Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Sir Charles Lyell was a distinguished English geologist.

From the description of Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1826-1850. (University of Pennsylvania Library). WorldCat record id: 191533869

British geologist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, N.B., to George Sumner, [1849 July 19]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270590709

English geologist.

From the description of Papers, 1841-1859. (Duke University). WorldCat record id: 35161230

Charles Lyell was born in Scotland on November 14, 1797. In 1816 he began study at Exeter College, Oxford University, where he took an interest in the formal study of geology and was elected as a fellow of the Linnean and Geological Societies in 1819. Although he pursued a law career for a time, by the mid-1820s Lyell had turned to geology as a full-time pursuit. In 1826 he was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society, and traveled extensively on scientific expeditions throughout Europe and North America. He published Principles of Geology in 1830 and Elements of Geology in 1838. From 1831-1833 Lyell was a professor of geology at King's College in London, and in 1835 became president of the Geological Society. He was knighted in 1848 and made a baronet in 1864. Lyell was one of evolutionist Charles Darwin's most ardent supporters, even though he did not agree with some key aspects of his theories. Lyell died on February 22, 1875, and is buried at Westminster Abbey.

From the description of Letter to "Dear Sir," 1871, February 14. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 496815814

Charles Lyell was a geologist and was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1842.

From the description of Correspondence, 1811-1882. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122316414

From the guide to the Sir Charles Lyell correspondence, 1811-1882, 1811-1882, (American Philosophical Society)

Charles Lyell was a geologist. His work "Principles of Geology" (1830-1834) discredited the catastrophic school of geologists.

From the description of Papers, 1806-1874. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122578721

Sir Charles Lyell, first baronet, (1797-1875, APS, 1842) was a geologist and lawyer, whose Principles of Geology explained “former changes of the earth’s surface” by means of “modern causes”. Critical of the “catastrophist” views of many contemporary geologists, Lyell considered the earth “a system of balanced antagonistic processes,” a theory later described as uniformitarian. Although he rejected Jean Baptiste Lamarck’s theory of species mutability early in his career, later he favorably reviewed the arguments of Charles Darwin for natural selection as the evolutionary mechanism behind the emergence of new species.

The eldest son of Charles Lyell and Frances Smith, Lyell developed a passion for natural history as a boy in New Forest, Forfarshire in Scotland. He was educated in private schools in Midhurst, Sussex county England and entered Exeter College, Oxford in 1816, where he attended William Buckland’s lectures on mineralogy and geology for three years. Lyell graduated B.A. in 1819 with a second class in classical honors. He received an M.A. in 1821, before entering Lincoln’s Inn to prepare for a legal career. Nevertheless, Lyell aimed to become a man of science, and to this end Buckland recommended him for membership in the Geological Society, which he joined together with the Linnean society.

Lyell began Geological research in 1821, after meeting Gideon Mantel, an English obstetrician, geologist and paleontologist, working on “Secondary” formations of rocks in Sussex. Lyell also studied younger “Tertiary” formations of the Chalk area of Dorset and Hampshire developed during the Cretaceous period. So, by the age of 24 Lyell was doing the kind of geological research (later called stratigraphy) then practiced by other members of the Geological Society.

In 1822 Lyell was called to the bar; nevertheless, geology quickly became more important to him than the Law. In 1823 he was elected secretary of the Geological Society of London and spent the summer in Paris, making the rounds of French scientific circles, and improving his French, then the language of science. He met established figures of the French scientific community, including Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847, APS 1819). Brongniart’s former student Constant Prévost took time to show him the formations of the Paris basin.

Lyell’s meeting with Prèvost proved a critical juncture for his career, since Prèvost convinced the young Scot that the formations outside of Paris could have been deposited under the similar conditions as those existing in present day lakes and seas, the result of so-called “modern causes,” processes observable in the present world. Later that year, Lyell studied the sediments he found in a small, recently drained lake in Kinnordy, and, in his first scientific paper presented to the Geological Society Lyell asserted the lake deposits were very similar to some of the Parisian rocks he had examined. He found no sharp contrast between the “former world” and the present one. Consequently, he maintained that “modern causes” are adequate to explain traces of the remote past. This paper presented the basic idea for all of his future work in geology.

