Audubon, John-James, 1785-1851

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1785-04-26
Death 1851-01-27
US
English

Biographical notes:

Naturalist, ornithologist, and artist, known for his Birds of America.

From the description of Letters received, 1831-1853. (Buffalo History Museum). WorldCat record id: 56506202

Audubon was an American artist and ornithologost.

From the guide to the John James Audubon letters and drawings, 1805-1892 (inclusive), 1805-1847 (bulk)., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

John James Audubon was a painter and ornithologist. Born in Les Coyes (Haiti) on April 26, 1786, he was raised in revolutionary France. He settled in Kentucky in 1806. After a store he owned went bankrupt, he left his wife and two young sons in Kentucky and went to New Orlean where he attempted to earn his living as a portrait painter and art teacher. After 1820, he shifted his focus to painting and writing about birds and mammals. Audubon traveled throughout North America in search of specimens. Between 1826 and 1839, he spent much time in Great Britain trying to get his work published. Audubon was the compiler of "Birds of America," "Quadrupeds of America," and "Ornithological Biographies." From 1832 until his death in 1851, Audubon was assisted in his work by his sons, John Woodhouse and Victor Gifford. Audubon became an honary member of the National Academy in 1833.

From the description of Letters, 1821, 1836, 1840. (Winterthur Library). WorldCat record id: 122516856

American naturalist and artist.

From the description of John James Audubon letters, 1831-1832. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat record id: 252811160

From the guide to the John James Audubon correspondence, 1827-1857, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Painter, illustrator, ornithologist and naturalist; New York.

From the description of John James Audubon letter to J.L. Alden, 1841 January 27. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122455146

Louisiana naturalist, artist and author of books on ornithology.

From the description of John James Audubon letter and print, 1836, 1841. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat record id: 262623701

John James Audubon was an artist and naturalist.

From the description of Papers, 1821-1845. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 154298013

The Birds of America was published 1827-1838. In published work, plates 251-285, 287, 289-290 are dated 1835; plates 286, 288, 291-299 are dated 1836.

From the description of Original manuscripts to accompany Birds of America / by John James Audubon. [1835?-1836] (American Museum of Natural History). WorldCat record id: 71777484

From the description of Original manuscripts to accompany Birds of America / by John James Audubon. [1835?-1836] (American Museum of Natural History). WorldCat record id: 35689389

Louisiana naturalist, artist, and author of books on ornithology.

From the description of John James Audubon prints, probably 20th century. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat record id: 259110101

Audubon was an American artist and ornithologist.

From the description of John James Audubon papers, 1813-1880 (inclusive) 1828-1855 (bulk). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612370399

From the description of John James Audubon letters and drawings, 1805-1892 (inclusive), 1805-1847 (bulk). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612370907

From the guide to the John James Audubon papers, 1813-1880 (inclusive), 1828-1855 (bulk)., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

American naturalist.

From the description of Autograph letters signed (9) : Charleston, South Carolina, London, Edinburgh, Sheffield, Liverpool, and Minnie's Land, Manhattan, to Dr. Benjamin or Mrs. Phillips of London (one to her father William Page), 1837 Jan. 10-1846 Mar. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270132371

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to John Adamson, undated. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765499326

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to Dr. and Mrs. Phillips, 1846 Mar. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765948629

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Edinburgh, to Mr. Page, 1839 June 2. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765948942

From the description of Autograph letter : Boston, to [John Adamson], 1832 Oct. 10. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765467376

From the description of Autograph letters signed (8), (6), (1) : London, Boston, to John Adamson of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827 Aug. 4-1835 Feb. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270134481

From the description of Autograph letters signed (16) : Charleston, South Carolina, London, Edinburgh, Sheffield, Liverpool, and Minnie's Land, Manhattan, all to the Phillips family, 1838-1849. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270131846

From the description of Autograph letters signed (9) : to John Adamson (one to his daughter), 1830-1833. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270134485

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to [John Adamson], "Thursday". (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765499303

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to John Adamson, 1827 Aug. 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765471993

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to John Adamson, 1835 Feb. 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765488980

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to [John Adamson], 1834 June 4. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765496274

