Boyle, Kay, 1902-1992

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1902-02-19
Death 1992-12-27
Americans
English, French, German

Biographical notes:

Kay Boyle (1902-1992) was an American avant garde writer and poet. She lived in San Francisco, Newark, Delaware, and Rowayton, Connecticut, when she wrote these letters.

From the description of Kay Boyle letters and poems, 1935-1975. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 33890909

Kay Boyle was an American essayist, novelist, short-story writer, translator, essayist, and translator.

From the description of Kay Boyle collection of papers, 1925-1988 bulk (1952-1986). (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 144652050

From the guide to the Kay Boyle collection of papers, 1925-1988, 1952-1986, (The New York Public Library. Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature.)

American writer.

From the description of Questionnaire sent to Boyle by Betty Hogan, 1950 ca. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 51091548

Boyle was an American novelist and poet. A victim of McCarthyism in the 1950s, she became politically active but was blacklisted and barred from publishing in many venues. In 1962 she joined the faculty of San Francisco State College and remained there until 1979.

From the description of [Photograph with inscription] / Kay. (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 172987702

American short story writer and novelist.

From the description of Kay Boyle Collection, 1945-1990. (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC); University of Texas at Austin). WorldCat record id: 172691908

Lucia Joyce was the daughter of James Joyce, author.

From the description of Kay Boyle collection of Lucia Joyce miscellany, 1982-1983. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 64091786

Kay Boyle, born in 1902, is best known for her work and accomplishments as a poet, short story writer, novelist, journalist, teacher, and political activist. One of the prominent American expatriates during the 1920s and 1930s, much of Kay Boyle's work reflects the influences of that literary circle. Americans Want to Know, the sponsoring organization of the Citizens' Mission to Cambodia, formed in 1965 "to gather facts and report them to the American people in any situation where our country seems likely to become embroiled in foreign adventures." They observed such a situation in Cambodia where accusations of misconduct were being made on both sides.

From the description of Kay Boyle papers relating to the Citizens' Mission to Cambodia, 1960-1979 (bulk 1966, 1979). (University of Delaware Library). WorldCat record id: 668400767

Born on February 19, 1902, in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Kay Boyle has been known for her work and achievements as a poet, short story writer, novelist, journalist, teacher, and political activist. One of the most prominent American expatriates during the 1920s and 1930s, much of Kay Boyle's work reflects the influences of that literary circle.

From the description of Kay Boyle papers, 1930-1991 (bulk 1960-1986). (University of Delaware Library). WorldCat record id: 667255096

American author.

From the description of Papers of Kay Boyle [manuscript], 1931May 7. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647816332

Kay Boyle was born in 1902 and was a member of the American expatriate movement of the 1920s and 1930s. As a young woman Boyle studied architecture at the Ohio Mechanics Institute in Cincinnati. Boyle's first contribution to a national publication was a letter to the editor, which appeared in Harriet Monroe's Poetry: A Magazine of Verse in 1921. Sometime in 1925 Boyle became involved in This Quarter, a literary review, which published her work in the first three issues. Her first published pieces had been poems in Poetry, Broom, Forum, and Contact. In 1929 the Crosbys' Black Sun Press published Boyle's first book, titled Short Stories, in a limited edition of 185 copies. In the late 1930's Boyle befriended several of the period's most notable writers, including James Joyce and Gertrude Stein, as well as Robert McAlmon. In addition to lending advice as a fellow artist, McAlmon helped her to leave Duncan Colony and provided financial assistance when funds were low. Although they never produced a collaborative work during his lifetime, Boyle revisited McAlmon's 1938 autobiography after his death, adding chapters that gave her perspective on the events he described. The result was a revised edition of Being Geniuses Together, published in 1968. During this time Boyle met Joseph Franckenstein, an Austrian baron, mountain climber, skier, and scholar. In 1943 Franckenstein and Boyle were married. He became an American citizen that year, and as an OSS officer, parachuted into France to help the Resistance. Much of Boyle's World War II writing is inspired by Franckenstein. He and Boyle were in Germany during the occupation when Boyle turned out some of the finest postwar fiction for the New Yorker (collected in 1951 in The Smoking Mountain). He also was with her when she was accused of communist sympathies during the McCarthy era of the early fifties, and consequently lost his government job. Though the charges were fought and ultimately dismissed, the blacklisting and the time and resources required to fight the charges exacted immeasurable harm on their personal and professional lives. Shortly after moving to San Francisco, where Boyle had been appointed to the creative writing faculty of San Francisco State College in 1963, Franckenstein died of cancer. They had two children. Boyle died in 1992.

