Carpenter, John Alden

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Epithet: American composer

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001072.0x0003d0

John Alden Carpenter (b. Feb. 28, 1876, in Park Ridge, Ill.; d. Apr. 26, 1951, in Chicago, Ill.) was an American composer.

From the description of John Alden Carpenter collection, 1891-1961 (bulk 1900-1949). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 658833426

John Alden Carpenter was born in 1876 in Park Ridge, Ill. His earliest musical studies were with Amy Fay and W.C.E. Seeboeck in Chicago and J.K. Paine at Harvard University, from which he was graduated in 1897. Other musical studies included a few lessons with Edward Elgar in Rome in 1906 and four years of study with Bernhard Ziehn in Chicago (1908-12), with subsequent studies under Ziehn disciple Julius Gold in the years that followed. Like his father, Carpenter was by profession in the shipping business, serving as vice-president of the family firm George B. Carpenter & Co. until he retired in 1936 to devote himself entirely to music. Carpenter's musical compositions include both songs and orchestral and stage works. His earliest orchestral work, Adventures in a perambulator (1914) was the first of many successes. The ballet Skyscrapers (1923-24), performed at the Metropolitan Opera House in 1926, was one of the first attempts at a literal depiction of modern American urban life. Other stage works include a "jazz pantomime" entitled Krazy Kat (1921), based on the comic strip by George Herriman, and a ballet-pantomime with Spanish overtones, The birthday of the infanta (1917). Carpenter was also considered an outstanding composer of songs; of particular note are the song cycles Gitanjali (1913, orchestrated 1934), a setting of a collection of poems by Rabindranath Tagore, and Water-colors (1916, orchestrated 1918), based on the writings of Confucius and other Chinese poets. Carpenter's commissions include Song of faith (1932) for the George Washington Bicentennial in 1932, and the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge commissions of his String quartet (1927) and Piano quintet (1934). Carpenter was a highly successful composer in his day, being named a Knight of the French Legion of Honor (1921) and receiving such honors as the Gold Medal of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He also received honorary degrees from Harvard University, Northwestern University, the University of Wisconsin, and the American Conservatory of Music.

From the description of John Alden Carpenter collection, 1891-1961 (bulk 1900-1949). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70984435

American composer.

From the description of "East-West. John Alden Carpenter." : autograph manuscript, 1932, Jun. 12. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270562153

From the description of "The Birthday of the Infanta. / Orchestral Suite." : autograph manuscript, 1930. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270562150

From the description of Autograph letters signed (2) and typewritten letter signed, dated : Chicago and Munich, 1927-28, to Harry Harkness Flagler, 1927 Sept. 9 and 1928 Jan. 18. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270564131

American composer.

Born in Park Ridge, Illinois in 1876, Carpenter was raised in a musical household. After graduating from Harvard, he concentrated on studying musical composition while at the same time working in his family's business, a Chicago shipping-supply company. Carpenter's many works can be recognized as distinctly American. These include piano pieces, songs, ballet scores and orchestral suites. Among his best-known scores are the jazz-inspired Krazy Kat and for the ballet Skyscrapers. Carpenter died in Chicago in 1951.

From the description of John Alden Carpenter letters to Remsen Bird, 1947-1950. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 531270809

American composer.

Born in Park Ridge, Ill., and educated at Harvard, Carpenter settled in Chicago where he divided his time between the family shipping supplies company and musical composition. His works include orchestral pieces, ballet scores (Krazy Kat, Skyscrapers), and piano pieces and songs (Looking-Glass River, Two Night Songs, Four Negro Songs). Married to Rue Winterbotham Carpenter, and later Ellen Borden, Carpenter was active in the Chicago musical scene, guiding the musical activities of the Arts Club and Chicago Allied Arts. He died in Chicago in 1951.

From the description of John Alden Carpenter papers, 1890-1964, (bulk 1900-1950). (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 55034165

Biographical Sketch

John Alden Carpenter was born Feb. 28, 1876 in Park Ridge, Illinois. His earliest musical studies were with Amy Fay and W.C.E. Seeboeck in Chicago and J.K. Paine at Harvard University, from which he graduated in 1897. Other musical studies included a few lessons with Edward Elgar in Rome in 1906 and four years of study with Bernhard Ziehn in Chicago (1908-1912), with subsequent studies under Ziehn disciple Julius Gold in the years that followed. Like his father, Carpenter was by profession in the shipping business, serving as vice-president of the family firm George B. Carpenter & Co. until he retired in 1936 to devote himself entirely to music.

