Darwin, George Howard, sir, 1845-1912

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George Howard Darwin was an astronomer and mathematician.

From the description of On meteorites and the history of stellar systems, [1889]. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 86138587

From the description of Letters, 1834-1881. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523566

Sir George Howard Darwin (1845-1912), mathematician and astronomer, was the son of Charles Darwin. He was educated at Clapham Grammar School and Trinity College Cambridge (B.A., 1868). He was a fellow of Trinity, 1868-1878, and Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy at Cambridge, 1883-1912. Darwin concentrated on the study of the earth in his early work, before examining the earth-moon system and the influence of the tides. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1879. His collected works were published in 1907-1911.

From the guide to the George Howard Darwin: Correspondence and Papers on the Tides, 1882-1895, (Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives)

Sir George Howard Darwin (1845-1912), mathematician and astronomer, was born at Down House, Downe, Kent, on 9 July 1845, the son of the naturalist Charles Darwin. He was educated at Clapham Grammar School, then Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1868), where he was a Fellow, 1868-1878. He was Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge, 1883-1912. Darwin studied the earth in his early work before examining the earth-moon system and the influence of the tides. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1879, and his collected works were published in 1907-1911. He died at Newnham Grange, Cambridge, on 7 December 1912.

From the guide to the George Darwin: Diary of a journey to South Africa, 1905, (Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives)

Mathematician and astronomer. Fellow of the Royal Society.

From the description of Papers, 1863-1906. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79973090

From the description of Correspondence, 1899-1912. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79714914

Sir George Howard Darwin (1845-1912), mathematician and astronomer, was born at Down House, Downe, Kent, on 9 July 1845, the son of the naturalist Charles Darwin. He was educated at Clapham Grammar School, then Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1868), where he was a Fellow, 1868-1878. He was Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge, 1883-1912. Darwin studied the earth in his early work before examining the earth-moon system and the influence of the tides. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1879, and his collected works were published in 1907-1911. He died at Newnham Grange, Cambridge, on 7 December 1912.

Henry Middleton, engineer, of Slough, Buckinghamshire, worked at the Northampton Polytechnic Institute.

From the guide to the George Howard Darwin: Papers on Middleton's submarine, c. 1893-1910, (Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives)

George Howard Darwin (1845-1912, APS, 1898) was an astronomer and mathematician, who produced eighty papers collected in four volumes of his Scientific Works. He devoted himself to problems of mathematical cosmogony, and subsequent investigators have favored his methods over the merely qualitative arguments that prevailed before him. His most monumental work was a paper “On the Secular Changes in the Elements of the Orbit of a Satellite Revolving About a Tidally Distorted Planet” [1880]. Darwin was the fifth child of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882, APS 1869) and Emma Wedgwood. He began his education in the private school of Reverend Charles Pritchard, later Savillian professor of astronomy at Oxford. Darwin matriculated in Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated second wrangler, winning Smith’s prize in 1868. He was elected a fellow of Trinity College in October 1868, but did not return there until October 1873. In the meantime, he studied law for six years, and was admitted to the bar in 1874, although he never practiced.

In 1875 Darwin began a series of mathematical papers that would eventually form the corpus of his Scientific Papers in four volumes. In 1883 he was elected Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy at Cambridge, succeeding James Challis. He held this position for the remainder of his life. His work in this chair had no necessary connection with the observatory or practical astronomy. His lectures were poorly attended, although Ernest W. Brown and Sir James Jeans were among his students. Darwin was inspired by the physicist Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907, APS 1873), who probably set the young man’s career path toward the sciences. His influence is evident in Darwin’s early paper "On the Influence of Geological Changes on the Earth’s Axis of Rotation," published in 1876, but a later group of papers, concerning the tides in viscous spheroids show the influence of Kelvin and Laplace. In one of these papers, entitled "On the Precession of a Viscous Spheriod and the Remote History of Earth" (1879), Darwin proposed the "resonance theory" of the origin of the moon, asserting that it might have originated from the fission of a parent earth as the result of instability produced by resonant solar tides. His greatest paper in this series was "On the Secular Changes in the Elements of the Orbit of a Satellite Revolving About a Tidally Distorted Planet," published in 1880.

