United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.)

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Founding conference of the United Nations.

From the description of United Nations Conference on International Organization proceedings, 1945. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754868789

At this conference, held April 25, 1945 to June 25, 1945, delegates approved the Charter of the United Nations, the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and arrangements for the establishment of the United Nations Preparatory Commission.

From the description of Records, 1944-1945. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 155485590

Historical Note

The United Nations Conference on International Organization was convened in San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945. Fifty nations participated in the conference at the invitation of the four sponsoring governments, the United States, the United Kingdom, the USSR, and China. The four sponsors invited to the conference those nations that had entered into a state of war against one or more of the Axis powers and that adhered to the Declaration by United Nations of January 1, 1942. Forty-two nations accepted the invitation, and after the conference began, Argentina, Denmark, the Belarussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic were admitted. Poland was not present, but space on the Charter was reserved for the signature of a representative of Poland. The U.S. government paid the expenses of the conference, which were less than 2 million dollars.

More than 3,500 conference delegates and staff members assembled in San Francisco for the conference. Thirty hotels and three clubs provided housing and offices, while the Veterans Building and the Opera House were used for the conference's central activities. More than 2,500 representatives of the press, radio, and newsreels covered the conference.

The conference considered four areas, consisting of the Dumbarton Oaks plan, suggested amendments to the plan, a draft addition to the plan providing for a trusteeship system for dependent areas, and preliminary studies on the creation of an International Court of Justice.

The conference began with eight plenary sessions held in public. At these opening sessions, the chairmen of the delegations of the sponsoring powers, followed by the chairmen of the other delegations, addressed the conference. During this time the conference's organization and work plan were determined. The charter was divided into four sections for consideration by four commissions, which in turn divided the work among multiple technical committees. The commissions and technical committees began their assignments as the opening sessions wrapped up. As the technical committees completed their work they submitted reports to the commissions, which pulled them together into commission reports, which were submitted to the Coordination Committee, which prepared the text of the charter as a whole.

The Charter of the United Nations, together with the Statute of the International Court of Justice, was presented and adopted unanimously at the ninth plenary session on 25 June 1945. A signing ceremony was on June 26 and lasted all day. Afterwards a closing session was held, with speeches by the president of the United States, the chairmen of the delegations of the sponsoring powers, and chairmen of five other delegations--Brazil, Czechoslovakia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa--chosen to represent the diversity of nationalities and geographic areas. The charter entered into force, in accordance with its Article 110, paragraph 3, on 24 October 1945, following the deposit of the instruments of ratification of the five permanent members of the Security Council and a majority of all other signatories.

Five official languages--Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish--were recognized at the conference, but only English and French were used as working languages and all documents were issued in both. More than one hundred people translated documents and interpreted discussions. Speeches made in English were interpreted into French and vice versa, and speeches in other languages were interpreted into English and French.

In terms of administrative organization, the Conference in Plenary Session was the highest authority at the conference. It was responsible for final votes and adopting the text of the charter. The senior members of the delegations of the four sponsoring governments presided in rotation over the plenary sessions.

Four general committees were established under the plenary level. In recognition of the host country, the conference asked the chairman of the U.S. delegation to chair the Steering and Executive Committees.

The Steering Committee considered major questions of policy and procedure and distributed work to the committees. The committee had fifty members, consisting of the chairman of each national delegation.

The Executive Committee was a smaller unit that made recommendations to the Steering Committee; it was composed of the chairmen of fourteen delegations. These fourteen represented the four sponsoring governments and the ten co-elected members.

The Coordination Committee assisted the Executive Committee and supervised the final drafting of the charter. It was composed of representatives of the fourteen delegations previously mentioned. An Advisory Committee of Jurists provided assistance to this committee.

The Credentials Committee verified the credentials of delegates and was composed of representatives from six delegations.

Below the committee level, four general commissions studied the main issues and coordinated the work of twelve technical committees. The technical committees drafted proposals and could designate subcommittees as needed. The leadership of the commissions and technical committees consisted of a chairman and a rapporteur; these positions were divided among all of the national delegations. The Steering Committee nominated delegates for these positions, with approval by the conference.

Commission I studied general provisions and managed the work of Technical Committee 1 (preamble, purposes and principles) and Technical Committee 2 (membership, amendment and secretariat).

Commission II focused on the general assembly. It coordinated the work of Technical Committee 1 (structure and procedures), Technical Committee 2 (political and security functions), Technical Committee 3 (economic and social cooperation) and Technical Committee 4 (trusteeship system).

Commission III considered the security council. It oversaw the work of Technical Committee 1 (structure and procedures), Technical Committee 2 (peaceful settlement), Technical Committee 3 (enforcement arrangements) and Technical Committee 4 (regional arrangements).

