Pehr Kalm (b. March 6, 1716 –d. November 16, 1779) was a Finnish explorer, botanist, naturalist, and agricultural economist.
In 1747 he was commissioned by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to travel to the North American colonies and to bring back seeds and plants that might be useful to agriculture. Among his many scientific accomplishments, Kalm can be credited with the description of Niagara Falls written by a trained scientist; he described this phenomenon along the border of New York and Canada. In addition, he published the first scientific paper on the North American, 17-year periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim.