Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is an American diplomat and political scientist who served as the Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Born in Germany as Heinz Alfred Kissinger, he was a Jewish refugee who fled the Nazi regime with his family in 1938. He became National Security Advisor in 1969 and later Secretary of State in 1973. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize. He is the founder and chairman of Kissinger Associates, an international consulting firm.