Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950

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Bowman became President of the Johns Hopkins University in 1935 and retired in 1948. During World War II Bowman served on the Policy Committee of the State Department and as Special Advisor to the Secretary of State. After retirement from JHU, he served as Chairman of the Economic Cooperation Administration's Committee on Overseas Territories.

Isaiah Bowman (1878-1950) was a political geographer, advisor to the U.S. State Dept. and president of the Johns Hopkins University.

From the description of Isaiah Bowman papers, 1904-1951. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48395807

Isaiah Bowman was born on 26 December 1878 at Waterloo, Ontario, in Canada. He was educated at Harvard and Yale universities. Between 1905 and 1915, he taught geography at Yale, leading the first Yale South American expedition in 1907 and serving as geologist and geographer on the Yale Peruvian Expedition in 1911. In 1913, he led the American Geographical Society Expedition to the Central Andes and between 1915 and 1935 served as director of the American Geographical Society. He acted as chief territorial adviser to President Wilson at the Versailles conference and during the Second World War was appointed territorial adviser to the Secretary of State.

Between 1919 and 1929, Bowman was a member of the executive committee of the National Research Council, serving as its chairman from 1933 to 1935. In 1935, he was appointed president of Johns Hopkins University, where he remained until his retirement in 1948. Bowman served as a member of many geographical and scientific societies and was president of the International Geographical Union between 1931 and 1934, and vice-president of the National Academy of Sciences between 1940 and 1945. He died on 6 January 1950.

From the guide to the Isaiah Bowman collection, 1929-1939, (Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge)

Oliver Edwin Baker (1883-1949) was an agricultural geographer and population expert and an analyst for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He was an authority on agricultural land utilization and advocate of “rurban” living, a combination of urban employment, suburban living, and part-time farming.

Baker was born in 1883 in Tifflin, Ohio, to Edwin Baker, a merchant, and his wife Martha Ranney Thomas. As a boy Baker was taught by his mother, a former school teacher, and then in public school. He graduated at age nineteen from Heidelberg College in Tifflin with a major in history and mathematics. The following year he received his master’s degree in philosophy and sociology from Heidelberg. He then enrolled at Columbia University, where he was granted a master’s in political science. He subsequently studied forestry at Yale (1907-1908) and agriculture at the University of Wisconsin (1908-1912). During his time at Wisconsin he co-authored an essay on the climate of Wisconsin and its effects on agriculture, and he spent his summers with the Wisconsin Soil Survey. In 1912 Baker joined the United States Department of Agriculture. Five years later he co-authored the Geography of the World’s Agriculture . The positive reception of this volume motivated Baker to produce an Atlas of American Agriculture, which was published in six parts between 1918 and 1936. Baker subsequently returned to the University of Wisconsin, where he earned a Ph.D. in economics in 1921 with a dissertation on land utilization. His research interests in the economics of agriculture stemmed in part from the influence of two of his professors at Wisconsin, Henry C. Taylor (1873-1969) and Richard T. Ely (1854-1943).

In 1922 Baker accepted Taylor’s invitation to join the Department of Agriculture’s new Bureau of Agricultural Economics. There he undertook a number of research projects, including many that involved the delineating and mapping of agricultural regions. His “Agricultural Regions of North America” was published in several parts between 1926 and 1933 in Economic Geography, for which he also served as associate editor for several years. He evidently often amazed his students by citing statistics on any of the 300 counties in the United States. Among his other publications during this period was an essay on agriculture in China that appeared in Foreign Affairs (1928). Baker was vice president of the Association of American Geographers in 1824 and president in 1932. During this period he was involved in the Association’s long-term program to investigate the “the margin of the cultivable earth,” so-called pioneer belts. In the late 1920s he also belonged to a National Research Council’s committee charged with the study of pioneer belts. From 1923 to 1927 Baker taught part-time in the newly established geography department at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts.