From the description of Ann Watkins, Inc. collection of correspondence with Kay Boyle, 1930-1980. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 314357304

From the description of Kay Boyle papers, 1914-1987. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 317522458

From the description of Kay Boyle manuscript of "The crazy hunter", 1940-1940. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 288669312

From the description of Kay Boyle photograph collection, 1904-1980. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 320465649

From the description of Kay Boyle and Joseph Franckenstein correspondence, 1940-1963. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 277494970

From the description of Antoinette Wilson collection of correspondence with Kay Boyle, 1963-1973. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 318991082

From the description of Robert Carlton Brown collection of correspondence with Kay Boyle, 1932-1963. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 318991354

From the description of Herman and Fay Rappaport collection of Kay Boyle papers, 1948-1968. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 312108104

From the description of Ruby Cohn collection of Kay Boyle letters, 1922-1994. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 317550584

From the description of Robert W. Smith collection of correspondence with Kay Boyle, 1981-1990. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 317553772

From the description of Kay Boyle manuscript of "Being geniuses together", 1968-1968. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 276988378

From the description of Kay Boyle, Herman and Fay Rappaport collection of photographs, 1945-1970. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 319877121

From the description of Alice L. Kahler collection of Kay Boyle letters, 1966-1985. (Southern Illinois University). WorldCat record id: 301597555

Kay Boyle was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, on February 19, 1902, to Howard Peterson Boyle and his wife Katherine Evans Boyle. With the encouragement of her mother, Kay arrived in New York in 1922, determined to forge a literary career for herself. Soon her interest led her to Lola Ridge’s literary magazine Broom, which published her first poem Morning in 1923. That same year she married French-born Richard Brault; a visit to his family in Brittany turned into an eighteen-year residence in Europe for Boyle.

In Paris Kay Boyle soon became a member of the American expatriate literary community, achieving periodical publication for her writing in Ernest Walsh’s This Quarter and in Eugene Jolas’ Transition . In 1929 Harry and Caresse Crosby’s Black Sun Press published Boyle’s first book-length work, Short Stories .

Following her divorce from Brault, she married artist-writer Laurence Vail in 1931. During the 1930s Boyle worked hard at her craft, creating short stories, novels, and poems that garnered her a strong and growing reputation. Boyle found particular success with the short story, winning the O. Henry award in 1935 and again in 1941. In 1943, two years after her return to the United States, she divorced Vail and married the Baron Joseph von Franckenstein.

At the end of the 1940s both Boyle and Franckenstein, again living in Europe, became victims of McCarthyite witch-hunts. Boyle lost her position as foreign correspondent for The New Yorker, and Franckenstein his post in the U.S. State Dept. As a result of these experiences the political aspect of Boyle’s writing became increasingly strong and political activity a larger part of her daily life.

Following Franckenstein’s death in 1963 Kay Boyle accepted a creative writing position at San Francisco State College. During her tenure at SFSC (1963-79) she continued writing and her political activity as well as gaining wide acceptance as a teacher. Through the early to mid-1980s Boyle held other writer-in-residence positions for briefer periods of time.

Kay Boyle died in Mill Valley, California, on December 27, 1992.

From the guide to the Kay Boyle Collection TXRC07-A5., 1945-1990, (The University of Texas at Austin, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center)

Pace, Eric. "Kay Boyle, 90, Writer of Novels and Stories, Dies." The New York Times. December 29, 1992. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/29/arts/kay-boyle-90-writer-of-novels-and-stories-dies.html (accessed September 21, 2012). City of Frankfurt am Main. "1992: Prof. Dr. Helga Einsele." Accessed September 26, 2012. http://www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=2906&_ffmpar%5B_id_inhalt%5D=41524

Award-winning American author, educator, and political activist Kay Boyle (1902-1992) was a prominent member of American expatriate modernist circle of the 1920s and 1930s. Boyle's later years are characterized by her extensive political activism.

