Jackson, Henry M. (Henry Martin), 1912-1983

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Jackson's tenure in the House was briefly interrupted by service in the U.S. Army. He enlisted in 1943, but was recalled by President Roosevelt to congressional service after basic training.

Jackson was assigned to the Government Operations Committee's Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, a position which quickly put him at the center of the un-American activities controversies and in the national spotlight. He won recognition for his questioning during the televised Army-McCarthy hearings in the spring of 1954, in which he came across as fair and evenhanded. Jackson remained a member of the PSI the rest of his Senate tenure and chaired the Subcommittee from 1973 to 1978.

Jackson came to be known as an unceasing advocate of a strong national defense. A stern adversary of the Soviet Union, he cast a critical eye on arms limitation agreements. His support became a key factor in the adoption of any agreement. The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 and the interim agreement that resulted from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) of 1972 were adopted only after the Senate agreed to Jackson-sponsored amendments. As chairman of the Armed Services Committee Subcommittee on Arms Control, he carefully monitored negotiations for a SALT II treaty, which were conducted between 1972 and 1979, and strongly criticized the resulting document.

Jackson was an early advocate of U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia. As the conflict in Vietnam dragged on, his continued support of Johnson and Nixon Administration policies found him increasingly in conflict with the Democratic Party and public opinion. Jackson voted against President Ford's request for aid for the crumbling South Vietnamese government in 1975, but remained convinced that the decision to become involved in Vietnam was fundamentally correct.

As early as 1966, Jackson spoke of the importance of working out "a livable relationship with the Chinese Communists," and he was instrumental in helping move the U.S. towards recognition of the People's Republic of China. As Jackson became a specialist on China, he played a significant behind-the-scenes role in influencing U.S. leaders and policy toward China.

As a member and later Chairman (1963-1980) of the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, Jackson played a key role in federal lands policy. He shepherded through the Senate the Wilderness Areas Act of 1964, which established a system for designating wilderness areas on public lands. He brokered the legislative compromises that led to the creation of the North Cascades National Park in 1968 and the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. He was also the author the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the cornerstone of American environmental law.

Jackson's chairmanship of the committee, which was renamed the Energy and Natural Resources Committee in 1977, also allowed him to influence energy matters. He was a proponent of the construction of a dual-purpose nuclear reactor at Hanford. Jackson played a key role in crafting the nation's response to the oil embargo imposed by the Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973 and in the passage of the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980.

Jackson first emerged as a national candidate in 1960 as a contender for the vice presidential nomination. Presidential nominee John F. Kennedy, however, chose Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson as his running mate, and Jackson was asked to head the Democratic National Committee. In the early 1970s an informal poll of his Senate colleagues ranked him best qualified to be President, yet Jackson was unsuccessful in his 1972 and 1976 bids for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination.

Final years: The 1980 elections gave the Republican Party control of the Senate and Jackson lost his committee chairmanship. He nevertheless retained great influence as ranking member of the Armed Services, Government Affairs, and Energy and Natural Resources Committees.

Henry M. Jackson died suddenly of a heart attack on September 1, 1983. At the time of his death he held the record for longest service in Congress.

From the guide to the Henry M. Jackson Papers, 1912-1987, 1940-1983, (University of Washington Libraries Special Collections)