Commission IV studied judicial organization. Its committees were Technical Committee 1 (international court of justice) and Technical Committee 2 (legal problems).

A Secretariat provided general administration to the conference. It prepared agenda and working papers for discussion, compiled minutes and records of meetings, and provided the array of standard services required by any international conference.

More than five thousand documents were considered at the conference; the primary ones were published as Documents of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, Volumes I to XX, 1945-1954.

From the guide to the United Nations Conference on International Organization Proceedings, 1945, (Hoover Institution Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Morin, Richard Wedge, 1902-. Papers, 1920-1988. New Hampshire Newsp Project
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.). [Documents from several meetings of the Heads of Delegations to Organize the Conference] Tufts University - Edwin Ginn Library, Edwin Ginn Library
referencedIn Claude, Inis L. Papers of Inis L. Claude, Jr., 1945-1998. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn United Nations Information Organization (New York, N.Y.). Records, 1941-1946. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. Isaiah Bowman papers, 1904-1951. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Clapp, Verner W. (Verner Warren), 1901-1972. Papers of Verner W. Clapp, 1901-1973 (bulk 1945-1972). Library of Congress
referencedIn Logan, Rayford Whittingham, 1897-. Papers, 1925-1982. Library of Congress
referencedIn Pennoyer, Paul Geddes, 1891-1971. Papers of Paul Geddes Pennoyer, 1945 (inclusive). Harvard Law School Library, HLS Library
referencedIn Weddell, Suzanne E. (Suzanne Emma), 1885-1978. Suzanne E. Weddell papers, 1916-1978. University of Oregon Libraries
referencedIn McRae, William A. Papers, 1945. University of Florida
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.). Opening of San Francisco United Nations conference [sound recording] / by President Harry S. Truman, 1945 Apr. 25. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn United Nations Conference on International Organization; President Harry S. Truman and Secy. of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr.; and delegates adopting the United Nations Charter : photographs, 1945. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Owen, A. D. K. (Arthur David Kemp), 1904-1970. Papers, 1938-1970. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers, 1893-1973, 1916-1973 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Claude, Inis L. Inis L. Claude papers [manuscript], 1945-1998. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.). Proceedings of the Conference, 1945. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Willson Woodside Collection. Clippings, notes, programmes, and correspondence concerning the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, 1945. University of Guelph
referencedIn Eaton, Charles A. (Charles Aubrey), 1868-1953. Charles A. Eaton papers, 1932-1945. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Green Haywood Hackworth Papers, 1912-1973, (bulk 1944-1945) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Darlington, Charles F. (Charles Francis), 1904-1986. Papers, 1945. Harry S. Truman Library
referencedIn Eagleton, Clyde, 1891-1958. Papers, 1943-1955. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Masland, John W. (John Wesley), 1912-1968. John Wesley Masland papers, 1945. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Mitchell, Bruce T.,. Bruce T. Mitchell collection, 1923-1960. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Leo Pasvolsky papers, 1937-1953 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Cox, Oscar,. Papers, 1933-1962. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. Hamilton Fish Armstrong papers, 1893-1973 (bulk 1916-1973). Princeton University Library
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.). United Nations Conference on International Organization proceedings, 1945. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Rayford Whittingham Logan Papers, 1925-1982 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Harold H. Fisher Papers, 1917-1974 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Benjamin Gerig Papers, 1927-1974, (bulk 1930-1968) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Spencer, Rose Carolyn, 1891-1967. Rose Carolyn Spencer papers, 1889, 1907-1967. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Stassen, Harold Edward, 1907-2001. Harold Stassen papers, 1910s-1999 (bulk 1938-1980). Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.). Records, 1944-1945. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn McGuire, A. J. (Arthur James), 1874-1933. A.J. and Marie McGuire papers, 1896-1964. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn William Jackson Losh Collection, 1908-1973 California State Library
referencedIn John Foster Dulles Papers, 1860-1988, 1945-1960 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Benjamin Gerig Papers, 1927-1974, (bulk 1930-1968) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Suzanne E. Weddell papers, 1916-1978 University of Oregon Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Burgess, Carter L., 1916-. Carter L. Burgess papers, 1944-1978. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Harold Stassen papers., 1910s-1999 (bulk 1938-1980). Minnesota Historical Society
