traveller, Armstrong knew a broad spectrum of the world's leaders and sought to bring their opinions before the readers of Foreign Affairs. During World War II Armstrong held a seat on the State Department's Advisory Committee on Post-War Foreign Policies and served as special adviser to Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius on questions relating to the United Nations Charter.
From the description of Hamilton Fish Armstrong papers, 1893-1973 (bulk 1916-1973). (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 80057758
Hamilton Fish Armstrong was born, the youngest of seven children, April 7, 1893, in the house on West 10th Street where he lived all his life. His parents, D. Maitland Armstrong (1836-1918) and Helen Neilson (1845-1927) named him for his great uncle, who was Grant's Secretary of State. His father was an artist, working especially with stained glass, and a one-time Consul General to Italy. Armstrong grew up in New York City and received his education at Gilman Country School in Baltimore, Maryland, and at Princeton University from which he received the A.B. in 1916.
Following his graduation Armstrong worked in the business department at The New Republic before entering the army in 1917. Commissioned a second lieutenant in October 1917, Armstrong advanced to first lieutenant and became Military Attache to the Serbian War Mission to the United States in December 1917. In November 1918, he received orders to Belgrade to become Assistant Military Attache to Serbia where in January 1919 he became Acting Military Attache.
Upon his military discharge in June 1919, Armstrong returned to New York to work on the editorial staff of the New York Evening Post, becoming the paper's special correspondent to Eastern Europe in 1921. His time in Serbia kindled in him a lifelong interest in foreign affairs, and in 1921 he became involved with the newly-formed Council on Foreign Relations, created to ensure that the United States' growing role in world affairs be informed and responsible. In 1922 Armstrong accepted a position as managing editor of the Council's magazine, Foreign Affairs, at the request of editor Archibald Cary Coolidge. Upon Coolidge's death in 1928, Armstrong became editor, a position he held until his retirement in 1972. Armstrong also served as the first Executive Director of the Council (1922-1928) and as a Council director from 1928 until 1972.
As editor, Armstrong travelled frequently, visiting with policymakers including King Alexander of Yugoslavia, Raymond Poincaré, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Neville Chamberlain. He was also well acquainted with many prominent Americans, such as Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Henry A. Kissinger. He belonged to many important committees and foundations: member of the President's Advisory Committee on Political Refugees; three times delegate to the International Studies Conference (1929, 1933, 1935); trustee and twice president of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation; trustee and once president of the New York Society Library; and trustee of the New York International House.
Armstrong held many prominent positions during the Second World War. From 1942-44, he served on the United States State Department's Advisory Committee on Post-War Foreign Policies, which produced the original plans for the United Nations. In 1944, he became the special assistant to the United States ambassador in London with the personal rank of minister, before serving in 1944 and 1945 as special adviser to Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, working on the charter for the United Nations. At the San Francisco Conference in 1945, he was one of three senior advisers to the United States delegation.
Armstrong wrote prolifically, penning numerous magazine articles–forty-nine for Foreign Affairs alone–and thirteen books (he edited five others). His books include The New Balkans (1926), Where the East Begins (1929), Hitler's Reich: The First Phase (1933), Europe Between Wars? (1934), Can We Be Neutral? (1936) with Allen W. Dulles, “We or They:” Two Worlds in Conflict (1937), When There Is No Peace (1939), Can America Stay Neutral? (1939) with Allen W. Dulles, Chronology of Failure (1940), The Calculated Risk (1947), Tito and Goliath (1951), Those Days (1963), and Peace and Counterpeace: From Wilson to Hitler (1971). He edited The Book of New York Verse (1918), Foreign Affairs Bibliography (1933) with William L. Langer, The Foreign Policy of the Powers (1935), The Foreign Affairs Reader (1947), and The Foreign Affairs Fifty-Year Reader (1972).
His activities received much recognition, both at home and abroad. His time in Serbia earned him the Order of the Serbian Red Cross (1918), the Order of St. Sava Fifth Class (1918), and the Chevalier of Order of the White Eagle with Swords (1919). He was awarded the Order of the Crown (Rumania) in 1924 and the Order of the White Lion of Czechoslovakia in 1937. In that year he was made an officer of the Legion of Honor of France and became a commander in 1947. He was appointed a Commander of the British Empire in 1972. He received honorary degrees from Brown (1942), Yale (1957), the University of Basel (1960), Princeton (1961), Columbia (1963), and Harvard (1963).
Armstrong married three times. Helen MacGregor Byrne became his wife in 1918, and they had one daughter, Helen MacGregor (later Mrs. Edwin Gamble) on September 3, 1923. Armstrong and Byrne divorced in 1938. Armstrong married Carman Barnes in 1945, a marriage which ended in a 1951 divorce. In that same year Armstrong married Christa von Tippelskirch. Armstrong retired from Foreign Affairs in 1972, the fiftieth year of its publication, and died after a long illness on April 24, 1973, at the age of 80.