By the 1930s Baker became increasingly interested in questions related to population studies, including rural-urban migration, population quality, and living conditions on farms. Baker’s research in population problems stemmed from his interest in what he saw as the most valuable farm product, outstanding citizens. He encouraged and participated in several surveys of rural youth, and, based on his recognition that many rural people live in unsatisfactory conditions, he devoted much energy to improving their circumstances. For example, he attempted to the future of farming by studying past agricultural trends, offered specific suggestions designed to improve farming practices, and he tried to increase popular awareness of the contributions of farm families to the nation’s welfare. He essentially saw the nation as a complex of agricultural regions, and while some geographers regarded his agrarianism as reactionary, others recognized his contributions especially in the mapping of these regions. In 1937 the University of Göttingen awarded him an honorary degree.

Baker was deeply concerned about the declining U.S. birthrate, especially among urban people, which he predicted would have devastating consequences for the entire nation. He was a strong advocate of a “rurban” lifestyle that would combine urban employment with suburban living and part-time farming. This, he believed, would help preserve the rural values he so admired, including the “family ideal,” “the worth of the human soul, patriotism, the dignity of labor, the necessity of sacrifice, and the widespread distribution in the ownership of property,” as he explained in his essay “Some Implications of Population Trends to the Christian Church” (1942). Baker also believed that a “rurban” society would help improve land-use practices and increase the birthrate. He called for farm ownership over many generations, with one dwelling reserved for the older couple and one for the younger. Baker and his wife Alice Hargrave Crew, whom he married in 1925, practiced what he preached. The couple raised four children on a suburban property where they grew a garden and raised cows and chickens. Baker eventually bought a farm in Virginia with the intention of leaving it to his son.

In 1942 Baker joined the faculty of the University of Maryland. At that time, the university offered no courses in geography. Over the next seven years, Baker established what became one of the foremost geography departments in the country. He retired as chairman in 1949 in order to focus on his research, especially in connection to the Atlas of World Resources and the China Atlas . He died later that year in his home in College Park, Maryland.