referencedIn Leo Pasvolsky papers, 1937-1953 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Pamphlets on United Nationas conference on international organization. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Fahy, Charles, 1892-1979. Papers, 1933-1957. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Charles Easton Rothwell Papers, 1924-1995 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Oreamuno, J. Rafael. J. Rafael Oreamuno interview, 1968. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Stettinius, Edward R. (Edward Reilly), 1900-1949. Gavel, 1945. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Gildersleeve, Virginia Crocheron, 1877-1965. Virginia Crocheron Gildersleeve papers, 1898-1962. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Fisher, Harold H. (Harold Henry), 1890-1975. Harold H. Fisher papers, 1917-1974. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Taussig, Charles W. (Charles William), 1896-1948. Papers, 1928-1948. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Dulles, John Foster, 1888-1959. John Foster Dulles oral history collection : transcripts, 1964-1967. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Green Haywood Hackworth Papers, 1912-1973, (bulk 1944-1945) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Simmons (David Andrew) Papers 65-008., 1861-1963 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History
creatorOf South Africa. Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization. Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization proposal, 1945. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco). Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1945. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Charles Easton Rothwell Papers, 1924-1995 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Hirsch, Stefan, 1899-1964. Stefan Hirsch and Elsa Rogo papers, 1926-1985. Archives of American Art
referencedIn Charles F. Darlington papers, 1924-1985 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Dickey, John Sloan, 1907-1991. Oral history interview with John Sloan Dickey, 1975-1978. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Weddell, Suzanne E. (Suzanne Emma), 1885-1978. Papers, 1916-1978. University of Oregon Libraries
referencedIn Drenton, Theodore. Theodore Drenton miscellaneous papers, 1945-1992. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Weddell, Suzanne E. (Suzanne Emma), 1885-1978. Suzanne E. Weddell papers [microform], 1916-1978. Harvard University, Divinity School Library
referencedIn Logan, Rayford Whittingham, 1897-1982. Rayford Whittingham Logan papers, 1925-1982. Library of Congress
referencedIn William A. McRae Papers, 1945 Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
referencedIn Simmons, David Andrew, 1897-1951. Simmons (David Andrew) Papers, 1861-1963 University of Texas Libraries
creatorOf United Nations Conference on International Organization Proceedings, 1945 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Preparatory Commission of the United Nations. Preparatory Commission of the United Nations records, 1945. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Papers, 1945 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn John Wesley Masland Papers, 1945 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Kerno, Ivan S., b. 1891. Ivan S. Kerno papers, 1927-1961. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. person
associatedWith Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. person
associatedWith Burgess, Carter L., 1916- person
associatedWith Clapp, Verner W. (Verner Warren), 1901-1972. person
associatedWith Claude, Inis L. person
associatedWith Cox, Oscar, person
associatedWith Darlington, Charles F. (Charles Francis), 1904-1986. person
associatedWith Dickey, John Sloan, 1907-1991. person
associatedWith Drenton, Theodore. person
associatedWith Dulles, John Foster, 1888-1959. person
associatedWith Eagleton, Clyde, 1891-1958. person
associatedWith Eaton, Charles A. (Charles Aubrey), 1868-1953. person
associatedWith Fahy, Charles, 1892-1979. person
associatedWith Fisher, Harold H. (Harold Henry), 1890-1975. person
associatedWith Gerig, Benjamin, 1894-1976. person
associatedWith Gildersleeve, Virginia Crocheron, 1877-1965. person
associatedWith Hackworth, Green Haywood, 1883-1973. person
associatedWith Hirsch, Stefan, 1899-1964. person
associatedWith International Court of Justice. corporateBody
associatedWith Kerno, Ivan S., b. 1891. person
associatedWith Logan, Rayford Whittingham, 1897-1982. person
associatedWith Losh, Volna B. person
associatedWith Masland, John W. (John Wesley), 1912-1968. person
associatedWith McGuire, A. J. (Arthur James), 1874-1933. person
associatedWith McRae, William A. person
associatedWith Mitchell, Bruce T., person
associatedWith Morin, Richard Wedge, 1902- person
associatedWith National Broadcasting Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Oreamuno, J. Rafael. person
associatedWith Owen, A. D. K. (Arthur David Kemp), 1904-1970. person
associatedWith Pasvolsky, Leo, 1893-1953. person
associatedWith Pennoyer, Paul Geddes, 1891-1971. person
associatedWith Preparatory Commission of the United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith Rothwell, Charles Easton, 1902- person
associatedWith Simmons, David Andrew, 1897-1951 person
associatedWith South Africa. Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization. corporateBody
associatedWith Spencer, Rose Carolyn, 1891-1967. person
associatedWith Stassen, Harold Edward, 1907-2001. person
associatedWith Stettinius, Edward R. (Edward Reilly), 1900-1949. person
associatedWith Taussig, Charles W. (Charles William), 1896-1948. person
associatedWith Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972. person
associatedWith United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations Committee on Jurists. corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations Information Organization (New York, N.Y.). corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations Preparatory Commission. corporateBody
associatedWith Weddell, Suzanne E. (Suzanne Emma), 1885-1978. person
associatedWith Willson Woodside Collection. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Subject
International courts
International cooperation
International cooperation--Congresses
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

International

Chinese,

Multiple languages,

English,

German,

French,

Russian,

Spanish; Castilian

Information

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