By 1825 Lyell’s father was displeased that his son had not established himself in a successful Law practice. Consequently, Lyell felt compelled to spend more time on legal work in 1826. However, the same year Lyell was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and was also appointed foreign secretary of the Geological Society. He was also becoming known in British intellectual circles, beyond geology. In addition to these memberships, in 1825 Scottish publisher John Murray invited Lyell to write for the Tory Quarterly Review. The position afforded Lyell a much needed source of income, but also provided him a venue for promoting the causes of moderate political reform, state sponsorship of the sciences and the reform of the ancient universities.

In an 1826 essay in the Quarterly Review on the publications of the Geological Society Lyell extolled the group for pursuing a science of careful observation, rather than speculative theorizing. While sticking to the accepted view that complex organisms had appeared over time, as the earth slowly cooled, he distinguished himself from other members of the Geological Society by suggesting that “modern causes” might be responsible for much more geological development than most contemporary geologists admitted. Lyell’s essays for the Quarterly Review concluded with a review of a new book on French geology by his friend George Scrope in which he agreed with the author that what was necessary to explain geological development was simply “Time! Time! Time!” Also, at this time Lyell began to plan a book to introduce his view that geology would only become truly scientific, if it was based on “modern causes,” since only these could be directly observed.

In 1828 Lyell joined Scottish geologist Roderick Murchison (1792-1871, APS 1860) in a fieldwork tour of the European continent. Heading first for Auvergne in central France, they moved on to Italy, where Lyell developed a rough timeline for the most recent era of the earth’s geologic development represented in Tertiary rock formations. Back in England after the continental tour, he presented his findings to the Geological Society, incorporating the evidence of a broad fossil survey in Tertiary formations by French conchologist Gerard Deshayes.

In July 1830 Lyell published the first volume of Principles of Geology, recalling the title of Newton’s revolutionary Principia Mathematica. In it he attempted “to explain the former changes of the earth’s surface, by reference to causes now in operation.” He provided a systematic description of these so-called “modern causes” such as volcanoes, earthquakes, sedimentation and erosion, taken from a range of sources, including accounts of expeditions and voyages. However, Lyell’s main source was a major compilation of the physical and topographical changes recorded in human history published by Karl von Hoff in 1822-1824. He learned German specifically to read the work, and employed Hoff’s data to demonstrate his view that the earth is “a system of balanced antagonistic processes,” erosion balanced by sedimentation and crustal elevation offset by crustal subsidence.

Lyell began his book with strong criticism of contemporary geologists. He described the history of science as a protracted struggle between scientists with views similar to his own and those, who invoked catastrophes at every turn. Lyell described his own outlook, which stressed the “uniformity” of nature, as the genuinely scientific view, while equating his opponents with writers who claimed biblical authority to limit the earth’s history to a few thousand years. He lumped geologists, like his mentor Buckland with these literalist writers because he identified the “geological deluge” with the biblical flood. Nevertheless, Buckland had rejected biblical literalism by assuming an unlimited period of time for the earth’s development. Lyell’s goals were to make geology truly scientific, but also “to free the science from Moses.” The book received mixed reviews. Reviewers found his thesis about the power of modern causes significant and persuasive, but thought his criticisms of other geologists grossly unfair. Likewise, they considered Lyell’s skepticism about organic progression utterly unconvincing.

In 1831, Lyell was appointed professor of geology at the new King’s College in London. He lectured there during 1832 and 1833, offering similar lectures at the Royal Institution. But he resigned from King’s College in 1833 and gave no further lectures at the Royal Institution, since the salary provided too small an income to justify the distraction from his research and writing.

While doing field work in Germany, during the summer of 1831, Lyell met the 23-year old Mary Horner, daughter of the Whig reformer and geologist Leonard Horner. They married on July 12, 1832, after a geological honeymoon, settling in Hart Street, Bloomsbury in London near the British Museum and the Geological Society’s headquarters in Somerset House. Mary was well educated and fluent in French and German, and soon began helping her husband with translation, compensating for his poor eyesight. The marriage would remain childless.