After becoming Plumian professor of astronomy, Darwin focused more intensely on the problems of the origin and development of the solar system, conducting numerous studies of the figures of equilibrium of rotating masses of fluid and later investigations of periodic orbits in the restricted problem of three bodies with special reference to cases obtaining for the values of the mass ratio of the two finite bodies of 1:10 and 1:1048 (the latter ratio approximating the mass of Jupiter compared to the sun).

Darwin’s greatest contribution to science was his pioneering work of applying detailed dynamical analysis to cosmological and geological problems. The major service that he rendered to cosmogony was to put various hypotheses to the actual test of calculations. His method provided a methodological milestone in cosmogony, and is still favored by investigators over merely qualitative arguments. Basically, he was an applied mathematician of the school of Lord Kelvin, who was content to study physical phenomena by the mathematical methods that best fit the purpose. In a speech to the Fifth International Congress of Mathematicians at Cambridge in 1912 Darwin compared his method to that of Henri Poincaré, saying that "I appeal ... for mercy to the applied mathematician, and would ask you to consider in a kindly spirit the difficulties under which he labours."

During his career, Darwin received several honors. In 1879 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London, and in 1898 he was elected a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society. In 1905 he was knighted, commander of the Bath through the influence of his friend Arthur Balfour, Prime Minister from 1902-1905. Finally, in 1912 Darwin served as president of the International Congress of Mathematicians at Cambridge. Shortly afterward, he died of cancer, and was buried in Trumpington Cemetery near Cambridge.

Darwin married in 1884 Maud DuPuy of Philadelphia. They had four children, the eldest of whom was the physicist Charles Galton Darwin (1887-1962, APS 1952).

From the guide to the On meteorites and the history of stellar systems, [1889], Circa 1889, (American Philosophical Society)

George Howard Darwin (1845-1912, APS, 1898) was an astronomer and mathematician, who produced eighty papers collected in four volumes of his Scientific Works. He devoted himself to problems of mathematical cosmogony, and subsequent investigators have favored his methods over the merely qualitative arguments that prevailed before him. His most monumental work was a paper “On the Secular Changes in the Elements of the Orbit of a Satellite Revolving About a Tidally Distorted Planet” [1880]. Darwin was the fifth child of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882, APS 1869) and Emma Wedgwood. He began his education in the private school of Reverend Charles Pritchard, later Savillian professor of astronomy at Oxford. Darwin matriculated in Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated second wrangler, winning Smith’s prize in 1868. He was elected a fellow of Trinity College in October 1868, but did not return there until October 1873. In the meantime, he studied law for six years, and was admitted to the bar in 1874, although he never practiced.

In 1875 Darwin began a series of mathematical papers that would eventually form the corpus of his Scientific Papers in four volumes. In 1883 he was elected Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy at Cambridge, succeeding James Challis. He held this position for the remainder of his life. His work in this chair had no necessary connection with the observatory or practical astronomy. His lectures were poorly attended, although Ernest W. Brown and Sir James Jeans were among his students. Darwin was inspired by the physicist Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907, APS 1873), who probably set the young man’s career path toward the sciences. His influence is evident in Darwin’s early paper "On the Influence of Geological Changes on the Earth’s Axis of Rotation," published in 1876, but a later group of papers, concerning the tides in viscous spheroids show the influence of Kelvin and Laplace. In one of these papers, entitled "On the Precession of a Viscous Spheriod and the Remote History of Earth" (1879), Darwin proposed the "resonance theory" of the origin of the moon, asserting that it might have originated from the fission of a parent earth as the result of instability produced by resonant solar tides. His greatest paper in this series was "On the Secular Changes in the Elements of the Orbit of a Satellite Revolving About a Tidally Distorted Planet," published in 1880.