Boyle's career as a writer began in 1923, after moving from St. Paul to New York City, with the publishing of her poem, "Morning," in Harold Loeb's art and literary magazine, Broom . Soon after, she married a French exchange student, Richard Brault, and moved to France for a 20-year period. During that time she divorced Brault and, in 1931, married a fellow expatriate, Laurence Vail (previously the husband of Peggy Guggenheim). She published four novels, Plagued by the Nightingale (1931), Year Before Last (1932), Gentlemen, I Address You Privately (1933), and My Next Bride (1934), which reflected her experiences in France. Boyle divorced Vail and, in 1943, married Baron Joseph von Franckenstein. The two were together until his death in 1963.

A prolific short story writer, Boyle won the first of her two O. Henry short story awards in 1935 for the title story of The White Horses of Vienna and Other Stories. Her second O. Henry was awarded in 1941 for "Defeat." She continued to write short stories throughout her life. The last collection, Life Being the Best and Other Stories, was published in 1988. In addition to the O. Henry award she was a recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship (1934) and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

In 1960, Boyle moved to San Francisco and took a position as an English professor at San Francisco State University. Boyle's later works include the 1967 Autobiography of Emanuel Carnevali and a 1968 revision of Robert McAlmon's memoirs, Being Geniuses Together, 1920-1930, to which Boyle added several supplementary chapters.

Throughout her life, Kay Boyle was politically active. This activism reflected a general belief, fostered by her mother, that privilege demands social responsibility. In the 1950s her activism became reinvigorated as she worked toward furthering integration policies, civil rights, a ban on nuclear weapons, America's withdrawal from Southeast Asia, women's rights, and global peace initiatives.

Kay Boyle died on December 27, 1992, in Mill Valley, California.

Dr. Helga Einsele (1910-2005) became head of the Preungesheim women's prison in 1947. Championing the cause of humanization of the German penal system, her work led to groundbreaking reforms in the living conditions of women prisoners. A special area of interest for Einsele was the rights of incarcerated mothers to see their children. In 1969, Einsele was awarded the Fritz Bauer Prize of the Humanist Union and received the Wilhelm Leuschner Medal, which honors individuals who have been successful fighting for humanitarian interests and the resistance of unduly oppressive state power. Near the end of her career (1974), she was instrumental in creating the "mother-child home" system, which allows young mothers with dependent infants to live with their children on the prison grounds. Einsele remained politically active after her retirement in 1975 and published her book, Women in Prison , in 1982.

From the guide to the Kay Boyle letters to Helga Einsele, 1951-1992, (University of Delaware Library - Special Collections)

"Kay Boyle, 90, Writer of Novels and Stories, Dies." The New York Times. December 29, 1992. Much of the biographical data is derived from material contained in the collection.

Kay Boyle, born in 1902, is best known for her work and accomplishments as a poet, short story writer, novelist, journalist, teacher, and political activist. One of the prominent American expatriates during the 1920s and 1930s, much of Kay Boyle's work reflects the influences of that literary circle.

Kay Boyle's career as a writer began in 1923, after moving from St. Paul to New York City, with the publishing of her poem, "Morning," in Harold Loeb's art and literary magazine, Broom . Soon after, she married a French exchange student, Richard Brault, and moved to France for a 20 year period. During that time she divorced Brault and, in 1931, married a fellow expatriate, Laurence Vail (previously the husband of Peggy Guggenheim). She published four novels, Plagued by a Nightmare, Year Before Last, Gentlemen, I Address You Privately, and My Next Bride, during the 1920s reflecting her experiences in France. Boyle divorced Vail and, in 1943, married Baron Joseph von Franckenstein. The two were together until his death in 1963.

A prolific short story writer, Boyle won the first of her two O. Henry short story awards in 1935 for the title story of The White Horses of Vienna and Other Stories . Her second O. Henry was awarded in 1941 for "Defeat." She continued to write short stories throughout her life. The last collection, Life Being the Best and Other Stories, was published in 1988. In addition to the O. Henry award she was a recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship (1934) and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

In 1960 Boyle moved to San Francisco and took a position as an English professor at San Francisco State University. Kay Boyle's later works include the 1967 Autobiography of Emanuel Carnevali and a 1968 revision of Robert McAlmon's memoirs, Being Geniuses Together, 1920–1930, to which Boyle added several supplementary chapters.

