Houston, Sam, 1793-1863

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1793-03-02
Death 1863-07-26
English, Spanish; Castilian

Biographical notes:

Texas politician, soldier, and frontier hero. He was the first president of the Republic of Texas and served as a United States Senator for that state.

From the description of Letter, ca. 1855. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122699442

From the description of Letter, 1859. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 145435304

Sam Houston's colorful public life began with his heroic action during the war of 1812. He served as congressman and governor of Tennessee, spent years among the Indians, was commander-in-chief of the Texas army in the Texas Revolution, then president of Texas, and later Texas senator and governor.

From the description of Hearne, Madge Williams, collection, 1817-1853. (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 21785583

President of Texas, U.S. senator and governor of Texas, U.S. representative and governor of Tennessee, and army officer.

From the description of Papers of Sam Houston, 1823-1859. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79451019

Sam Houston's colorful public life began with his heroic action during the War of 1812. He served as congressman and governor of Tennessee, spent years among the Indians, was commander-in-chief of the Texas army in the Texas Revolution, then president of the Republic of Texas, and later Texas senator and governor.

From the description of Hearne, Sam Houston, collection, 1820-1929. (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 21794369

Sam Houston arrived in Texas December 2, 1832 and quickly became a central figure in the politics of the rebellion against Mexico. Under Houston's leadership, the Texas Army was victorious at the Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836. Sam Houston served two terms as President of the Republic of Texas, 1836-1838 and 1841-1844. After the United States accession of Texas, Sam Houston served as United States Senator and was elected Texas governor in 1859. He would not take a loyalty oath to the Confederate States of America, and was removed from office by the Texas Convention on March 16. He died July 26, 1863.

From the description of Personal papers of Sam Houston, 1832-1868, (bulk 1841-1863). (San Jacinto Museum of History). WorldCat record id: 47109709

U.S. Congressman from Tennessee (1823-1827), U. S. Senator from Texas (1846-1859), governor of Tennessee (1827-1829) and Texas (1859-1861), and president of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838).

From the description of Letter, January 21, 1825. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 436775744

American soldier and political leader.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Austin, to Senor Don Antonio Navarro, 1840 July 1. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 269521885

U.S. representative and governor of Tennessee, president of the Republic of Texas, and U.S. senator and governor of Texas.

From the description of Samuel Houston papers, 1827-1975. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70956301

Houston was President and Governor of Texas.

From the description of ADS, 1835 September 1 : Nacogdoches, Texas. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 17297929

Sam Houston's colorful public life began with his heroic action during the War of 1812. He served as congressman and governor of Tennessee, spent years among the Indians, was commander-in-chief of the Texas army in the Texas Revolution, then president of the Republic of Texas, and later Texas senator and governor.

Chronology of Houston's life:

  • March 2, 1793: Houston's birth to Samuel and Elizabeth (Paxton) Houston in Rockbridge County, Virginia
  • 1813: Enlisted in the United States Army
  • May 1818: Resigned from the Army as a first lieutenant, to begin the study of law
  • October 1818: Elected district attorney of Nashville, Tennessee, district
  • ca. 1819: Appointed adjutant general of the Tennessee state militia with rank of colonel
  • 1821: Elected major general of the state militia
  • 1823: Elected to U.S. House of Representatives as delegate from Tennessee
  • 1825: Re-elected to U.S. Congress
  • 1827: Elected governor of Tennessee
  • 1829: Married and separated from Eliza H. Allen of Gallatin, Tennessee
  • 1829: Resigned as governor of Tennessee
  • 1829 - 1835 : Served as business and diplomatic agent for the Cherokees in the Indian Territory
  • 1832: Houston's probable first trip into Texas
  • 1833: Returned to Texas to attend the Convention of 1833 as a representative of Nacogdoches
  • 1835: Elected delegate to the Consultation, and the General Council elected him major general of the Texas Army
  • 1836: Elected delegate to the Convention of 1836; elected commander-in-chief of the Texas Army; led army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21
  • 1836 - 1838 : Elected and served as President of the Republic of Texas
  • 1839 - 1841 : Elected and served as representative from San Augustine County to the Fourth and Fifth Congresses
  • 1840: Married Margaret Moffette Lea in Marion, Alabama
  • 1841 - 1844 : Elected and served second term as President of the Republic of Texas
  • 1845: Elected delegate from Montgomery County to the Convention of 1845
  • 1846 - 1859 : Elected by the Texas Legislature to the U.S. Senate
  • 1856: Discussed as possible presidential candidate for the Know-Nothing Party
  • 1857: Defeated in election for governor of Texas
  • 1859: Elected governor of Texas
  • 1860: Discussed as possible presidential candidate for the Constitutional Union Party
  • 1861: Declined to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy and was ousted as governor by the Secession Convention
  • July 26, 1863: Died at his home in Huntsville, Texas

From the guide to the Sam Houston Papers, 1814-1957, and undated, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)

Sam Houston (1793-1863) was the first President of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1838.