Lyell produced the second volume of the Principles in 1832, dealing with “modern causes” in the organic realm, particularly the relationship between organisms and their enviornment. He rejected Jean Baptiste Lamarck’s theory of the incessant mutability of species, maintaining that species are “stable entities” that appear and become extinct piecemeal in time and space. He attributed extinctions not to catastrophes, but to the gradual changes in the environment explained in his first volume. It was in his review of Lyell’s second volume that William Whewell coined the terms “uniformitarian” and “catastrophist” for the two opposing schools of geologists.

In the third and final volume of the Principles Lyell laid out his time scale for the Tertiary era, which formed its core theme. He used the lengthy lists of fossilized species from Deshayes’s Paris survey of Tertiary formations to infer a chronological order for the era. Based upon the incidence of the fossilized remains of “recent” species in the various Tertiary strata, Whewell proposed to Lyell Greek-based names for successive periods of Tertiary time. The “Eocene” or early recent strata, the “Miocene” or middle recent strata, and the “Pliocene” or “almost” recent strata. Lyell maintained that the entire Tertiary era exemplified the essential “uniformity” of the earth throughout geologic time. Lyell laid to rest the alleged evidence of radically different conditions in earlier eras with his concept of “metamorphism”. He pointed out that deep burial within the earth’s crust of its oldest rocks had destroyed their fossils and altered them beyond recognition. Likewise, sedimentary strata were transformed by heat, being converted to crystalline rocks, when submerged below the earth’s surface. Lyell called these rocks “metamorphic” rocks.

In 1834, Lyell presented the Bakerian lecture at the Royal Society and afterward received the Society’s royal medal. However, it was awarded specifically for his work on modern causes, and not for his more controversial claims. In particular, even Lyell’s strongest supporters were critical of his rejection of a directional history of the world, while other critics took exception with his rejection the mutability of species. In 1835-37 Lyell served as president of the Geological Society, and used his anniversary addresses to examine current geological research in light of his own approach to science. Although his notions of modern causes continued to gain headway among geologists, other aspects of his work did not. The uneven evaluation of his ideas influenced Lyell to divide his research into two parts. Subsequent editions of the Principles, beginning with the sixth edition (1840) focused purely on the interactions “modern causes”. Lyell planned a separate book on the use of fossil mollusks in Tertiary geology, but this never appeared.

In 1838 Lyell produced a book entitled Elements of Geology that examined the whole stratigraphical record from the most recent to most ancient formations. The work interpreted terrestrial processes in terms of geological uniformity for a wide audience of educated lay readers. Written in a clear and persuasive style, the book also appeared in American editions and French and German translations, giving Lyell’s ideas international currency.

In 1841-42 Lyell was invited to the United States to give the Lowell lectures in Boston, after which he and his wife traveled widely, publishing a two volume record of Travels in North America, containing his geological, political and social observations. In an encore appearance they returned to America in 1845-46, when he was invited to give the Lowell lectures once again. He also made two subsequent visits to the United States in 1852 and 1853.

By this point in his career Lyell had become a prominent man of science. He was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 1842, knighted by the Queen in 1848 and served on the Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. During a second term as president of the Geological Society in 1848-51, Lyell once again criticized the alleged fossil evidence for species change. Some puzzling field observations from Madeira the Canary Islands came to his attention in 1857, forcing him consider once more the possibility of an evolutionary mechanism behind the development of species. Shortly before this in 1856, Charles Darwin informed Lyell of his own theory of natural selection as the mechanism behind evolution. Despite the implications of Darwin’s ideas for his geology and his view of human life, Lyell encouraged him to publish without delay.

Lyell’s last major work entitled the Antiquity of man, published in 1863 was informed by Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859), as well as new geological evidence that established the existence of early human beings alongside mammoths and other extinct mammals. Lyell now reviewed the evidence for evolution quite favorably, although he only clearly embraced the idea four years later in the tenth edition of the Principles (1867-68).