Throughout her life, Kay Boyle was politically active. This activism reflects a general belief, fostered by her mother, that privilege demands social responsibility. In the 1950s her activism became reinvigorated as she worked toward furthering integration policies, civil rights, a ban on nuclear weapons, and America's withdrawal from Southeast Asia.

Americans Want to Know, the sponsoring organization of the Citizens' Mission to Cambodia, formed in 1965 "to gather facts and report them to the American people in any situation where our country seems likely to become embroiled in foreign adventures." They observed such a situation in Cambodia where accusations of misconduct were being made on both sides.

Kay Boyle's concern over the potential expansion of the Vietnam War prompted her to accept the invitation of the organization "Americans Want to Know" and embark on a two-week fact finding mission to the area bordering Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Boyle and six others -- Floyd B. McKissick, National Director for the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE); Rabbi Israel Dresner; Donald Duncan, military editor of Ramparts magazine and ex-Green Beret; Russell Johnson of American Friends Service Committee; publicity director Marc Stone; and New York businessman Norman Eisner -- comprised the Citizens' Mission to Cambodia. The Mission departed for Phnom Penh on July 25, 1966 to investigate U.S. allegations that Cambodia was being used as a training area and staging ground for Viet Cong incursions into South Vietnam.

The United States government charged the Cambodian government with creating a "Viet Cong sanctuary," establishing the Sihanouk Trail to augment the Ho Chi Minh Trail by providing arms and food, and accepting arms and food shipments into the port at Sihanoukville. Meanwhile, in addition to denying these charges, Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia claimed the U.S. was violating his nation's vowed territorial neutrality by conducting bombing raids on Cambodian villages. Prince Sihanouk asked for stricter border observations from the International Control Commission and broke off diplomatic relations with the U.S. over the incidents just prior to the delegation's arrival.

During the mission, the delegation visited several spots along the Cambodia/Vietnam border as well as the Cambodia/Laos border where they inspected the site of a recent U.S. attack on the village of Thloc Trach. The delegates personally examined the alleged Sihanouk Trail and the Ho Chi Minh Trail for signs of a Viet Cong presence. In addition, the Mission members boarded and examined ships docking at Sihanoukville looking for arms or food shipments. Finally, the delegation met with Sihanouk and discussed his views on the border violations. The Mission members could find no indications of wrongdoing on the part of the Cambodian government.

Upon their return to the United States, the delegates reported on the Mission's findings through a series of articles, interviews, and lectures around the country.

The collection indicates that Kay Boyle continued her political activism and her interest in the plight of Cambodia well into the decade of the 1970s and probably through to her death on December 27, 1992.

From the guide to the Kay Boyle papers relating to the Citizens' Mission to Cambodia, 1960–1979, 1966, 1979, (University of Delaware Library - Special Collections)

Born on February 19, 1902, in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Kay Boyle has been known for her work and achievements as a poet, short story writer, novelist, journalist, teacher, and political activist. One of the most prominent American expatriates during the 1920s and 1930s, much of Kay Boyle’s work reflects the influences of that literary circle.

Kay Boyle’s first contribution to a national publication was a letter to the editor, published in Harriet Monroe’s Poetry: A Magazine of Verse in 1921. By 1922, with the support and encouragement of her mother, Boyle moved to New York City and began working for the fashion writer Margery Welles. Later that year she began working for Lola Ridge, the American editor of Broom, an art and literary magazine published by Harold Loeb in Rome and later in Berlin. While working in New York, Boyle had contact with many literary persons and developed her writing. In January of 1923, her poem, “Morning,” was published in Broom .

