Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938

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George Ellery Hale was an astrophysicist. He was the organizer and director of the Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1904-1923, and was honorary director until his death in 1938. His principal scientific researches were made in stellar spectroscopy.

From the description of Papers, 1903-1935. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82798019

From the description of Papers, 1882-1937. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122523501

From the guide to the George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1937, 1882-1937, (American Philosophical Society)

Astronomer (spectroscopy, solar and stellar physics). On the astrophysics faculty at University of Chicago, 1892-1905; director, Yerkes Observatory, 1895-1905; and director, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution, 1904-1923.

From the description of Papers [microform], 1882-1938. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79025413

Astronomer (spectroscopy, solar and stellar physics). On the astrophysics faculty at the University of Chicago, 1892-1905; director Yerkes Observatory, 1895-1905; and director, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution, 1904-1923.

From the description of Letters to Harry Manley Goodwin [microform], 1887-1937. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79089754

Astrophysicist (stellar spectroscopy). Professor of astrophysics, University of Chicago and director, Yerkes Observatory, 1895-1905; founder and director of the Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1904-1923.

From the description of Papers, 1882-1938. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84276268

George Ellery Hale, astronomer, was born in Chicago and educated at M.I.T., Harvard College Observatory, and the Univ. of Berlin. A specialist in solar and stellar spectroscopy, Hale organized the Kenwood Astrophysical Observatory for the Univ. of Chicago (and served as its director until 1896), where he also invented and developed the spectroheliograph, established the Astrophysical journal, and served as the director of the Yerkes Observatory. In 1904 Hale moved to Pasadena, California, where he organized the Mount Wilson Observatory, served as its director until 1923, and was instrumental in the construction of the 200-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Palomar. Hale received numerous awards and honors in the international scientific community and was a leading force in the cultural and scientific growth of the Pasadena area. He served on the original board of trustees of the Huntington Library.

From the description of Correspondence of George Ellery Hale, 1887-1937. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 122584653

From the description of Mount Wilson Director's papers, 1901-1925. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 122540487

Astrophysicist.

From the description of Papers of George Ellery Hale, 1882-1938. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71068765

Biography

George Ellery Hale's papers reflect the wide diversity of his activities and accomplishments. Born in Chicago in 1868, he received his B.S. from M. I. T. in 1890. Active in the development of astrophysics, he quickly established a distinguished scientific reputation for his invention of the spectroheliograph. He made important contributions to the study of solar phenomena, organized and co-edited the Astrophysical Journal, and was the leading figure in the design, funding and construction of the Kenwood, Yerkes, Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories.

Hale was also exceedingly energetic in the organization and promotion of the enterprise of science, both at home and abroad. In the United States he played a highly influential role in the National Academy of Sciences. He revivified the Academy almost single-handedly by organizing the National Research Council, obtaining substantial endowment for the NAS, and establishing the critically important National Research Council Fellowships. A founder of the International Union of Cooperation in Solar Research, Foreign Secretary of the National Academy of Sciences, and a frequent delegate to the International Association of Academies, he became deeply involved in the international relations of science before the First World War. Instrumental in the establishment of the International Research Council after the war, he was president of its successor, the International Council of Scientific Unions from 1931 to 1934.

Hale settled in Pasadena, California in 1904 to assume the duties of Director of the newly established Mount Wilson Observatory and became deeply involved in the educational and cultural affairs of the area. Among his most important efforts were the creation and development of the California Institute of Technology and the Huntington Library. The Hale collection provides an unusually complete record of his activities.