From the guide to the Oliver Edwin Baker papers, 1913-1949, 1913-1949, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Yale Peruvian Expedition papers, 1908-1948 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Tharp, Benjamin Carroll, 1885-1964. Tharp, Benjamin Carroll Papers, 1920-1921 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Lovejoy, Arthur O. (Arthur Oncken), 1873-1962. Arthur O. Lovejoy papers, 1872-1963. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn French, John Calvin, 1875-. John Calvin French papers, 1928-1957. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn The Inquiry papers, 1915-1921 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Clive Day papers, 1892-1943 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Mezes, Sidney Edward, 1863-1931. Sidney Edward Mezes papers, 1918-1931 (inclusive), 1918-1919 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Brown, Donaldson, 1885-1965. Papers, 1921-1966. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn The Inquiry Papers, 1915-1921 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Anson Phelps Stokes family papers, 1761-1960, 1892-1958 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Isaiah Bowman collection, 1929-1939 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Semple, Ellen Churchill, 1863-1932. Ellen Churchill Semple papers, 1900-1932. University of Kentucky Libraries
referencedIn Baker, O. E. (Oliver Edwin), 1883-1949. Papers, 1913-1949. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn William Frederic Badè papers, 1871-1936 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Wallace Notestein papers, 1899-1969 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn J. Russell (Joseph Russell) Smith papers, [ca. 1888]-1966, Circa 1888-1966 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Francis Stuart Chapin papers, 1920-1936, 1963-1964 University of Minnesota Libraries. University of Minnesota Archives. [uarc]
creatorOf Hart, James, 1896-1959. Letters to Professor James Hart from eminent Americans in the fields of politics and political science on governmental policy and problems [manuscript] 1915-1953. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn George Sarton additional papers, 1901-1956. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. Hamilton Fish Armstrong papers, 1893-1973 (bulk 1916-1973). Princeton University Library
referencedIn Huntington, Ellsworth, 1876-1947. Ellsworth Huntington papers, 1779-1953 (inclusive), 1890-1947 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Morris S. Lazaron Papers., 1851-1979, 1930-1950 The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives
referencedIn Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. Ross Granville Harrison papers, 1820-1975 (inclusive), 1889-1959 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Ellsworth Huntington papers, 1779-1952, 1890-1947 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Albert Galloway Keller papers, 1888-1956 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Newcomb, John Lloyd, 1881-1954. Speeches of President Newcomb's [manuscript] 1936-1938. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. Lecture on effect of modern policy of political situation in Near East / delivered by Isaiah Bowman to the class of 1923. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn Sidney Edward Mezes papers, 1918-1931, 1918-1919 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Yale Peruvian Expedition (1911). Yale Peruvian Expedition papers, 1908-1948 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Seymour, Charles, 1885-1963. Charles Seymour papers, 1912-1963 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Keller, Albert Galloway, 1874-1956. Albert Galloway Keller papers, 1888-1956 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Robles Pazos, José. José Robles Pazos papers, 1929-1940. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Tharp, Benjamin Carroll Papers 63-6; 63-72., 1920-1921 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. The Mohammedan world. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, UWM Libraries
referencedIn Hamilton Fish Armstrong Papers, 1893-1973, 1916-1973 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Mark Anthony De Wolfe Howe additional papers, 1880-1959. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Rev. Claude L. Pickens, Jr. collection on Muslims in China, 1858-1984. Harvard Yenching Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Polk, Frank Lyon, 1871-1943. Frank Lyon Polk papers, 1883-1942 (inclusive), 1915-1921 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Bingham family. Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. Isaiah Bowman scrapbooks on Political Geography, 1921-1926. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, UWM Libraries
referencedIn Mezes, Sidney Edward. Inquiry papers, 1917-1919. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Shryock, Richard Harrison, 1893-1972. Papers, [ca. 1918-1972]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Murphy, Robert Cushman, 1887-1973. Papers, ca. 1907-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Gerig, Benjamin, 1894-1976. Papers of Benjamin Gerig, 1927-1974 (bulk 1930-1968). Library of Congress
referencedIn Day, Clive, 1871-1951. Clive Day papers, 1892-1943 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Richard Harrison Shryock papers, [ca. 1918-1972], Circa 1918-1972 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Educators and librarians collection, 1846-1953. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004 Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn Pedro Salinas papers, ca. 1912-1975 (inclusive), 1936-1951 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn August Charles Krey Papers, 1887-1961. University of Minnesota Libraries. University Archives [uarc]