Carpenter's musical compositions include both songs and orchestral concert and stage works. His earliest orchestral work, Adventures in a Perambulator, was written in 1914 and was the first of many successes. The ballet Skyscrapers (1923-1924), performed at the Metropolitan Opera House in 1926, was one of the first attempts at a literal depiction of modern American urban life, and thus has been accorded a certain historical significance. Other stage works include a "jazz pantomime" entitled Krazy Kat (1921), based on the comic strip by George Herriman, and a ballet-pantomime with Spanish overtones, The Birthday of the Infanta (1917). Carpenter was also considered an outstanding composer of songs; of particular note are the song cycles Gitanjali (1913, orchestrated 1934), a setting of a collection of poems by Rabindranath Tagore, and Water-colors (1916, orchestrated 1918), based on the writings of Confucius and other Chinese poets. Carpenter's commissions include Song of Faith (1932) for the George Washington Bicentennial in 1932, and the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge commissions of his String Quartet (1927) and Piano Quintet (1934).

Carpenter was a highly successful composer in his day, being named a Knight of the French Legion of Honor (1921) and receiving such honors as the Gold Medal of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He also received honorary degrees from Harvard University, Northwestern University, the University of Wisconsin, and the American Conservatory of Music.

Carpenter died Apr. 26, 1951, in Chicago.