Archival Resources
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referencedIn Edward Weber Allen papers, 1886-1975, 1929-1974 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Emily Haig papers, 1933-1972 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
creatorOf Jackson, Henry M. (Henry Martin), 1912-1983. Miscellaneous papers. Jacksonville University, Carl S. Swisher Library
referencedIn Coalition Against Oil Pollution records, 1970-1981, 1977-1981 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
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creatorOf Timbers, Lawrence, 1897-. Papers, 1949-1978. University of Oregon Libraries, UO Libraries
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referencedIn Andrew Winberg papers, 1917-1978 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
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referencedIn Morgenthau, Hans J. (Hans Joachim), 1904-1980. Hans J. Morgenthau papers, 1858-1981 (bulk 1925-1981). Library of Congress
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referencedIn Walker, Robert Kirk. Robert Kirk Walker papers, 1947-1980. Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library
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referencedIn Marion S. Kinney papers, circa 1940-1981 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn 11/12/80, Senate Democrats (T-26397) Jimmy Carter Library
referencedIn Publicity photographs of U.S. Senator Hugh Scott, 1958-1973. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Andrews, Emery E., 1894-1976. Emery E. Andrews papers, 1925-1969 (bulk 1942-1947). University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Western Washington University special events photographs, 1976 Western Washington University Heritage Resources
referencedIn Emery E. Andrews Papers, 1925-1969, 1942-1947 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary. 1976 - 1981. Staff Scheduling Memoranda. 1977 - 1978. 5/2/77-5/18/77
referencedIn Brown, Mary Kosher,. Oral history interview with Mary Kosher Brown, Dec. 17, 1985. University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Allen, Edward Weber, 1885-1976. Edward Weber Allen papers, 1886-1975 (bulk 1929-1974). University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Sam Reiss Photographs - Part II: Photographic Prints, Bulk, 1950-1975, Circa 1930-1975 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Anderson, Clinton Presba, 1895-. Papers of Clinton Presba Anderson, 1938-1972 (bulk 1948-1972). Library of Congress
referencedIn Johnson family. Johnson family : papers, 1859-1971. The Filson Historical Society
creatorOf Henry M. Jackson Papers, 1912-1987, 1940-1983 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
creatorOf Langlie, Arthur B. (Arthur Bernard), 1900-1966. Arthur B. Langlie papers, 1935-1966 (bulk 1949-1957). University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Adlum, Merle Daniel, 1919-1986. Papers, 1963-1983. ND Univ of Washington Libraries (OCLC Worldshare ILL Beta)
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referencedIn Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993. Personal papers, 1948-1992. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Glenn Lee Papers, 1906-1992 Washington State University Libraries: Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections
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referencedIn Neal, Steve,. Steve Neal photographs collection [graphic], circa 1965-1979. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Benson, Naomi Achenbach. Naomi Achenbach Benson papers, 1895-1961 (bulk 1935-1961). University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary. 1976 - 1981. Presidential Files. 1977 - 1981. 7/8/78
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referencedIn Naomi Achenbach Benson papers, 1895-1961, 1935-1961 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Records, 1966-1979 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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referencedIn John Collier papers, 1910-1987 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Tanner, Jack Edward, 1919-2006. Jack Edward Tanner collection, 1900-2001 bulk 1955-1990. Washington State Historical Society
referencedIn Back, Gunnar, 1907-1983. Papers, 1931-1965. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Leonard Schroeter papers, 1940-1997 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Taft, Robert, 1894-1955. Robert Taft correspondence [microform], 19--. Kansas State Historical Society
referencedIn Preston P. Macy Papers, 1916-1979, 1928-1964 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
creatorOf Johnson, Gerald W. (Gerald Woodrow). Gerald Johnson papers, 1938-1995. University of California, San Diego, UC San Diego Library; UCSD Library
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
creatorOf Miller, Francis Pickens, 1895-1978. Papers of Francis Pickens Miller [manuscript], 1885-1976. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Coalition Against Oil Pollution (Wash.). Coalition Against Oil Pollution records, 1970-1981 (bulk 1977-1981). ND Univ of Washington Libraries (OCLC Worldshare ILL Beta)
referencedIn Clinton Presba Anderson Papers, 1938-1973, (bulk 1948-1973) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Johnson, Meredith. Correspondence with prominent Americans [manuscript] 1948-57. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary. 1976 - 1981. Presidential Files. 1977 - 1981. 9/23/77 [4]
referencedIn Voorhees, Donald S. Donald S. Voorhees papers, 1968-1986. University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Lillian S. Spear papers, 1931-1963, 1938-1946 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary. 1976 - 1981. Presidential Files. 1977 - 1981. 6/9/77
referencedIn Merle Daniel Adlum papers, 1945-1986 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn William D. Ford Papers, 1955-1995, 1965-1995 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary. 1976 - 1981. Presidential Files. 1977 - 1981. 2/18/77 [2]
referencedIn Sound Recordings of Meetings and Telephone Conversations (Nixon Administration). 2/16/1971 - 7/18/1973. Sound Recordings of Meetings and Telephone Conversations. 2/16/1971 - 7/18/1973. Oval Office tape number 790
referencedIn Paul Ramsey Papers, 1934-1984 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Robert E. Burke collection, 1892-1994 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Hans J. Morgenthau Papers, 1858-1981, (bulk 1925-1981) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Cohen, Wilbur J. (Wilbur Joseph), 1913-1987. Wilbur J. Cohen papers, 1930-1987 (bulk 1935-1979). Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Lovestone, Jay. Jay Lovestone. Papers, 1929-1983. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Welles mss., 1930-1950, (Bulk 1936-1947) Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