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to [John Adamson], undated [1836 or later]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765499518

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to John Adamson, 1827 Aug. 4. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765471979

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Edinburgh, to Dr. Phillips, 1839 June 23. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765938124

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to Dr. and Mrs. Phillips, 1839 Dec. 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765946625

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Sheffield, to Mrs. Phillips, 1839 July 13. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765940832

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to Mrs. Phillips, 1838 Apr. 30. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765936370

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Liverpool, to Dr. Phillips, 1839 July 21. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765943966

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Liverpool, to Dr. and Mrs. Phillips, 1839 July 24. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765945093

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Charleston, South Carolina, to Dr. and Mrs. Phillips, 1837 Jan. 10. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 765929287

American naturalist, ornithologist, painter, and illustrator.

From the description of Morris Tyler family collection of John James Audubon, 1697-1982 (bulk 1820-1855). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702137230

Artist and naturalist.

From the description of John James Audubon : miscellaneous papers, 1827-1838. (Filson Historical Society, The). WorldCat record id: 46719433

From the description of Memoirs, [ca. 1830]. (Filson Historical Society, The). WorldCat record id: 46719435

American naturalist, author and artist.

From the description of Niagara : autograph manuscript unsigned, [1831]. (Morgan Library & Museum). WorldCat record id: 78754588

From the description of The earth quake : autograph manuscript unsigned, [1831]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270132572

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, Charles Bonaparte, 1833 May 1. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270131655

Artist and ornithologist.

From the description of John James Audubon papers, 1840-1894. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79449911

From the description of Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1809-1946. 1820-1840, 1862-1863 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 476442560

Charles Lucian Bonaparte was a naturalist and ornithologist.

From the guide to the Correspondence, 1824-1855, from American scientists, 1824-1855, (American Philosophical Society)

American naturalist best known for his major work The Birds of America and The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America .

From the guide to the John James Audubon collection, 1823-1898, 1826-1840, (Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library)

John James Audubon (1785-1851) was an American painter and naturalist.

From the description of Audubon octavo warbler prints. (College of Charleston). WorldCat record id: 71260370

American artist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to Mr. Bentley, 1828 Mar. 16. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270131608

The vertical files of the Whitney Library originated with the Museum's founding in 1930 and include research materials on 20th century American art. Central to the collection are the files of the American Art Research Council, an agency administered by the Whitney Museum between 1942 and 1948, in cooperation with thirty museums and university art departments, to document and authenticate American art. The library now serves as a repository for the AARC records. The Council compiled records of the works of leading American artists, including information as to medium, size, signature, date, history, owners, exhibitions, reproductions and auction sales.

From the description of John James Audubon : artist file. (Whitney Museum of American Art). WorldCat record id: 122688273

John James Audubon was an ornithologist, artist, and naturalist. He was illegitimately born to a French slave trader and a Creole woman on April 26, 1785 in Les Cayes, Saint-Domingue in the West Indies, or what is now Haiti. Later in his childhood he moved to France, and when he was 18 moved to the United States. Audubon began to develop an interest in North American birds as he unsuccessfully moved through careers as a mine owner, a shopkeeper, and a businessman. Eventually settling into whatever odd jobs he could obtain, Audubon began seeking a printer in Europe to publish his drawings of American birds. In 1838, Audubon finally published his The Birds of America through publisher Robert Havell of London. From 1839 to his death on January 27, 1851, Audubon remained primarily in New York, working on another edition of his book and a new book, Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, with his sons.

From the guide to the John James Audubon Collection, 1788-1969, (Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections)

Artist and ornithologist.

From 1827 to 1839 John James Audubon published his most famous work, Birds of America. The work was first issued serially in folio sets of five plates each. As sufficient numbers became available, volumes were also offered. During this period, Audubon was forced to spend much of his time seeking subscribers to the work in Great Britain, continental Europe and America.

From the description of Letter : New York, [N.Y.], to Professor [Parker] Cleveland, Bowdoin College, New Brunswick, Me., 1833 Sept. 17. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 36149649

Artist, hunter, naturalist.