From the guide to the Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers, 1893-1973, 1916-1973, (Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections)
|creatorOf||Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. Correspondence to Van Wyck Brooks, 1958.||University of Pennsylvania Library|
|referencedIn||Root, Elihu, 1845-1937. Papers of Elihu Root, 1863-1937 (bulk 1899-1937).||Library of Congress|
|referencedIn||Altschul, Frank, 1887-1981. Frank Altschul papers, 1900-1981.||Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries|
|referencedIn||Bliven, Bruce, 1889-1977. Bruce Bliven papers, 1906-1985.||Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives|
|referencedIn||Ruth Fischer papers, 1925-1961 (inclusive) 1940-1961 (bulk).||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||Chester Bowles papers, 1924-1982||Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives|
|referencedIn||Oswald Garrison Villard papers, 1872-1949.||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||Papers, 1876-1960||Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.|
|referencedIn||Joseph Barnes Papers, 1923-1970||Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,|
|referencedIn||Arthur H. Vandenberg papers, 1884-1974, 1915-1951||Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan|
|creatorOf||Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers, 1893-1973, 1916-1973||Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.|
|referencedIn||Vladimir Dedijer papers, 1881-1987, 1940-1980||Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan|
|referencedIn||Allen W. Dulles Papers, 1845-1971, 1918-1969||Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.|
|creatorOf||Brand, Katharine Edith. Printed items in the Woodrow Wilson field, as collected by Katharine E. Brand.||University of Virginia. Library|
|referencedIn||Sara Teasdale Collection, 1888-1934||University of Virginia. Library. Special Collections Dept.|
|referencedIn||Bowles, Chester, 1901-1986. Chester Bowles papers, 1924-1982 (inclusive).||Yale University Library|
|referencedIn||Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. Isaiah Bowman papers, 1904-1951.||Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library|
|referencedIn||Robert E. Sherwood papers, 1917-1968 (inclusive), 1934-1955 (bulk).||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|creatorOf||Danielson, Richard Ely, 1885-1957. Richard Ely Danielson papers, 1940-1948.||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|referencedIn||Boris Souvarine papers, 1915-1984 (inclusive), 1940-1984 (bulk).||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||John Mason Brown papers, 1922-1967.||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|creatorOf||Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. Hamilton Fish Armstrong papers, 1893-1973 (bulk 1916-1973).||Princeton University Library|
|referencedIn||Additional papers, 1917-1962 and undated.||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||Leon Trotsky exile papers, 1929-1940.||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||Papers, 1897-1930.||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|creatorOf||Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. Letter, 1946, to Lewis Mumford.||University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library|
|referencedIn||Papers, 1878-1972.||Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School|
|referencedIn||Eastman mss., 1892-1968||Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)|
|creatorOf||Lebedev, Vladimir Ivanovich, 1884-1956. Vladimir Ivanovich Lebedev Papers, ca. 1900-1955.||Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries|
|referencedIn||Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004||Harvard University Archives.|
|referencedIn||Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. Joseph Barnes papers, 1907-1970, 1923-1970.||Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries|
|referencedIn||Richard Ely Danielson papers, 1940-1948||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Century Company records, 1870-1924||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Dulles, Allen, 1893-1969. Allen W. Dulles papers, 1845-1971 (bulk 1918-1969)||Princeton University Library|
|creatorOf||Vandenberg, Arthur H. (Arthur Hendrick), 1884-1951. Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg papers, 1884-1974.||University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library|
|referencedIn||John Mason Brown papers, 1922-1967.||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||Vera Zorina papers, 1910-2001 (inclusive), 1933-2001 (bulk).||Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.|
|referencedIn||George S. Messersmith papers, 1907-1955||University of Delaware Library - Special Collections|
|referencedIn||Papers, 1840-1961.||Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.|
|referencedIn||Lindbergh, Anne Morrow, 1906-2001. Anne Morrow Lindbergh papers, 1906-1997 (inclusive).||Yale University Library|
|creatorOf||Hamilton Fish Armstrong letter, undated||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk).||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|referencedIn||Delano, William Adams, 1874-1960. William Adams Delano papers, 1902-1960 (inclusive), 1939-1960 (bulk).||Yale University Library|
|creatorOf||Teasdale, Sara, 1884-1933. Papers of Sara Teasdale [manuscript], 1888-1934 (bulk 1905-1933).||University of Virginia. Library|
|referencedIn||Lewis Gannett papers, 1681-1966 (inclusive) 1900-1960 (bulk).||Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard|
|creatorOf||Hammond, Thomas Taylor. Papers of Thomas Taylor Hammond, 1929-1992.||University of Virginia. Library|
|referencedIn||New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Elihu Root Papers, 1863-1937, (bulk 1899-1937)||Library of Congress. Manuscript Division|
|referencedIn||Stimson, Henry L. (Henry Lewis), 1867-1950. Henry Lewis Stimson papers, 1846-1966 (inclusive).||Yale University Library|
|referencedIn||Dedijer, Vladimir. Vladimir Dedijer papers, 1881-1987 (bulk 1940-1980).||University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library|
|Place Name||Admin Code||Country|
|New York (State)--New York|
|Journalists--New York (N.Y.)--20th century|
|Public policy/20th century|
|World War II|
|Editors--New York (N.Y.)--20th century|
|American politics and government|
|American history/20th century|
|International relations--20th century|