From the guide to the John Alden Carpenter Collection, 1891-1961, (bulk 1900-1949), (Music Division Library of Congress)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn The Moldenhauer Archives at Harvard University: Correspondence, literary manuscripts, sound recordings, and other material, 1873-2001. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Lullaby - John Alden Carpenter. Newberry Library
referencedIn Mark Anthony De Wolfe Howe additional papers, 1880-1959. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Aldis, Arthur Taylor, 1861-1933. Dinner in honor of Frederick A. Stock at Drake Hotel, Chicago ... February 5th, 1924 ... University of Michigan
referencedIn Chicago Allied Arts, Inc. Chicago Allied Arts, Inc. records, 1922-1929. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Tango americaine / John Alden Carpenter. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Gold, Julius, 1884-1969. Julius Gold collection, 1858-1924 (bulk 1920-1955). Library of Congress
referencedIn Adolph Bolm Collection, circa 1895-1982, (bulk 1908-1948) Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Chicago Allied Arts, Inc. records, 1922-1929 The New York Public Library. Jerome Robbins Dance Division.
referencedIn The Bell Telephone Hour collection of sound recordings [sound recording], 1940-1968 The New York Public Library. Rodgers and Hammerstein Archives of Recorded Sound.
referencedIn Aaron Copland Collection, 1841-1991, (bulk 1911-1990) Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn John Alden Carpenter Collection, 1891-1961, (bulk 1900-1949) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Woollcott, Alexander, 1887-1943. Autograph note signed with initials on his visiting card : N.[ew] Y.[ork] C.[ity], to Jerome Kern, [1924] 8 Sept. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Julius Gold Collection, 1858-1924, (bulk 1920-1955) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Piano quintette / John Alden Carpenter. New England Conservatory of Music, Harriet M. Spaulding Library
referencedIn Sara Teasdale Collection, 1888-1934 University of Virginia. Library. Special Collections Dept.
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. John Alden Carpenter collection, 1891-1961 (bulk 1900-1949). Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. John Alden Carpenter collection, 1891-1961 (bulk 1900-1949). Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Breathin' sorrow / words and music by John Alden Carpenter. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Correspondence from the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Foundation Collection, 1894-1953, (bulk 1920-1953) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Stock, Frederick, 1872-1942. Frederick Stock papers, 1873-1954. University of Michigan
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. John Alden Carpenter letters to Remsen Bird, 1947-1950. Newberry Library
creatorOf Stock, Frederick, 1872-1942. Papers, 1873-1954. University of Michigan
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Treat me nice / [words by] Paul Lawrence Dunbar ; [music by] John Alden Carpenter. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. "East-West. John Alden Carpenter." : autograph manuscript, 1932, Jun. 12. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Vol. VIII (ff. 167). 1899 -1914.includes:ff. 4-9, 166 Lieutenant-Colonel John Arnold Cuthbert Quilter, military Secretary to Gov.-General of Australia: Letters to his brother, Roger: 1900-1914.f. 10 Charlotte Amelia Bellot, teacher of R Quilter:..., 1899-1914 British Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1939. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Symphony II / John Alden Carpenter. Indiana University
referencedIn John Alden Carpenter [ca. 1940-ongoing]. Museum of Performance & Design
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Symphony I / John A. Carpenter. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Jascha Heifetz Collection, 1802-1987, (bulk 1911-1974) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Piano quintet / John Alden Carpenter. New England Conservatory of Music, Harriet M. Spaulding Library
referencedIn Gilbert, Henry F. B. (Henry Franklin Belknap), 1868-1928. The Henry Gilbert papers, 1821-1980 (inclusive). Yale University, Music Library
referencedIn Gold, Julius, 1884-1969. Julius Gold collection, 1858-1924 (bulk 1920-1955). Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Her voice / poem by Oscar Wilde ; [music by] John A. Carpenter. New England Conservatory of Music, Harriet M. Spaulding Library
creatorOf Thomas, Theodore, 1835-1905. Theodore Thomas papers, 1852-1926. Newberry Library
creatorOf John Alden Carpenter Collection, 1891-1961, (bulk 1900-1949) Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Serge Diaghilev/Serge Lifar Collection, 1750-1950, (bulk 1890-1929) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. The home road : oem. Brown University, John Hay Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Correspondence and contracts, 1939-1946. New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
referencedIn The Henry Gilbert Papers, 1821-1980 (inclusive) Irving S. Gilmore Music Library, Yale University
referencedIn Julius Gold Collection, 1858-1924, (bulk 1920-1955) Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Ekstrom Collection: Diaghilev and Stravinsky Foundation, 1902-1984 V&A Museum: Department of Theatre and Performance
referencedIn Monterey Public Library. California History Room. Composers clippings 1937-1989. Monterey Public Library