Painter and naturalist. He began drawing birds as a teenager. In 1803 he moved to his father's estate near Philadelphia, where he spent his time hunting, experimenting with birds, and also drawing the birds he hunted. He failed as a shopkeeper and in other business enterprises while he pursued his two real passions: observing and drawing wildlife which proved to highly successful.

From the description of Drawings, 19?? (University of Florida). WorldCat record id: 50255924

John James Audubon "ornithologist, artist, and naturalist who became particularly well known for his drawings and paintings of North American birds." -- "Audubon, John James." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Academic ed. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9011224 (Retrieved February 8, 2010)

Pierre Joseph Redouté was a "French botanical painter. He became a favoured artist at the court of France, patronized by kings from Louis XVI to Louis-Philippe. His delicate botanical prints were not only framed as pictures but also used for china patterns. His Les Liliacées (1802--15) contained 500 plates of lilies. However, roses became his specialty; Les Roses (1817--21) is considered his finest series, and its classic images are still widely reproduced." -- "Redouté, Pierre Joseph." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Academic ed. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9473172 (Retrieved February 8, 2010)

From the description of Audubon and Redouté prints, circa 1840s. (University of Georgia). WorldCat record id: 527996206

Artist, painter

Artist, ornithologist and naturalist John James Audubon was born in France, traveled to America in 1804, stayed for a while in Philadelphia and came to Kentucky in 1807. In partnership with Ferdinand Rozier, Audubon bought a stock of goods in New York and went to Louisville, Kentucky where the two of them opened a general store. In 1810 they moved their business to Henderson, Kentucky. While in Kentucky, Audubon's interests in natural history and ornithology continued, but the business partnership with Rozier was not a success and was dissolved. In association with others Audubon had several other successful enterprises, the last being a steam grist and lumber mill which failed in 1819 after which time Audubon was jailed for debt, released on a plea of bankruptcy and left for Cincinnati in the winter of 1819.

From the description of John James Audubon papers. (University of Kentucky Libraries). WorldCat record id: 15321819

Painter, illustrator, ornithologist.

Born Haiti, West Indies.

From the description of John James Audubon and Audubon family letters, [ca. 1783-1845]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122571651

Bonaparte, Charles Lucien, Prince of Canino (1803-1857, APS, 1824). Charles Lucien Bonaparte, French naturalist and ornithologist, was a nephew of the Emperor Napoleon, the son of the Emperor’s younger brother Lucien.

Charles Lucien Bonaparte, was raised in Italy and shared his father Lucien’s republican political values. He received an extensive scientific education in Italian universities. In 1822 at the age of nineteen he married his cousin Zenaida-Charlotte-Julie, daughter of Joseph, king of Naples and Spain, and brought her to live in the United States for six years. The couple had twelve children.

Before the age of twenty he discovered a warbler, then unknown to science. And would make his greatest contributions to zoology, even though he had begun his scientific career with several essays in botany. While in the United States Bonaparte published numerous ornithological notes in the Journal of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences. He continued Alexander Wilson’s work on birds, updating the latter’s American Ornithology. He also sponsored the then unknown John James Audobon for membership in the Academy of Natural Science in 1824, although Audobon was not elected.

Returning to Europe in 1828 at the age of 25, Bonaparte settled in Italy and began a period of major political activity. He advocated for the organization of scientific congresses that also provided an opportunity for meetings of independents and reformers. After the accession of the initially liberal Pope Pius IX in 1846, Bonaparte became a member of the Pope’s party, but proceeded to move in a more radical direction, affiliating with the radicals and joining the Supreme Junta that seized power in the Roman states during the Revolutions of 1848. After the flight of Pope Pius in November 1848, Charles Lucien became deputy for Viterbo in the Assemblée Nationale Romaine; he was eventually elected Vice-President of the Assemblée. He also served on a commission to draft a constitution for the Roman Republic. When his cousin Louis Napoleon sent French troops to restore the Pope, Bonaparte participated in the defense of Rome with the Republican army. After its defeat and the fall of the Roman Republic, he fled with his family back to France, first to Marseilles and then Orléans, where he was arrested and released. Louis Napoleon ordered him out of the county and he set sail from Le Havre for England.