Lyell was active in the British Association for the Advancement of Science in its early years, serving as president for the Bath meeting in 1864. Also, that year he was created a baronet, and in 1866 received the Wollaston medal, the Geological Society’s highest award. Lyell’s Elements went through eight editions, and the twelfth edition of the Principles was published posthumously in 1875. Lyell died on February 22, 1875 at his London home, preceded two years earlier by his wife Mary. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

From the guide to the Sir Charles Lyell papers, 1806-1874, 1806-1874, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1834 Sept. 15, Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, to David Laing / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1833 Mar. 9, Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, to David Laing / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. Papers, 1846-1895. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Samuel Peckworth Woodward letters, 1836-1865, 1836-1865 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter to [?]. 73 Harley St., [London], Eng. 1871 Oct. 28. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Letters of scientists, 1655-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter : London, to David Milne, 1840 Feb. 15. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. [Letters to Professor Silliman of Yale College / by Charles Lyell]. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker correspondence, 1844-1910, 1844-1910 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Dwight, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 1846-1917. Theodore F. Dwight papers, 1660-1916. Library of Congress
referencedIn Thomas Henry Huxley papers, 1846-1895, 1846-1895 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Correspondence, 1811-1882. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Lesley, J. P. (J. Peter), 1819-1903. Papers, 1826-1898. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Clough, Arthur Hugh, 1819-1861. Letter [n.d.], Cambridge, to Mrs. Ticknor [n.p.]. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Papers of Ferdinand-André Fouqué (1828-1904), 1892-1903 Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Alison, Archibald, 1757-1839,. Papers pertaining to Charles Darwin and evolution, 1771-1821. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter, [n.d., Boston?], to G. Ticknor, Boston. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1838 Dec. 13, Kinnordy, to David Laing, Signet Library, Edinburgh / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter : London, to David Milne, 1840 Feb. 15. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Lee, John Edward, 1808-1887. John Edward Lee letterbook, 1862-1884. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1834 Oct. 11, Kinnordy, to David Laing / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1785-1865. Letters, 1819-1863. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Somerville, Mary, 1780-1872. Papers, [ca. 1781-ca. 1877]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Richard Owen papers, 1827-1889, 1827-1889 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Henry Adams autograph album, 1833-1939. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Alexander von Humboldt papers, 1801-1859, 1793-1859 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Samuel George Morton Papers, 1819-1850 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1836 Jan. 27, Kinnordy, to David Laing, South Bridge Street [Edinburgh] / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, 1799-1882 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1845 Sept. 12, Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, to David Laing / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Ord, George, 1781-1866. Letters, 1832-1864, to Charles Waterton. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Jared Sparks collection of American manuscripts, 1582-1843. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. Correspondence, 1784-1932. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn [Journal], 1857-1858. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Parkman family, Edward Twisleton, and Sarah Wyman Whitman additional papers, 1763-1917 (inclusive) 1850-1907 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : London, to Dr. Percy, 1863 May 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. Correspondence, 1851-1895. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Merrill, George P. (George Perkins), 1854-1929. Papers, 1837-1931, bulk 1891-1920. University of Maine at Orono, Raymond H. Fogler Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Catalogue of specimens of the tertiary formation of the Paris basin / by Charles Lyell. Natural History Museum
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Perkins family. Perkins family papers, 1784-1891, bulk 1784-1861. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. [Letter] July 9, 1874, London [to] Rev. Bonney. University of California, San Diego, UC San Diego Library; UCSD Library