Anna Raguet (1819-1883) was the daughter of Henry Raguet, businessman from Cincinnati, Ohio, who Sam Houston persuaded to move to Texas in 1833.

Sam Houston sought for some time to marry Anna Raguet, who eventually (in 1840) married Robert Anderson Irion (1806-1861), Houston's Secretary of State for the Republic of Texas.

From the guide to the James R. and Ewing B. Irion: Houston - Anna Raguet Papers AR 98-235., (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)

One of the most influential men of Texas history, Sam Houston (1793-1863) was born March 2, 1793, in Virginia and when he was a boy, moved with his family to eastern Tennessee. Houston's performance at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, March 26, 1814, won him the lifelong admiration of Andrew Jackson, commander of the United States Army. Jackson's political patronage served Houston well over the next several years and helped him to attain several political and military offices of influence: Attorney General of the District of Nashville, two terms in the United States House of Representatives, colonel and adjutant general of the state militia of Tennessee, and eventually governor of Tennessee in 1827. On April 16, 1829, Houston separated from his wife, Eliza Allen, resigned the governorship and moved west to Indian Territory. For three years he lived with the Cherokees and took an Indian wife, Diana Rogers Gentry.

Houston arrived in Texas on December 2, 1832. A central figure in the politics of the rebellion against Mexico, he represented Nacogdoches at the San Felipe Convention in 1833 and was appointed major-general of the Texas Army at the Consultation of November 12, 1835. Sam Houston helped to secure a treaty with the Cherokee in February 1836. He also participated in the convention that declared the Independence of Texas March 2, 1836, at Washington on the Brazos. On March 4, 1836 he was granted command of the Republic's military forces. From Gonzalez he began a long controversial retreat from the advancing Mexican army. Under Houston's leadership, the Texas Army defeated the forces of Antonio López de Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836.

Sam Houston served two non-consecutive terms as President of the Republic of Texas, 1836-1838 and 1841-1844. He married again on May 9, 1840 to Margaret Moffette Lea and fathered eight children. After the United States' accession of Texas, Sam Houston served as United States Senator from February 21, 1846, to March 4, 1859. Elected Texas governor in 1859, Houston would not swear a loyalty oath to the Confederate States of America and was removed from office by the Texas Convention on March 16, 1860. However, he refused Abraham Lincoln's offer of federal troops to maintain his office. Out of office, Sam Houston remained supportive of Texans who fought in the Civil War. He succumbed to pneumonia after several weeks of illness and died July 26, 1863.

From the guide to the Personal papers of Sam Houston MC027. 47109709., 1832-1868, (Bulk: 1841-1863), (Albert and Ethel Herzstein Library, )

Sam Houston was born in Virginia on 2 March 1793, to Samuel and Elizabeth Paxton Houston. After migrating from Virginia to Tennessee and then to Texas, Houston became a key figure in helping Texas win its independence from Mexico in 1836, and then in the annexation of Texas into the United Stated in 1845. He was the first and third president of the Republic of Texas (the Texas constitution did not allow a president to serve consecutive terms), and between terms served as a representative in the Texas House of Representatives for San Augustine.

After the annexation of Texas in 1845, Houston was elected to the United States Senate, where he served for 13 years, when in 1859, he was elected governor as a Unionist. Upon election, he became the only person in U.S. history to serve as governor of two states (he'd served as governor of Tennessee from 1827-1829, as well as the only governor to have been a foreign head of state. Although he was a slave owner and opposed abolition, he even moreso opposed the secession of Texas from the Union.

When, on 1 February 1861, an elected convention voted to secede from the Union, and Texas joined the Confederate States of America on 2 March 1861 (Houston's 68th birthday), Houston refused to recognize the legality of the rights of the convention. However, the Texas legislature upheld the legitimacy of the secession. The political forces that brought about secession were also powerful enough to have the Unionist governor replaced as well. Houston chose not to resist, and on 16 March 1861, he was evicted from office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy. He returned to Huntsville, Texas, where he remained with his third wife, Margaret Moffette Lea (of Marion, Alabama), until his death from pneumonia on 26 July 1863.

From the guide to the Sam Houston letters MSS. 0706., 1853-1857, (W.S. Hoole Special Collections Library, The University of Alabama)

Samuel Houston, known as the Father of Texas, was born on March 2, 1793, in Virginia. His father, Samuel Houston, was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Following his father's death in 1807, his mother, Elizabeth (Paxton) Houston moved the family to Tennessee. Sam Houston did not have a formal education, instead attending school when possible. Sam Houston had an active political life. Trained in law, he was elected as district attorney for Nashville at the age of 25. Soon after, he was appointed adjutant general of Tennessee. He was elected to Congress from Tennessee in 1823 and again in 1825. In 1827 he was elected governor of Tennessee. He resigned from this position in 1829 and began working in Indian territory for the Cherokees. He was made a member of the Cherokee Nation.