referencedIn E. Robert Schmitz Papers, 1909-1991 (inclusive) Irving S. Gilmore Music Library, Yale University
referencedIn William James Jr. papers, 1857-1960 (inclusive), 1911-1959 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn National Arts Foundation. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1960. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. John Alden Carpenter papers, 1890-1964, (bulk 1900-1950). Newberry Library
referencedIn American Ballet Theatre records, 1936-ca. 1967 The New York Public Library. Jerome Robbins Dance Division.
referencedIn Amy Lowell correspondence, 1883-1927 (inclusive), 1910-1925 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Krazy Kat : a jazz-pantomime / John Alden Carpenter ; scenzrio by George Herriman. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Edison Sheet Music Collection, 1830-1958, (bulk 1890-1940) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Impromptu for violin and piano / by John Alden Carpenter. Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Main (Oakland)
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Correspondence. New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
referencedIn Gilbert, Henry F. B. (Henry Franklin Belknap), 1868-1928. The Henry Gilbert papers, 1821-1980 (inclusive). Yale University, Music Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Danza / John Alden Carpenter. Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Polonaise americaine / by John Alden Carpenter ; arranged for two pianos by William H. Oetting. University of Pittsburgh
referencedIn Nicolas Slonimsky Collection, 1873-1997, (bulk 1920-1990) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Autograph letters signed (2) and typewritten letter signed, dated : Chicago and Munich, 1927-28, to Harry Harkness Flagler, 1927 Sept. 9 and 1928 Jan. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Webster, Henry Kitchell, 1875-1932. Henry Kitchell Webster papers, 1880-1932, bulk 1900-1932. Newberry Library
referencedIn The Moldenhauer Archives at Harvard University: Correspondence, literary manuscripts, sound recordings, and other material, 1873-2001. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Childs, Eleanor Stuart. Autograph letters signed (2) and typewritten letters signed (2), dated : New York, 1925, 1928, 1933, and [n.d.] to Harry [Harkness] Flagler (and to Mrs. Flagler), 1925 Dec. 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Koussevitzky, Serge, 1874-1951. Serge Koussevitzky archive, 1920-1976 (bulk 1924-1951). Library of Congress
referencedIn Bolm, Adolf, 1884-1951. Adolph Bolm collection, 1895-1982 (bulk 1908-1948). Library of Congress
referencedIn Kurt Schindler papers, 1882-1946 The New York Public Library. Music Division.
referencedIn Papers, 1847-1933. Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. "The Birthday of the Infanta. / Orchestral Suite." : autograph manuscript, 1930. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Serge Koussevitzky Archive, 1920-1976, (bulk 1924-1951) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Hager, Mina. Mina Hager papers, 1892-1977, bulk 1920-1970. Newberry Library
referencedIn Glenn Dillard Gunn Collection, 1874-1961, (bulk 1910-1961) Music Division Library of Congress
creatorOf Teasdale, Sara, 1884-1933. Papers of Sara Teasdale [manuscript], 1888-1934 (bulk 1905-1933). University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Borowski, Felix, 1872-1956. Felix Borowski papers, 1841-1995, bulk 1896-1956. Newberry Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John A. The industrial development of Paterson, N.J. 1792-1913. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Carmel concerto / John Alden Carpenter. Westminster Choir College of Rider University, Talbott Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Letter, 1925 April 16, Chicago, to Sergeĭ Dyagilev, Monte Carlo. [1] p. on 1 l. New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
creatorOf Stock, Frederick, 1872-1942. Frederick A. Stock papers, 1904-1940s. Newberry Library
creatorOf Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951. Concerto, violin and orchestra / John Alden Carpenter. Washington University in St. Louis, .
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith A. C. McClurg & Co. corporateBody
associatedWith Alpaerts, Flor person
correspondedWith American Ballet Theatre corporateBody
correspondedWith American Institute of Arts and Letters corporateBody
associatedWith Arthur P. Schmidt corporateBody
correspondedWith Barrère, Georges person
associatedWith Barrymore, John, 1882-1942. person
correspondedWith Benedek, Theodore Alfred person
correspondedWith Biancolli, [?] person
correspondedWith Bird, Remsen Du Bois, b. 1888 person
associatedWith Bispham, David Scull, 1857-1921. person
correspondedWith Bloch, Joseph person
correspondedWith Bolm, Adolf, 1884-1951. person
associatedWith Borowski, Felix, 1872-1956. person
associatedWith Briggs, Clare A., 1875-1930. person
correspondedWith Cadman, Charles Wakefield person
correspondedWith Cameron, Basil person
associatedWith Carpenter, John Alden, 1876-1951 person
associatedWith Carpenter, Rue person
associatedWith Carpenter, Rue Winterbotham, d. 1931. person
correspondedWith Chadwick, G. W. (George Whitefield), 1854-1931 person
associatedWith Chaplin, Charlie, 1889-1977. person
correspondedWith Chasins, Abram person
associatedWith Chicago Allied Arts, Inc corporateBody
correspondedWith Chicago Allied Arts, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Childs, Eleanor Stuart. person
correspondedWith Coolidge, Elizabeth Sprague person
associatedWith Copland, Aaron, 1900-1990 person