referencedIn Samuel George Morton papers, 1838-1844, 1838-1844 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Hooker, J. D. (Joseph Dalton), 1817-1911. Letter, Kew, England, to Sir Charles Lyell. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Thomas Henry Huxley Papers, 1851-1895, 1851-1895 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Adam Sedgwick: Letters and Papers, 1818-1916 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : London, to Thomas Sopwith, 1841 Jan. 27. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, N.B., to George Sumner, [1849 July 19]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Papers of Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), 1823-1875 Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Charles Albert Browne Papers, 1783-1947, (bulk 1909-1945) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter : London, to unknown man, 1870 May 11. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Owen, Richard, 1804-1892. Papers, 1827-1889. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Faraday, Michael, 1791-1867. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Louis Agassiz correspondence and other papers, 1821-1877. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn James Elliot Cabot letters from various correspondents, 1843-1902. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, 1799-1882 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Prescott, William Hickling, 1796-1859. William Hickling Prescott papers, 1655-1959 ; bulk: 1775-1859. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Sir William Wiseman papers, 1916-1961 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Miscellaneous correspondence collection, 1796-1926, 1871-1926 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Papers, 1841-1859. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Prescott-Lyell letters, 1849-1852. Massachusetts Historical Society
creatorOf Herschel Family. Papers, 1721-1951, (bulk 1810-1871). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Papers of Professor Robert Harkness (1816-1878), 1855-1877 Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : London, to J. Boult, 1857 June 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Palfrey family papers, 1713-1915. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1833 Oct. 22, Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, to David Laing, Edinburgh / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Charles Sumner correspondence, 1829-1874. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn J.P. Lesley Papers, 1826-1898 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851. Papers, 1838-1844. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Alison, Archibald, 1757-1839. Papers pertaining to Charles Darwin and evolution [manuscript], 1771-1921. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875,. Autograph letter signed (signature illegible) : [n.p.], to Charles Lyell, [1827 July 26]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Papers of Sir John William Dawson (1820-1899), 1842-1957 Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Sir Charles Lyell correspondence, 1811-1882, 1811-1882 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Choate, Rufus, 1799-1859. Letter, 1841 December 19, Washington, to George Ticknor [n.p.]. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Handwriting samples of naturalists and others, ca. 1800-1970 (inclusive) Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
referencedIn Prescott, William Hickling, 1796-1859. Papers of William Hickling Prescott [manuscript], 1836-1858. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Ramsay, Edward Bannerman, 1793-1872. Letter to John Stevens Henslow, 1832, October 20. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf British Association for the Advancement of Science. Meeting. [Addresses to the British Association for the Advancement of Science]. American Museum of Natural History
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter, 1858. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Records of the Erving Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy kept by John White Webster, 1824-1835 and undated. Harvard University Archives.
