Carmichael, Leonard, 1898-1973

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Leonard Carmichael (b. Nov. 9, 1898, Philadelphia, Pa.–d. Sept. 16, 1973), American educator and psychologist, was Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1953 to 1964.

From the description of Carmichael, Leonard, 1898-1973 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). naId: 10582949

Leonard Carmichael was a psychologist, but was also active in research in zoology and biology.

From the description of Papers, ca. 1917-1973. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 86165430

Leonard Carmichael was born November 9, 1898 in the Germantown section of Philadelphia. His parents were Thomas Harrison Carmichael, a physician, and Emily Henrietta Leonard Carmichael, a graduate of Wellesley College. His maternal grandfather, Charles Hall Leonard, was Dean of the Crane Theological School of Tufts University, a fact that presages Carmichael's long association with that university.

Trained as a psychologist in the early years of this field, he also pursued research in zoology and biology. Carmichael's greatest contributions were in the areas of child psychology and biopsychology, with a special emphasis on the importance of genetic determinants of behavior. He was educated at Tufts (B.S., 1920) and Harvard (Ph.D., 1924) and taught at Princeton (1924-1926), Brown (1926-1936), and Rochester (1936-1938). During his time at Brown, he collaborated with Herbert Jasper in the earliest EEG studies in this country. He was president of Tufts University from 1938-1952, where he was simultaneously Director of the Laboratory of Sensory Physiology and Psychology. In 1946, he published his Manual of Child Psychology, which is considered a milestone in the scientific treatment of human development. The fourteen years he spent at Tufts were a time of great expansion in facilities, finances, and enrollment. One of his most important jobs was guiding the University's activities through the WWII time period.

Carmichael left Tufts in 1952 to become the executive officer of the Smithsonian Institute, a position he held until 1964. During his tenure there, he was responsible for the modernization of what was called the "nation's attic." Under his leadership, the Institute greatly expanded, with the creation of the Museum of History and Technology, and the addition of two wings to the Museum of Natural History. He left that position to become Vice President for Research and Exploration for the National Geographic Society. During his time in this position, the Society sponsored a great deal of exciting and ground-breaking research, including the Leakeys' anthropological studies in East Africa, Jane Goddall's work on primate behavior, and the underwater explorations of Jacques-Yves Cousteau.

Carmichael was active in a number of professional organizations, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Association of Museums. During World War II he headed the National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel, which recruited scientists and engineers for the war, and later he was Chairman of the Army Scientific Advisory Panel (on Manpower). Carmichael served as chairman of the Division of Anthropology and Psychology of the National Research Council, and he was also a member and chairman of the advisory board of the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. He served as president of the American Psychological Association in 1940. The honor of which he was said to be the most proud, however, was his election to the American Philosophical Society in 1942. He served as the President of the Society from 1970 until a few months before his death. Carmichael died September 16, 1973 in Washington, D.C.

The Carmichael Auditorium at the National Museum of History and Technology was dedicated in his name in 1974. But perhaps an even more fitting indication of the lasting impact he made is the Leonard Carmichael Society, still an active volunteer organization at Tufts University. Started in 1958 by Richard Dorsay, it originally consisted of a group of students who would make regular visits to a nearby mental hospital. In the year 2000, it has a volunteer corps of over 1000, a staff of 85, and serves as an umbrella organization for 40 different programs which focus on such issues as homelessness, health, literacy, and youth mentoring. The Leonard Carmichael Society states that "The legacy that this elegant, wise and kind man built throughout his 75 years grows and expands every time Tufts students, faculty members, and staff members join LCS in the belief that they too can change the world."