From the guide to the George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1938, (California Institute of Technology. Archives. Boxes 1-147 and addenda (3 boxes) (Personal Papers), California Institute of Technology, )

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Anderson, John A. (John Augustus), 1876-1959. Papers, 1914-1951. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Millikan, Robert Andrews, 1868-1953. Papers [microform], 1847-1953. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Wright, F. E. (Frederic Eugene), 1877-1953. Papers of Frederic Eugene Wright, 1924-1961. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Rutherford, Ernest, 1871-1937. Correspondence, 1906-1937. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Mount Wilson Observatory. Legal papers of Mount Wilson Observatory, 1903-1938. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Porter, Russell Williams, 1871-1949. Russell W. Porter drawings, 1928-1945. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Belopolsky, Aristarch Apollonovich, 1854-1934. Papers, 1880-1934. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Merrill, Paul W. (Paul Willard), 1887-1961. Memories of George E. Hale and Mount Wilson [sound recording] / 1953. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn William W. Coblentz Papers, 1883-1960 Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Davenport, Charles Benedict, 1866-1944. Papers, 1874-1944. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Seares, Frederick Hanley, 1873-. Papers of Frederick Hanley Seares, 1909-1945 (bulk 1909-1940). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Niels Bohr Library. The Emilio Segrè visual archives, E-J, [ca. 1870]-9999. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Michelson, Albert A. Papers, 1891-1969 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Gill, David, Sir, 1843-1914. Papers, 1868-1913. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn George Sarton additional papers, 1901-1956. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Babcock, Horace W. Oral history interview with Horace W. Babcock, 1977, July 25. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Bowen, Ira Sprague, 1898-1973. Oral history interview with Ira Sprague Bowen, 1968 August 9 and 26 August 1969. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Benton, Ely, and Hale family papers, 1824-1857. Connecticut Historical Society
creatorOf Pettit, Edison, 1889-1962. Papers of Edison Pettit, 1920-1969. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Thomson, Elihu, 1853-1937. Papers, 1853-1955. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Dunsink Observatory, Founded 1785. Correspondence and records, 1885-1893. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn House, Edward Mandell, 1858-1938. Edward Mandell House papers, 1885-1938 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot Cary, 1822-1907. Records of the President of Radcliffe College, 1879-1978 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Press releases and photographs relating to the 200-inch telescope, 1938. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Crew, William Henry, 1899-. Henry Crew at Northwestern University: A memoir, 1975. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Franck, James, 1882-1964. Oral history joint interview with James Franck and Hertha Sponer-Franck, 1962 July 9 to 14. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Rowland, Henry Augustus, 1848-1901. Rowland (Henry Augustus) papers, 1793-1970. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn International Education Board. Archives, 1923-1930. Rockefeller Archive Center, Rockefeller University, Pocantico Hills
referencedIn Adams, Walter Sydney, 1876-1956. Correspondence, 1881-1939. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Hale, George. Diary, 1863, May 17-July 23. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Millikan, Robert A., 1868-1953. The early founders of C. I. T. : paper, 1951 Nov 9. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library and Archives
creatorOf George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1937, 1882-1937 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Crew, Henry, 1859-1953. Papers [microform], 1833-1967, (bulk 1880-1940) American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn American Institute of Physics. Center for History of Physics. Records, 1961-1988. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956. Robert Mearns Yerkes papers, 1822-1985 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Millikan, Robert Andrews, 1868-1953. Robert Andrews Millikan collection, 1847-1953. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1938 California Institute of Technology. Archives. Pasadena, California 91125
referencedIn Adams, Walter S. (Walter Sydney), 1876-1956. Autobiographical notes, 1954. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Mount Wilson Director's papers, 1901-1925. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Strömgren, Bengt, 1908-. Oral history interview with Bengt Georg Daniel Strömgren, 1976 May 6 and 13. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Coblentz, William W. (William Weber), 1873-1962. William W. Coblentz papers, 1883-1960. Library of Congress
referencedIn House, Edward Mandell, 1858-1938. Edward Mandell House papers, 1885-2007 (inclusive), 1885-1938 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Correspondence of George Ellery Hale, 1887-1937. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn University of Chicago. Yerkes Observatory. Office of the Director. Records, 1891-1946 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Michelson, Albert A. (Albert Abraham), 1852-1931. Papers, 1803-1989 ; (bulk: 1861-1965). American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Grove-Hills, Edmond Herbert, 1864-1822,. Papers, 1910-1915. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Williams, Edward F. (Edward Franklin), 1832-1919. Papers. 1838-1918. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn The Drawings Of Russell W. Porter, 1928-1945 California Institute of Technology. Archives.