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to J. Murray, 1861 Nov. 13. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1832 Nov. 1, Kinnordy, to David Laing, South Bridge [Edinburgh] / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Notes on Mont Dores : autograph manuscript notes : [n.p.], 1857. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Papers, 1806-1874. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Sir James Paget correspondence, 1784-1932, 1784-1932 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Ticknor, George, 1791-1871. Letter, [between 1820 and 1870?] April 28, Boston. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter signed : Down, Bromley, Kent, to Charles Kingsley, [1867] Dec. 13. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1826-1850. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letters, 1837-1882. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : London, to an unidentified recipient, 1831 July 2. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Woodward, Samuel Pickworth, 1821-1865. Letters, 1836-1865. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Mary Somerville papers, [ca. 1781-ca. 1877], Circa 1781-1877 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter : London, to unknown man, 1870 May 11. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Archive of the Darwin Papers Editorial Project, 1821-1882. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Wiseman, William, Sir, b. 1885. Sir William Wiseman papers, 1916-1961 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Milman, Henry Hart, 1791-1868. Letters, 1838 June 4-1870 March 1, Deanery, St. Pauls. to George Ticknor, Boston. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter to "Dear Sir," 1871, February 14. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn HUXLEY, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), 1839-1931 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
referencedIn Sir William Jackson Hooker letters, 1819-1863, 1819-1863 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1836 Jan. 11, Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, to William Laing / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Shecut, John L. E. W. (John Linnaeus Edward Whitridge), 1770-1836. Mineralogical tracts. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Perkins family papers, 1784-1891, 1784-1861 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Autograph letter signed : London, to Mr. De Salis, 1849 Dec. 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Humboldt, Alexander von, 1769-1859. Papers, 1801-1859. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Letters from various correspondents, 1851-1874. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875. Letter: 1843 Mar. 13, Kinnordy, to David Laing / Cha. Lyell. University of Edinburgh - Main Library, Edinburgh University Library
creatorOf Sir Charles Lyell papers, 1806-1874, 1806-1874 American Philosophical Society
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, Henry, 1838-1918 person
associatedWith Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873. person
associatedWith American Museum of Natural History. corporateBody
associatedWith Babbage, Charles, 1791-1871. person
associatedWith Ball, John, 1818-1889. person
associatedWith Bates, Henry Walter, 1825-1892. person
associatedWith Beccari, Odoardo, 1843-1920. person
associatedWith Bentham, George, 1800-1884. person
associatedWith Bonney, T. G. (Thomas George), 1833-1923. person
associatedWith Boult, J., person
associatedWith British Association for the Advancement of Science. Meeting corporateBody
correspondedWith Browne, Charles Albert, 1870-1947 person
associatedWith Bunbury, Charles James Fox, Sir, 1809-1886. person
associatedWith Busk, George, 1807-1886. person
associatedWith Cabot, James Elliot, 1821-1903 person
associatedWith Carpenter, William Benjamin, 1813-1885. person
associatedWith Choate, Rufus, 1799-1859. person
associatedWith Clough, Arthur Hugh, 1819-1861. person
associatedWith Codrington, Edward, Sir, 1770-1851. person
associatedWith Conybeare, William Daniel, 1787-1857. person
associatedWith Curtis, John, 1791-1862. person
associatedWith Dante Alighieri, 1265-1321. person
associatedWith Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. person
associatedWith De La Beche, Henry T. (Henry Thomas), 1796-1855. person
associatedWith De Salis, Mr, person
associatedWith Dibner, Bern, person
associatedWith Dickson, Samuel Henry, 1798-1872. person
associatedWith Don, George, 1798-1856. person
associatedWith Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Blackwood, Marquis of, 1826-1902 person
associatedWith Dwight, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 1846-1917. person
associatedWith Egerton, Philip de Malpas Grey, Sir, 1806-1881. person
associatedWith Faraday, Michael, 1791-1867. person
associatedWith Fitton, William Henry, 1780-1861. person
associatedWith Fleming, John, 1785-1857. person
associatedWith Flower, William Henry, 1831-1899. person
associatedWith Forbes, Edward, 1815-1854. person
associatedWith Galton, Francis, 1822-1911. person
associatedWith Geikie, Archibald, Sir, 1835-1924. person
associatedWith Geological Society of London. corporateBody
associatedWith Giotto, 1266?-1337. person
associatedWith Grey-Egerton, Philip de Malpas, family
associatedWith Haeckel, Ernst, 1834-1919. person
associatedWith Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philip August person
associatedWith Hall, James. person
associatedWith Henslow, J. S. (John Stevens), 1796-1861. person
associatedWith Herschel Family. family
associatedWith Herschel, John F. W. (John Frederick William), Sir, 1792-1871. person