From the guide to the Leonard Carmichael Papers, 1898-1973, Circa 1917-1973, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. The Dept. of the Army presents replica of the Jupiter C missile and satellite Explorer I to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
creatorOf Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Correspondence with Eugene Ormandy, 1963-1964. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Dedication of Hall of Military History at the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC
referencedIn Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations. 1900 - 2003. Moving Images Relating to Military Aviation Activities. 1947 - 1984. UNVEILING OF GEN. BILLY MITCHELL'S STATUE, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE, WASHINGTON, D.C., 17 DECEMBER 1957
referencedIn Arnold Gesell Papers, 1870-1971, (bulk 1910-1950) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy records, 1953-1974. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Carmichael, Leonard, 1898-1973. Letter : Washington, D.C., to Dr. John Nicholas Brown, Providence, Rhode Island, 1958 May 8. Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Abraham Aaron Roback papers, 1909-1965. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Miles, Walter R. (Walter Richard), 1885-1978. Walter R. Miles and Catharine Cox Miles papers, 1899-1965. University of Akron, Bierce Library
referencedIn Doll, Edgar A. (Edgar Arnold), b. 1889. Edgar and Geraldine Doll papers, 1915-1972. University of Akron, Bierce Library
referencedIn Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Records, 1953-1974 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations. 1900 - 2003. Moving Images Relating to Military Aviation Activities. 1947 - 1984. PRESENTATION OF GENERAL THOMAS D. WHITE SPACE TROPHY TO AFSC, WASHINGTON, D.C
referencedIn Gesell, Arnold, 1880-1961. Papers of Arnold Gesell, 1870-1971 (bulk 1910-1950). Library of Congress
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Banquet celebrating first anniversary of America's first space satellite, Willard Hotel, Washington, D.C.
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Presentaion of Jupiter quot;Cquot; nose cone to Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Presentation of Jupiter quot;Cquot; nose cone to Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.
referencedIn Harold Weston papers, 1894-1978, bulk 1912-1972 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Louttit, C. M. (Chauncey McKinley), 1901-1956. Chauncey McKinley Louttit papers, 1917-1956 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009. Correspondence : with Eugene Ormandy, 1964-1977. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Richard Harrison Shryock papers, [ca. 1918-1972], Circa 1918-1972 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Stone, Calvin P. (Calvin Perry), 1892-1954. Calvin Perry Stone papers, circa 1910-1954 [microform]. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Correspondence, 1860-1979. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Dedication of the Hall of Military History at the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC
referencedIn Finley, David E. (David Edward). Papers of David E. Finley, 1921-1977. Library of Congress
referencedIn George Sarton additional papers, 1901-1956. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. The Dept of the Army presents replica of the Jupiter-C missile and satellite Explorer I to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
referencedIn Shryock, Richard Harrison, 1893-1972. Papers, [ca. 1918-1972]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Dedication of the Hall of Military History at the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC
creatorOf Leonard Carmichael Papers, 1898-1973, Circa 1917-1973 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Weston, Harold, 1894-1972. Harold Weston papers, 1894-1978, bulk, 1912-1972. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Carmichael, Leonard, 1898-1973. Papers, ca. 1917-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Abel, Theodora Mead, 1899-1998. person
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associatedWith Brookings Institution. corporateBody
associatedWith Brown, John Nicholas, Dr., 1900-1979, person
associatedWith Brown University. corporateBody
associatedWith Bush, Vannevar, 1890-1974. person
associatedWith Cattell, James McKeen, 1860-1944. person
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associatedWith Craig, Wallace person
associatedWith Craig, Wallace, b. 1876. person
associatedWith Cruikshank, Ruth M. (Ruth Majorie), 1911- . person
associatedWith Dallenbach, Karl M., 1887-1971. person
associatedWith Doll, Edgar A. (Edgar Arnold), b. 1889. person
associatedWith Ducasse, Curt John, 1881-1969. person
associatedWith Educational Testing Service. corporateBody
associatedWith Fernberger, Samuel Weiller, 1887-1956. person