After becoming Plumian professor of astronomy, Darwin focused more intensely on the problems of the origin and development of the solar system, conducting numerous studies of the figures of equilibrium of rotating masses of fluid and later investigations of periodic orbits in the restricted problem of three bodies with special reference to cases obtaining for the values of the mass ratio of the two finite bodies of 1:10 and 1:1048 (the latter ratio approximating the mass of Jupiter compared to the sun).

Darwin’s greatest contribution to science was his pioneering work of applying detailed dynamical analysis to cosmological and geological problems. The major service that he rendered to cosmogony was to put various hypotheses to the actual test of calculations. His method provided a methodological milestone in cosmogony, and is still favored by investigators over merely qualitative arguments. Basically, he was an applied mathematician of the school of Lord Kelvin, who was content to study physical phenomena by the mathematical methods that best fit the purpose. In a speech to the Fifth International Congress of Mathematicians at Cambridge in 1912 Darwin compared his method to that of Henri Poincaré, saying that "I appeal ... for mercy to the applied mathematician, and would ask you to consider in a kindly spirit the difficulties under which he labours."

During his career, Darwin received several honors. In 1879 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London, and in 1898 he was elected a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society. In 1905 he was knighted, commander of the Bath through the influence of his friend Arthur Balfour, Prime Minister from 1902-1905. Finally, in 1912 Darwin served as president of the International Congress of Mathematicians at Cambridge. Shortly afterward, he died of cancer, and was buried in Trumpington Cemetery near Cambridge.

Darwin married in 1884 Maud DuPuy of Philadelphia. They had four children, the eldest of whom was the physicist Charles Galton Darwin (1887-1962, APS 1952).

From the guide to the Sir George Howard Darwin, letters, 1834-1881, 1834-1881, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Charles Eliot Norton papers, ca.1845-1908. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983, Bulk, 1750-1850, 1668-1983 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912. On meteorites and the history of stellar systems, [1889]. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf On meteorites and the history of stellar systems, [1889], Circa 1889 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Album materials, 1777-1925 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn George Howard Darwin: Correspondence and Papers on the Tides, 1882-1895 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
creatorOf Sir George Howard Darwin, letters, 1834-1881, 1834-1881 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Elizabeth Gaskell Norton and Sara Norton papers, 1867-1948 (inclusive), 1880-1946 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Archive of the Darwin Papers Editorial Project, 1821-1882. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn George Darwin: Diary of a journey to South Africa, 1905 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, 1820-1971. Papers of Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, 1820-1978. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Ewald, Paul Peter, 1888-1985. Oral history interview with Paul Peter Ewald, 1968 May 17 and 24. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912. Letters, 1834-1881. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Gwen Raverat: Papers on Marriage Settlement and Will, 1911-1917 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
creatorOf Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912. Papers, 1863-1906. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf George Howard Darwin: Correspondence and Papers on the Tides, 1882-1895 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn Poincaré, Henri, 1854-1912. Selected papers [microform], 1873-1914. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf George Howard Darwin: Papers on Middleton's submarine, c. 1893-1910 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
creatorOf George Darwin: Diary of a journey to South Africa, 1905 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn Letters from various correspondents, American period, 1876-1937. Houghton Library.
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIi, 1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Letters from various correspondents, American period, 1876-1937. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912. Correspondence, 1899-1912. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Letters to Charles Eliot Norton and other papers, 1702-1952. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Wiechert, Emil, 1861-1928. Papers, 1895-1918. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Letters received by the Norton family, 1830-1920. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Sir William Rothenstein correspondence and other papers, 1887-1957. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Adams, John Couch, 1819-1892. Items in various series of The Royal Society, 1847-1887. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn George Howard Darwin: Papers on Middleton's submarine, c. 1893-1910 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company contracts, 1831-1979 (inclusive) 1880-1940 (bulk). Houghton Library.
Role Title Holding Repository
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Place Name Admin Code Country
Solar system
South Africa
Solar system.
South Africa
Subject
Climbing plants
Travel abroad
Moon
Engineering
Tides
Beyond Early America
Submarines
Stars
Geodesy--Congresses and conventions
Meteorites
Astronomy
Physics
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1845-07-09

Death 1912-12-07

Britons

English

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