correspondedWith Damrosch, Walter, 1862-1950 person
correspondedWith De Lamarter, Eric person
associatedWith Diaghilev, Serge, 1872-1929. person
correspondedWith Dumesnil, Maurice person
associatedWith Dunbar, Paul Lawrence, 1872-1906 person
associatedWith Editions Maurice Senart corporateBody
associatedWith Ekstrom, Parmenia Migel., 1908-1989 person
correspondedWith Engel, Carl person
associatedWith E. Robert Schmitz person
associatedWith Fairbank, Janet Ayer, 1878-1951. person
correspondedWith Fisher, Renée B. person
associatedWith Flagler, Harry Harkness, person
associatedWith Gilbert, Henry F. B. (Henry Franklin Belknap), 1868-1928. person
correspondedWith Gilman, Lawrence person
correspondedWith Gold, Julius person
correspondedWith Gold, Julius, 1884-1969. person
correspondedWith Golschmann, Vladimir person
correspondedWith Grainger, Percy, 1882-1961 person
associatedWith G. Schirmer corporateBody
correspondedWith G. Schirmer, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Guilbert, Yvette person
correspondedWith Gunn, Glenn Dillard person
associatedWith Hager, Mina. person
correspondedWith Harvard University corporateBody
correspondedWith Hasselmann, C. person
associatedWith Heifetz, Jascha, 1901-1987 person
associatedWith Herriman, George, 1880-1944. person
associatedWith Hill, Genevieve Carpenter. person
associatedWith Honegger, Arthur person
correspondedWith Howe, M. A. De Wolfe (Mark Antony De Wolfe), 1864-1960 person
associatedWith Hughes, Langston, 1902-1967. person
associatedWith Huis Schott corporateBody
correspondedWith Hurlbut, Byron Satterlee person
correspondedWith James, William, 1882-1961 person
correspondedWith Janssen, Werner person
associatedWith Jones, Robert Edmond, 1887-1954. person
correspondedWith Kernochan, Marshall person
correspondedWith Kindler, Hans person
associatedWith Koo, T. Z. person
correspondedWith Koussevitzky, Serge, 1874-1951. person
associatedWith Léger, Fernand, 1881-1955. person
correspondedWith Lewis, John? Hamilton person
associatedWith Librairie Félix Juven corporateBody
associatedWith Lindsay, Vachel, 1879-1931. person
correspondedWith Lowell, Amy, 1874-1925 person
correspondedWith MacKinnon, Douglas A. person
associatedWith Mary Flagler Cary Music Collection (Pierpont Morgan Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Midwest Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Midwest Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Moldenhauer, Hans, collector. person
associatedWith Monterey Public Library. California History Room. corporateBody
correspondedWith Mueller, Herb person
associatedWith National Arts Foundation. corporateBody
associatedWith Newberry Library. corporateBody
associatedWith New World Records. corporateBody
correspondedWith N., "Hump" T. person
associatedWith Nicholson, William, 1872-1949. person
associatedWith Oetting, William H., 1875-1969 person
associatedWith Ormandy, Eugene, 1899-1985. person
correspondedWith Piatigorsky, Gregor person
associatedWith Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973 person
associatedWith Pierson, Thomas C. person
correspondedWith Robinson, Corinne Roosevelt, 1861-1933 person
correspondedWith Rodzinski, Artur person
associatedWith Rodzinski, Artur, 1892-1958. person
correspondedWith Roosevelt, Franklin Delano person
associatedWith Schindler, Kurt, 1882-1935 person
associatedWith Schulz, Charles M. (Charles Monroe), 1922-2000. person
correspondedWith Serkin, Rudolf person
associatedWith Slonimsky, Nicolas, 1894-1995 person
correspondedWith Sousa, John Philip person
associatedWith Spalding, Walter R. person
correspondedWith Stock, Frederick, 1872-1942 person
correspondedWith Stock, Frederick A. person
correspondedWith Stokowski, Leopold person
correspondedWith Stokowski, Leopold, 1882-1977 person
correspondedWith Stone, John Timothy person
associatedWith Stravinsky, Igor, 1882-1971 person
correspondedWith Swarthout, Gladys person
associatedWith Taylor, Deems person
associatedWith Teasdale, Sara, 1884-1933. person
associatedWith The Association Press corporateBody
associatedWith Thomas A. Edison, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Thomas, Theodore, 1835-1905. person
associatedWith Toklas, Alice B. person
correspondedWith University of Rochester corporateBody
associatedWith Untermeyer, Louis, 1885-1977. person
correspondedWith U. S. George Washington Bicentennial Commission corporateBody
correspondedWith Walter, Bruno person
associatedWith Webster, Henry Kitchell, 1875-1932. person
associatedWith Wilde, Oscar, 1854-1900 person
associatedWith Woollcott, Alexander, 1887-1943. person
associatedWith Young, Stark person
correspondedWith Young, Steve person
correspondedWith Ziehn, Bernard person
correspondedWith Ziehn, Emma person
associatedWith Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Illinois--Chicago
Chicago (Ill.)
United States
Subject
Actors
Piano music
Suites (Orchestra)
Costume design
Composers
Orchestral music
Songs (High voice) with piano
Songs with piano
Dance--Stage-setting and scenery
Manuscripts, American
Dance--Stage-setting and scenery--United States
Piano quintets--Scores and parts
Tangos
Ballets--Scores
Symphonies--Scores
Songs (medium voice) with piano
Concertos (Violin)--Scores
Costume design--United States
Artists
1927.09.09
Music--Manuscripts
Pantomimes with music--Scores
Violin and piano music--Scores
Orchestral music--Scores
Ballet
Composers--Correspondence
Composers--United States
Musicians
Polonaises
Music--Manuscripts--Facsimiles
Piano music (Pianos (2), Arranged
Occupation
Composers
Function

Person

Birth 1876-02-28

Death 1951-04-26

Americans

English

Information

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