referencedIn Robert Cushman Murphy journals, 1907-1971, 1907-1971 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Smith, J. Russell (Joseph Russell), 1874-1966. Papers, [ca. 1888]-1966. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Malcolm Rutherford Thorpe papers, 1913-1952 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Frank Lyon Polk papers, 1883-1942 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Oliver Edwin Baker papers, 1913-1949, 1913-1949 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Educators and Librarians Collection, 1846-1953 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Charles Seymour papers, 1912-1963 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Benjamin Gerig Papers, 1927-1974, (bulk 1930-1968) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Amy Lowell correspondence, 1883-1927 (inclusive), 1910-1925 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. Isaiah Bowman papers, 1904-1951. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Isaiah Bowman collection, 1929-1939 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. Bronislaw Malinowski papers, 1869-1946 (inclusive), 1914-1939 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Bingham family papers, 1811-1974 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Correspondence and compositions, 1870-1963. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Stokes, Anson Phelps, 1874-1958. Anson Phelps Stokes family papers, 1761-1960 (inclusive), 1892-1958 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Notestein, Wallace, 1878-1969. Wallace Notestein papers, 1899-1969 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Isaiah Bowman letter to Hary King Tootle, 1935 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Geographical Society of New York. corporateBody
associatedWith Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, 1893-1973. person
associatedWith Association of American Geographers. corporateBody
correspondedWith Badè, William Frederic, 1871-1936 person
associatedWith Baker, Alice Crew person
associatedWith Baker, O. E. (Oliver Edwin), 1883-1949. person
associatedWith Bingham family. family
associatedWith Bingham family. family
associatedWith Bingham family. family
associatedWith Bowman, Isaiah person
associatedWith Brown, Donaldson, 1885-1965. person
associatedWith Buck, John Lossing, 1890-1975 person
associatedWith Chapin, F. Stuart (Francis Stuart), 1888- person
associatedWith Compton, K. T. (Karl Taylor), 1887-1954. person
associatedWith Condliffe, J. B., (John Bell), 1891-1981 person
associatedWith Council on Foreign Relations. corporateBody
associatedWith Davis, William Morris, 1850-1934. person
associatedWith Day, Clive, 1871-1951. person
associatedWith East, Edward M., (Edward Murray), 1879-1938 person
associatedWith Ely, Richard Theodore, 1854-1943 person
associatedWith Field, Henry, 1902-1986. person
associatedWith French, John Calvin, 1875- person
associatedWith Gerig, Benjamin, 1894-1976. person
associatedWith Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959. person
associatedWith Hart, James, 1896-1959. person
associatedWith Hobbs William Herbert person
correspondedWith Howe, M. A. De Wolfe (Mark Antony De Wolfe), 1864-1960 person
associatedWith Hull, Cordell, 1871-1955. person
associatedWith Huntington, Archer M. (Archer Milton), 1870-1955. person
associatedWith Huntington, Ellsworth, 1876-1947. person
associatedWith Institute of Pacific Relations. corporateBody
associatedWith Jefferson, Mark. person
associatedWith Johns Hopkins University. corporateBody
associatedWith Keller, Albert Galloway, 1874-1956. person
associatedWith Krey, August Charles, 1887-1961 person
associatedWith Lattimore, Owen, 1900- person
correspondedWith Lazaron, Morris Samuel person
associatedWith Liebman, Charles J. person
associatedWith Lovejoy, Arthur O. (Arthur Oncken), 1873-1962. person
correspondedWith Lowell, Amy, 1874-1925 person
associatedWith Malinowski, Bronislaw, 1884-1942. person
associatedWith Mallory, Walter H. person
associatedWith Merk, Frederick, 1887-1977 person
associatedWith Mezes, Sidney Edward. person
associatedWith Mill Hugh Robert 1861-1950 person
associatedWith Murphy, Robert Cushman, 1887-1973. person
associatedWith National Research Council (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Newcomb, John Lloyd, 1881-1954. person
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
associatedWith Notestein, Wallace, 1878-1969. person
correspondedWith Pease, Arthur Stanley, 1881- person
associatedWith Pickens, Claude L., 1900-1985 person
associatedWith Pioneer Belts Projects. corporateBody
associatedWith Polk, Frank Lyon, 1871-1943. person
associatedWith Robles Pazos, José. person
associatedWith Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945. person
correspondedWith Salinas, Pedro, 1892-1951 person
correspondedWith Sarton, George, 1884-1956 person
associatedWith Sauer, Carl Ortwin, 1889-1975. person
associatedWith Semple, Ellen Churchill, 1863-1932. person
associatedWith Seymour, Charles, 1885-1963. person
associatedWith Shryock, Richard Harrison, 1893-1972. person
associatedWith Smith, J. Russell (Joseph Russell), 1874-1966. person
associatedWith Stettinius, Edward R. (Edward Reilly), 1900-1949. person
associatedWith Stokes, Anson Phelps, 1874-1958. person
associatedWith Tharp, Benjamin Carroll person
associatedWith Tharp, Benjamin Carroll, 1885-1964 person
associatedWith Thorpe, Malcolm Rutherford, 1891- person
associatedWith Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972. person
associatedWith United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945 : San Francisco, Calif.) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. American Commission to Negotiate Peace. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith Wilkins George Hubert 1888-1958 person
associatedWith Wright, John Kirtland, 1891-1969. person
associatedWith Yale Peruvian Expedition (1911) corporateBody
associatedWith Yale University. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Middle East
Islamic countries
United States
Subject
World politics
Agriculture--Atlases
Eastern question
Economic geography
Reconstruction (1939-1951)
Boundaries
World War, 1939-1945--Territorial questions
World War, 1914-1918--Territorial questions
Agriculture--Research
Muslims--Maps
Geography--United States--Societies, etc
Occupation
Geographers
Function

Person

Birth 1878-12-26

Death 1950-01-06

Americans

English

Information

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