associatedWith Finley, David E. (David Edward) person
associatedWith Gates, Louise W. person
associatedWith George Washington University. corporateBody
correspondedWith Gesell, Arnold, 1880-1961. person
associatedWith Gilbert, Roger person
associatedWith Gilbert, Roger. person
associatedWith Goldfarb, Alvin I. person
associatedWith Guthrie, Edwin Ray, b. 1886. person
associatedWith Harvard University. Museum of Comparative Zoology. corporateBody
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correspondedWith Hocking, William Ernest, 1873-1966 person
associatedWith Hooker, Davenport, 1887-. person
associatedWith Houghton Mifflin Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Hull, Clark Leonard, 1884-1952. person
associatedWith Hunter, Walter Samuel, 1889-1954. person
associatedWith Kennedy, John L. person
associatedWith Kennedy, John L. person
associatedWith Koffka, Kurt, 1886-1941. person
associatedWith Kuo, Zing Yang. person
associatedWith Laboratory of Sensory Physiology and Psychology corporateBody
associatedWith Langfeld, Herbert Sidney, 1879-1958. person
associatedWith Lashley, Karl Spencer, 1890-1958. person
associatedWith Louttit, C. M. (Chauncey McKinley), 1901-1956. person
associatedWith Marshall, Laurence K. person
associatedWith Marshall, Laurence K. person
associatedWith McFarland, Ross Armstrong, 1901-1976. person
associatedWith Miles, Walter R. (Walter Richard), 1885-1978. person
associatedWith Morey, Robert person
associatedWith Morey, Robert. person
associatedWith Munn, Norman Leslie, 1902-. person
associatedWith Murchison, Carl, 1887-1961. person
associatedWith National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. corporateBody
associatedWith National Geographic Society (U.S.). corporateBody
associatedWith National Planning Association. Committee of New England. corporateBody
associatedWith National Research Council. Division of Anthropology and Psychology. corporateBody
associatedWith National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Anthropology and Psychology. corporateBody
associatedWith National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel corporateBody
associatedWith National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel. corporateBody
associatedWith National Science Foundation corporateBody
associatedWith National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States. corporateBody
associatedWith Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy, 1929-1994. person
associatedWith Pfaffmann, Carl, 1913- person
associatedWith Pfaffmann, Carl, 1913-1994. person
associatedWith Pollock, Martha C. person
associatedWith Pollock, Martha C. person
associatedWith Pratt, Carroll C. (Carroll Cornelius), 1894- . person
associatedWith Princeton University. corporateBody
correspondedWith Roback, A. A. (Abraham Aaron), 1890-1965 person
associatedWith Roberts, S. Oliver, 1910- . person
associatedWith Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory. corporateBody
correspondedWith Sarton, George, 1884-1956 person
associatedWith Schlosberg, Harold, 1904-1964. person
associatedWith Shryock, Richard Harrison, 1893-1972. person
associatedWith Skinner, B. F. (Burrhus Frederic), 1904-1990. person
associatedWith Smithsonian Institution. corporateBody
associatedWith Smithsonian Institution. person
associatedWith Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary corporateBody
associatedWith Society for Research in Child Development. corporateBody
associatedWith Stone, Calvin P. (Calvin Perry), 1892-1954. person
associatedWith Tufts University. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Army Scientific Advisory Panel. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Rochester. corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Army. Scientific Advisory Panel corporateBody
associatedWith Warren, Howard C. (Howard Crosby), 1867-1934. person
associatedWith Wendt, George Richard, 1906-1977. person
associatedWith Westinghouse Electric Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Weston, Harold, 1894-1972. person
associatedWith Wilson, E. Bright, (Edgar Bright), 1908-1992 person
associatedWith Wilson, Edwin Bidwell, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Windle, William Frederick, 1898- person
associatedWith Woodworth, Robert Sessions, 1869-1962. person
associatedWith Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009. person
associatedWith Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Subject
Animal behavior
Vision--Psychological aspects
Perception
Psychoneuroendocrinology
Biology
Emotions
Learning, Psychology of
Thought and thinking
Senses and sensation
Psychology--Research
Scientists in World War I
Animal psychology
Child development
Behavior science
Psychology
Zoology
Psycholinguistics
Child psychology
Endocrinology
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1898-11-09

Death 1973-09-16

English

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