associatedWith Hicks, Henry person
associatedWith Hicks, Henry. person
associatedWith Hitchcock, Edward, 1793-1864. person
associatedWith Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911. person
associatedWith Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1785-1865. person
associatedWith Hopkins, William person
associatedWith Hopkins, William. person
associatedWith Horsfield, Thomas, 1773-1859. person
associatedWith Hull, Edward, 1829-1917. person
associatedWith Humboldt, Alexander von, 1769-1859. person
associatedWith Hunt, Thomas Sterry, 1826-1892. person
associatedWith Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. person
associatedWith Jackson, Charles T. (Charles Thomas), 1805-1880. person
associatedWith James, Sir Henry person
associatedWith James, Sir Henry. person
associatedWith Jamieson, Thomas, d. 1924. person
associatedWith Judd, John W. (John Wesley), 1840-1916. person
associatedWith Jukes, Beete person
associatedWith Jukes, Beete. person
associatedWith Kingsley, Charles, 1819-1875. person
associatedWith La Hire, Philippe de, 1640-1718. person
associatedWith Lee, John Edward, 1808-1887. person
associatedWith Legaré, Hugh Swinton, 1797-1843. person
associatedWith Lesley, Allen person
associatedWith Lesley, J. P. (J. Peter), 1819-1903. person
associatedWith Lyman, Theodore, 1792-1849. person
associatedWith Mackenzie, George Steuart, Sir, 1780-1848. person
associatedWith Mantell, Gideon Algernon, 1790-1852. person
associatedWith Merrill, George P. (George Perkins), 1854-1929. person
associatedWith Milman, Henry Hart, 1791-1868. person
associatedWith Milne-Home, David, 1805-1890. person
associatedWith Milne-Home, David, 1817-1911. person
associatedWith Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851. person
associatedWith Murchison, Roderick Impey, Sir, 1792-1871. person
associatedWith Murray, J., person
associatedWith Newton, Alfred, 1829-1907. person
associatedWith Nuttall, Thomas, 1786-1859. person
associatedWith Ord, George, 1781-1866. person
associatedWith Owen, Richard, 1804-1892. person
associatedWith Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. person
correspondedWith Palfrey family. family
associatedWith Percy, Dr., person
associatedWith Perkins family family
associatedWith Perkins family. family
associatedWith Prescott, William Hickling, 1796-1859. person
associatedWith Ramsay, Edward Bannerman, 1793-1872. person
associatedWith Ray, Gordon Norton, 1915- person
associatedWith Rogers, Henry Darwin, 1808-1866. person
associatedWith Sabine, Edward, Sir, 1788-1883. person
associatedWith Sclater, Philip Lutley, 1829-1913. person
associatedWith Sedgwick, Adam person
associatedWith Sedgwick, Adam, 1785-1873. person
correspondedWith Silliman, Benjamin, 1779-1864 person
associatedWith Smith, James Edward, Sir, 1759-1828. person
associatedWith Somerville, Mary, 1780-1872. person
associatedWith Sopwith, Thomas, person
associatedWith Sowerby, James, 1757-1822. person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
correspondedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
associatedWith Sumner, George, d. 1850, person
associatedWith Ticknor, George, 1791-1871. person
associatedWith Torchhammer, Georg person
associatedWith Torchhammer, Georg. person
associatedWith Turner, Dawson, 1775-1858. person
associatedWith Twisleton, Edward, 1809-1874 person
associatedWith Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913. person
associatedWith Webster, John White, 1793-1850 person
associatedWith Whewell, William, 1784-1866. person
associatedWith Whewell, William, 1794-1866. person
associatedWith Whitney, J. D. (Josiah Dwight), 1819-1896. person
associatedWith Whymper, Edward, 1840-1911. person
associatedWith Wightman, Julia P., person
associatedWith Wilkinson, John Gardner, 1797-1875. person
associatedWith Williamson, William Crawford, 1816-1895. person
associatedWith Wills, W. R. person
associatedWith Wills, W. R. family
associatedWith Wiseman, William George Eden, Sir, bart., 1885- person
associatedWith Wiseman, William, Sir, b. 1885. person
associatedWith Wollaston, Alexander R. person
associatedWith Wollaston, Alexander R. person
associatedWith Wood, Searles person
associatedWith Wood, Searles. person
associatedWith Wood, Searles Valentine, 1798-1880. person
associatedWith Woodward, Samuel, 1790-1838. person
associatedWith Woodward, Samuel Pickworth, 1821-1865. person
associatedWith Wyman, Jefferies, 1814-1874. person
associatedWith Wyman, Jeffries, 1814-1874 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Great Britain
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Great Britain
Subject
Natural history
Scientists--Great Britain
Science
Geology--19th century
Geology
Paleontology
Botany
Science--Great Britain
Beyond Early America
Evolution
Natural selection
Booksellers and bookselling
Occupation
Scientists--Great Britain
Function

Person

Birth 1797-11-14

Death 1875-02-22

Britons

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w67h1gjh

Ark ID: w67h1gjh

SNAC ID: 56964739