Houston first traveled in Texas in 1832. He attended the Convention of 1833 as a delegate from Nacogdoches, although he does not appear to have been a long-term resident of the area until 1835. In November 1835 he was elected major general of the Texas Army. He signed the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836. On April 21, 1836, he led the Texas Army to victory over the forces of General Santa Anna in the Battle of San Jacinto. On September 5, 1836, Houston was elected President of the Republic of Texas. September 6, 1841, he was elected again to that position, having served as a representative to the Texas Congress during Mirabeau Lamar's presidency. On February 21, 1846, Houston was elected to the U. S. Senate where he served almost 14 years. In 1859 he was elected as governor of Texas. Because he did not support the dissolution of the Union, he was removed from office in 1861. Sam Houston died on July 26, 1863, on his farm near Huntsville, Texas.

From the description of Sam Houston collection, 1810-1871. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 694772445

Samuel Houston was born in 1793 March 2 in Rockbridge County, Virginia. After his father died when Sam was only thirteen, the Houston family moved to a smaller farm in Tennessee. Rejecting the agrarian lifestyle, Sam ran away from home and lived with a Cherokee Indian family where he was renamed "The Raven." He left his Cherokee village at age 18.

Sam's entrance into the military proved to be the start of an impressive political career as well. When war broke out between the United States and Great Britain in 1812, Houston enlisted with the United States Army in hopes of making some extra money. He gradually rose through the ranks and found favor with General Andrew Jackson. In 1818, after struggling to teach himself law, Houston opened a law practice in Lebanon, Tennessee, and was later appointed the attorney general for the Nashville District. After gaining some experience in legal matters, he served two terms in the United States Congress as a Representative from Tennessee. Upon completion of these two terms, Houston was elected governor of the state.

Houston's power and reputation in the state of Tennessee eventually came to an end. In 1829 January Houston married Eliza Allen. The marriage ended in divorce and Houston resigned as governor. Houston once again returned to the Cherokees in Oklahoma where he married an Indian named Diana Rogers Gentry. Houston eventually left his native wife and moved to Texas where he quickly became involved in Texas politics. When war broke out between Texas and Mexico, Sam Houston was appointed the commander of the Texas army. He won great renown in his victory over General Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto on 1836 April 21. When the war was resolved, Houston was elected the first president of the Republic of Texas for a two-year term. From 1839 to 1841, he served as a legislator in the Texas House of Representatives. In May 1840, Sam wed his third wife Margaret Moffette Lea of Alabama. Sam and Margaret had eight children.

From 1841 to 1844, Houston served a second term as president of Texas. He struggled to stimulate Texas' economy while maintaining peace with the neighboring Indian tribes. When Texas was annexed to the United States, Houston became a United States Senator from 1858 to 1859. In 1859, Houston once again became a governor, this time of Texas. When civil war seemed inevitable, Houston warned his fellow southerners that the North would triumph in the end. He refused to swear loyalty to the Confederate States of America and was removed from office. On 1863 July 26, after battling illness for weeks, Houston passed away.

From the description of Sam Houston papers, 1827-1893 1835-1861. (Baylor University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 773299398

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Subjects:

  • Statesmen--Texas
  • Indians of North America
  • Governor
  • Cherokee Indians
  • Government, Law and Politics
  • Political corruption
  • Alabama
  • San Jacinto, Battle of, 1836
  • Cherokee Indians--History--Sources
  • Legislators
  • Slaves--Emancipation
  • Secession
  • San Jacinto, Battle of, Tex., 1836
  • Elections--History--19th century
  • Politicians--Correspondence
  • Courts--History--19th century
  • Indians--Treaties
  • Politicians--Alabama
  • Religious life
  • Indians of North America--Government relations
  • Indians of North America--Texas
  • Cabinet officers--Selection and appointment
  • Kansas--Nebraska bill
  • Medicine--Practice
  • Governors--Biography

Occupations:

  • Army officers
  • Representatives, U.S. Congress--Tennessee
  • Statesmen
  • Governors--Tennessee
  • Governors--Texas
  • Senators, U.S. Congress--Texas
  • Presidents--Texas

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  • Independence (Tex.) (as recorded)
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  • Texas-Annexation to the United States. (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Tennessee (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Alabama |x Politics and government (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
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  • North Carolina (as recorded)
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  • United States (as recorded)
  • Politicians--Texas (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
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  • Tennessee (as recorded)