referencedIn National Land for People collection, Bulk, 1972-1983, 1850-1991 Special Collections Research Center, California State University, Fresno
referencedIn Root, Roger. A short analysis of Senator Henry Jackson's campaign in the 1976 New York primary : typescript, 1976. University of Idaho Library
referencedIn Evans, Rowland, 1921-2001. Rowland Evans Jr. and Robert D. Novak papers, 1948-2008. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Jackson, Henry M. (Henry Martin), 1912-1983. Henry M. Jackson : commercials, 1970-1982. University of Oklahoma, Political Community Archives
referencedIn Spear, Lillian Sylten, 1897-1963. Lillian Sylten Spear papers, 1931-1963. University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Records, (inclusive), (bulk), 1959-2002, 1966-1998 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Brock Evans papers, 1936-1997 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Snohomish County Central Labor Council records, 1915-1999 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
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associatedWith Ballis, George Elfie, 1925-2010 person
associatedWith Ballis, Maia person
correspondedWith Batcheller, Willis Tryon, 1889-1975. person
associatedWith Beeks, William T. (William Trulock), 1906- person
associatedWith Benson, Naomi Achenbach person
associatedWith Benson, Naomi Achenbach. person
correspondedWith Brooks, Richard J. person
associatedWith Brown, Mary Kosher, person
associatedWith Burke, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1921-1998 person
associatedWith Chase, Goodwin, 1911- person
associatedWith Coalition Against Oil Pollution (Wash.) corporateBody
associatedWith Cochrane, William McWhorter, 1917- person
associatedWith Cohen, Wilbur J. (Wilbur Joseph), 1913-1987. person
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Corcoran, Brian person
associatedWith Democratic National Committee (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Democratic Party (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Denny, Brewster C. person
associatedWith Dodd, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph), 1907-1971 person
associatedWith Evans, Brock,  1937- person
associatedWith Evans, Rowland, 1921-2001. person
associatedWith Ford, William D. (William David), 1927- person
associatedWith Fosdick, Dorothy person
associatedWith Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983 person
associatedWith Greenewalt, Crawford H., 1902-1993. person
associatedWith Haig, Emily H., 1890-1978. person
associatedWith Harris, Fred R., 1930- person
associatedWith Hartzog, George B. person
associatedWith Horner, Charles person
associatedWith International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. corporateBody
correspondedWith Johnson family. family
associatedWith Johnson, Gerald W. (Gerald Woodrow) person
correspondedWith Johnson, Gerald W. (Gerald Woodrow) person
associatedWith Johnson, Meredith. person
associatedWith Kahn, Tom. person
associatedWith Kahn, Tom. person
associatedWith Kinney, Marion S. person
associatedWith Knapp, Dillis Charles person
associatedWith Langlie, Arthur B. (Arthur Bernard), 1900-1966. person
correspondedWith Lee, Glenn C. (Glenn Clifford) person
correspondedWith Lee, Glenn C., (Glenn Clifford) person
associatedWith Lovestone, Jay. person
associatedWith Macy, Preston P., 1891-1979. person
associatedWith Manning, Robert, 1919- person
associatedWith McCullough, R. Nevan, 1904-1983. person
associatedWith Miller, Denny M. (Denny Marvin) person
associatedWith Miller, Francis Pickens, 1895-1978. person
associatedWith Mitchell, Hugh B. (Hugh Burnton), 1907-1996. person
associatedWith Moody, Blair, 1902-1954 person
correspondedWith Morgenthau, Hans J. (Hans Joachim), 1904-1980. person
associatedWith Munro, Sanford Sterling, 1932- person
associatedWith National Organization for Women. corporateBody
associatedWith NATO Parliamentarians' Conference corporateBody
associatedWith Neal, Steve, person
associatedWith New Democratic Coalition of New York. corporateBody
associatedWith Overly, Fred John. person
associatedWith Page, Richard S. person
associatedWith Perle, Richard Norman, 1941- person
associatedWith Praetorius, Henry, 1909-2003. person
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associatedWith Price, Margaret Bayne, 1912-1968 person
correspondedWith Ramsey, Paul person
associatedWith Rayburn, Sam, 1882-1961 person
associatedWith Reiss, Sam. person
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associatedWith Schroeter, Leonard person
associatedWith Snohomish County Central Labor Council corporateBody
associatedWith Southern Elections Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Spear, Lillian Sylten, 1897-1963. person
associatedWith Taft, Robert, 1894-1955. person
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associatedWith United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations corporateBody
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associatedWith United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations corporateBody
associatedWith United States. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 corporateBody
associatedWith University of Oklahoma. Political Commercial Archive. corporateBody
associatedWith Voorhees, Donald S. person
correspondedWith Walker, Robert Kirk. person
associatedWith Washington State Federation of Labor corporateBody
associatedWith Welles, Orson, 1915-1985 person
associatedWith Weston, Evan M. person
correspondedWith Wheeler, John Archibald, 1911-2008 person
associatedWith Winberg, Andrew person
associatedWith Wolf, Robert, 1920-2005, person
correspondedWith Women's Equity Action League corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Washington (State)
United States
Subject
Legislation--United States
Nuclear energy--United States
Presidential candidates--United States--Archives
Moving Images
Environmental Conditions
Scrapbooks
Nuclear energy--Government policy--United States
Military readiness
National security--United States
Legislators--United States--Archives
Public works
Natural resources--United States
Technology
International relations
Advertising, political
Presidents--United States--Election--1960
Elections--United States
Protected areas--Law and legislation--United States
Military
Washington (State)
Artifacts
Television advertising
Nuclear disarmament--United States
Political campaigns--United States
Nuclear facilities--Washington (State)
Photographs
Legislators--United States
Arms control--United States
Political Campaigns
Political parties--United States
Presidents--United States--Election--1972
Sound Recordings
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1912-05-31

Death 1983-09-01

English

Information

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