In 1922 Kay Boyle married a French exchange student, Richard Brault. A 1923 visit to meet Brault’s family in Brittany, France, turned what was to have been a brief visit into a twenty-year stay in Europe. During her years in France, Boyle was associated with several innovative literary magazines and became acquainted with many of the literary figures writing for them. Her writing appeared in issues of This Quarter, edited by Ernest Walsh, and transition, edited by Eugene Jolas. Through these editors and others she associated with such writers as James Joyce, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, William Carlos Williams, Robert McAlmon, Emanuel Carnevali, and Harry and Caresse Crosby. It was the Crosby’s Black Sun Press that published Kay Boyle’s first book of fiction, Short Stories, in 1929. Crosby also published her translation of the first chapter of Rene Crevel’s Babylone as Mr. Knife and Miss Fork in 1931.

In respect for her friendship with Emanuel Carnevali, Kay Boyle made a commitment to see to the posthumous publication of his autobiography. Her promise was realized in 1967, when The Autobiography of Emanuel Carnevali was published. She compiled it from bits and pieces of writing Carnevali had sent through the ten years of their friendship.

Robert McAlmon was Boyle’s lifelong friend. Being Geniuses Together, 1920-1930, McAlmon’s memoirs, was revised by Kay Boyle in 1968, with several supplementary chapters that chronicle her own experiences during the 1920s and 1930s.

By the summer of 1928, Kay Boyle had met Laurence Vail, who was then Peggy Guggenheim’s husband. They were married in 1932. In addition to three children of their own, Boyle also cared for Vail’s two children from his marriage with Peggy Guggenheim, and her own daughter by Ernest Walsh, Sharon. Many of Boyle’s experiences during the 1920s found expression in her novels, Plagued by the Nightingale (1931), Year Before Last (1932), Gentlemen, I Address You Privately (1933), and My Next Bride (1934).

In 1934 Boyle compiled an anthology which was to have been titled “Short Stories 1934.” The original idea for the anthology was to gather 365 single-page stories to represent the year 1934 in fictional accounts. The anthology was eventually published in 1936 as 365 Days and included 97 stories by Boyle. Other contributors to the anthology included Nancy Cunard, Charles Henri Ford, Langston Hughes, James Laughlin, Robert McAlmon, Henry Miller, William Saroyan (who originally submitted 365 stories), Parker Tyler, and Emanuel Carnevali.

The White Horses of Vienna and Other Stories, also published in 1936, was a significant collection of Boyle’s short stories. The title story won the O. Henry Short Story Award for 1935. She continued to write short stories throughout her life, including a late collection, Life Being the Best and Other Stories (1988).

In her later years Kay Boyle was recognized for her political activism. Fostered by her mother in the belief that privilege demanded social responsibility, she championed integration, civil rights, the ban of nuclear weapons, and America’s withdrawal from Vietnam.

Kay Boyle died December 27, 1992, at the Redwoods, a retirement community in Mill Valley, California.

Maritine, James J. (ed.) American Novelists, 1910-1945. Part I. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 9 . Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981. Pages 83-92. Quartermain, Peter (ed.) American Poets, 1880-1945. Second Series. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 48. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1986. Pages 45-51. Rood, Karen Lane (ed.) American Writers in Paris, 1920-1939. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 4. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1980. Pages 46-56.

From the guide to the Kay Boyle papers relating to Robert Nellen, 1974–1985, (University of Delaware Library - Special Collections)

Born on February 19, 1902, in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Kay Boyle has been known for her work and achievements as a poet, short story writer, novelist, journalist, teacher, and political activist. One of the most prominent American expatriates during the 1920s and 1930s, much of Kay Boyle’s work reflects the influences of that literary circle.

Kay Boyle’s first contribution to a national publication was a letter to the editor, published in Harriet Monroe’s Poetry: A Magazine of Verse in 1921. By 1922, with the support and encouragement of her mother, Boyle moved to New York City and began working for the fashion writer Margery Welles. Later that year she began working for Lola Ridge, the American editor of Broom, an art and literary magazine published by Harold Loeb in Rome and later in Berlin. While working in New York, Boyle had contact with many literary persons and developed her writing. In January of 1923, her poem, “Morning,” was published in Broom .