referencedIn Edward Mandell House papers, 1885-2007, 1885-1938 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Palomar Observatory motion pictures collection, 1935-1996, bulk 1935-1948 California Institute of Technology. Caltech Archives.
referencedIn Elihu Thomson Papers, 1865-1944 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Wright, Helen, 1914-1997. Papers. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Letters to Harry Manley Goodwin [microform], 1887-1937. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Yerkes Observatory. University of Chicago, Yerkes Observatory, Office of the Director records 1891-1946 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Joy, Alfred H. (Alfred Harrison), 1882-1973. Papers of Alfred Harrison Joy, 1910-1972. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Robert Andrews Millikan collection, 1847-1953, 1847-1953 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Turner, Frederick Jackson, 1861-1932. Papers of Frederick Jackson Turner, 1862-1976 (bulk 1889-1932). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Shapley, Harlow, 1885-1972. Papers [microform], 1910-1923. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. George Ellery Hale papers, 1882-1937. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Papers, 1882-1938. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Shapley, Harlow, 1885-1972. Oral history interview with Harlow Shapley, 1966 June 8 to August 25. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Merrill, Paul W. (Paul Willard), 1887-1961. Papers of Paul W. Merrill, 1922-1961. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Newcomb, Simon, 1835-1909. Papers of Simon Newcomb, 1854-1936 (bulk 1865-1909). Library of Congress
referencedIn Rutherford, Ernest, 1871-1937. Ernest Rutherford correspondence, 1906-1937. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Anderson, John A. (John Augustus), 1876-1959. Papers, 1914-1951. California Institute of Technology, Caltech Library
referencedIn Merriam, John C. (John Campbell), 1869-1945. Papers of John C. Merriam, 1899-1938. Library of Congress
referencedIn University of Chicago. Yerkes Observatory. Logbooks and Notebooks, 1892-1988 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Camp, Elisha. Elisha Camp papers, 1756-1879. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Chandler, Harry, 1864-1944. Robinson-Farrand papers, 1903-1958. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn John C. Merriam Papers, 1899-1938 Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn American Astronomical Society. Records, 1897-1988, (bulk 1920-1980). American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Schur, Wilhelm, 1846-1901. Papers. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Papers, 1882-1937. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Papers, 1903-1935. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Strong, John, 1905-. Oral History interview with John Strong, 1984 April 20. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Correspondence, 1892-1935. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Walter Sydney Adams Papers, 1881-1939 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Papers of George Ellery Hale, 1882-1938. Library of Congress
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Schlesinger, Frank, 1871-1943. Allegheny Observatory correspondence [microform], 1905-1920. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Michelson, Albert A. (Albert Abraham), 1852-1931. Addition to papers. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Lick Observatory. Records, 1873-1966. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Papers [microform], 1882-1938. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Hale, George Ellery, 1868-1938. Correspondence concerning the National Academy of Sciences, 1913 Feb.-Mar. Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Lukens, Theodore Parker, 1848-1918. Papers of Theodore Parker Lukens, 1848-1918. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn John A. Anderson papers, 1914-1951 California Institute of Technology. Archives.
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
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Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
United States
United States
Vicksburg (Miss.)
Sun
Mississippi
California--Wilson, Mount
California--Wilson, Mount
United States
California
Illinois
United States
Subject
Spectrohelioscope--Research
Astronomical observatories--Planning
Astronomy
Astronomical instruments
Science--History--20th century
Astronomical observatories--United States
Astronomical spectroscopy
Astronomy--History--20th century--Sources
Universities and colleges
Scientific literature
Spectrum analysis
Space sciences--Research
Research
Astronomy--History--Sources
Science and state
Scientists--Correspondence
Science and state--United States
Astronomical observatories
Fund raising
Spectroheliograph
Scientists--International cooperation
Astronomy--Research
Astronomical observatories--Administration
Spectrohelioscope
Astrophysics
Astronomers--Correspondence
Astronomical observatories--Planning--United States
Science
Occupation
Astronomers--United States
Astronomers--Archives
Astrophysicists--Archives
Physicists
Astronomers
Function

Person

Birth 1868-06-29

Death 1938-02-21

Americans

English

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