In 1922 Kay Boyle married a French exchange student, Richard Brault. A 1923 visit to meet Brault’s family in Brittany, France, turned what was to have been a brief visit into a twenty-year stay in Europe. During her years in France, Boyle was associated with several innovative literary magazines and became acquainted with many of the literary figures writing for them. Her writing appeared in issues of This Quarter, edited by Ernest Walsh, and transition, edited by Eugene Jolas. Through these editors and others she associated with such writers as James Joyce, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, William Carlos Williams, Robert McAlmon, Emanuel Carnevali, and Harry and Caresse Crosby. It was the Crosby’s Black Sun Press that published Kay Boyle’s first book of fiction, Short Stories, in 1929. Crosby also published her translation of the first chapter of Rene Crevel’s Babylone as Mr. Knife and Miss Fork in 1931.

In respect for her friendship with Emanuel Carnevali, Kay Boyle made a commitment to see to the posthumous publication of his autobiography. Her promise was realized in 1967, when The Autobiography of Emanuel Carnevali was published. She compiled it from bits and pieces of writing Carnevali had sent through the ten years of their friendship.

Robert McAlmon was Boyle’s lifelong friend. Being Geniuses Together, 1920-1930, McAlmon’s memoirs, was revised by Kay Boyle in 1968, with several supplementary chapters that chronicle her own experiences during the 1920s and 1930s.

By the summer of 1928, Kay Boyle had met Laurence Vail, who was then Peggy Guggenheim’s husband. They were married in 1932. In addition to three children of their own, Boyle also cared for Vail’s two children from his marriage with Peggy Guggenheim, and her own daughter by Ernest Walsh, Sharon. Many of Boyle’s experiences during the 1920s found expression in her novels, Plagued by the Nightingale (1931), Year Before Last (1932), Gentlemen, I Address You Privately (1933), and My Next Bride (1934).

In 1934 Boyle compiled an anthology which was to have been titled “Short Stories 1934.” The original idea for the anthology was to gather 365 single-page stories to represent the year 1934 in fictional accounts. The anthology was eventually published in 1936 as 365 Days and included 97 stories by Boyle. Other contributors to the anthology included Nancy Cunard, Charles Henri Ford, Langston Hughes, James Laughlin, Robert McAlmon, Henry Miller, William Saroyan (who originally submitted 365 stories), Parker Tyler, and Emanuel Carnevali.

The White Horses of Vienna and Other Stories, also published in 1936, was a significant collection of Boyle’s short stories. The title story won the O. Henry Short Story Award for 1935. She continued to write short stories throughout her life, including a late collection, Life Being the Best and Other Stories (1988).

In her later years Kay Boyle was recognized for her political activism. Fostered by her mother in the belief that privilege demanded social responsibility, she championed integration, civil rights, the ban of nuclear weapons, and America’s withdrawal from Vietnam.

Kay Boyle died December 27, 1992, at the Redwoods, a retirement community in Mill Valley, California.

Maritine, James J. (ed.) American Novelists, 1910-1945. Part I. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 9. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981. Pages 83-92. Quartermain, Peter (ed.) American Poets, 1880-1945. Second Series. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 48. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1986. Pages 45-51. Rood, Karen Lane (ed.) American Writers in Paris, 1920-1939. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 4. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1980. Pages 46-56.

From the guide to the Kay Boyle papers, 1930–1991, 1960–1986, (University of Delaware Library - Special Collections)

Kay Boyle (1902-1992), author and expatriate.

Allan Ross Macdougall (1893-), editor and biographer.

From the description of Kay Boyle letters to Allan Ross Macdougall, 1930-1934. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84916926

Kay Boyle (1902-1992), author and expatriate.

Allan Ross Macdougall (1893-), editor and biographer.

From the description of Kay Boyle letters to Allan Ross Macdougall, 1930-1934. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702152944

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Subjects:

  • Criminologists--Correspondence
  • American poetry
  • World War, 1939-1945
  • American poetry--20th century
  • Communism--History
  • American poetry--Women authors
  • Anti--Nazi movement
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  • Activists, Peace--Correspondence
  • Authors and publishers
  • Authors, American--20th century--Correspondence
  • Vietnam War, 1961-1975
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  • Women authors, American--20th century
  • Neo--Nazism
  • World War, 1939-1945--Women
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  • World War, 1939-1945--Correspondence
  • Anti-communist movements--History
  • Authors--Biography
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  • Authors, American--20th century--Biography

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