While in England, Bonaparte attended the 1849 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Birmingham, then visited the Scottish ornithologist Sir William Jardine. During his sojourn in England Bonaparte started work on a classification of every bird in the world, visiting museums across Europe to study their collections. The following year, 1851, he was allowed to return to France, where he and his family settled in Paris. At this point he gave up politics and concentrated exclusively on his scientific endeavors.

Bonaparte became interested in the principles of biological classification as early as 1831. In his early work he departed from the concepts of Georges Cuvier, of whom he was quite critical. He classified Insectivora before the Rodentia and separated the Chiroptera from the Primates. He made use of location, structure and the relationships of the branchiae in his classification of fish. Also, in developing classifications, he considered physiological data and morphology. Consequently, he raised the Batrachia to a subclass, then united the saurians and ophidians (Reptilia). He devoted the final years of his life to establishing a definitive classification of zoological groups, publishing synopses, conspectuses, and catalogs of the fauna of France. To this end, he not only encouraged fellow zoologists to study local fauna, but in 1857 conceived a general work in collaboration with Victor Meunier on the fauna of France entitled Histoire naturelle generale et particuliere des animaux qui vivent en France. Bonaparte’s death later that year prevented the realization of the project.

Charles Lucien Bonaparte was deeply interested in the French Muséum d’histoire naturelle and hoped to see the addition of a special gallery for native fauna. He bequeathed his library, containing works on the natural sciences, meterology, history and politics, as well as his extensive correspondence, to the Muséum.

From the guide to the Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte letters, 1825-1857, 1825-1857, (American Philosophical Society)



Biographical notes are generated from the bibliographic and archival source records supplied by data contributors.

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Subjects:

  • Science publishing
  • Learned institutions and societies.
  • Voyages and travels
  • Ornithologists--Correspondence
  • Rats
  • Naturalists--History--Sources
  • Watercolorists
  • Birds -- Research.
  • Booksellers and bookselling
  • Ornithologists --United States.
  • Booksellers and bookselling --Connecticut --New Haven.
  • Lilies in art
  • Artists--Correspondence
  • Birds in art
  • Birds --North America.
  • Publishers and publishing
  • Artists as authors
  • Mammals -- United States -- 19th century.
  • Ornithology
  • Birds--Pictorial works
  • Self-publishing
  • Artists, American
  • Artists' books
  • Botany--History--Sources
  • Natural history--Sources
  • Natural history--History--Sources
  • Kentucky warbler
  • Ornithologists
  • Naturalists
  • Animals in art
  • White Cucumber
  • Ornithology -- United States -- 19th century.
  • Birds
  • Animal painters
  • Rats--Pictorial works
  • Manuscripts, American
  • Publishers and publishing --Pennsylvania --Philadelphia.
  • Booksellers and bookselling--Colportage, subscription trade, etc.
  • Booksellers and bookselling--Cortage, subscription trade, etc.
  • Zoology.
  • Wildlife artists --United States.
  • Artists--Economic conditions
  • Wild turkey
  • Birds--Collection and preservation
  • Art, American
  • Flowers in art
  • Ruffed grouse
  • Scientific expeditions
  • Self-publishing--History--19th century--Sources
  • Natural history
  • Zoological illustration
  • Science and Technology
  • Mammals --United States.
  • Birds--Research
  • Natural History
  • Publishers and publishing --Connecticut --New Haven.
  • History of science
  • Illustrators
  • Publishers and publishing --Massachusetts --Boston.
  • Finches--Pictorial works
  • Ornithology--Study and teaching
  • Roses in art
  • Mallard
  • Artists--Archival resources
  • Ornithology.
  • Petrels --Pictorial works.
  • Natural history --United States.
  • Draftsmen
  • Naturalists--19th century--Archives
  • Cornell University. Laboratory of Ornithology.
  • Science -- Societies, etc.
  • Natural history illustrators--Correspondence
  • Mammals
  • Laminated plastics
  • Literature, Arts, and Culture
  • Wildlife artists
  • Diaries
  • Zoological - specimens
  • Birds in art--Publishing--History--19th century--Sources
  • Ornithology --United States.
  • Art history
  • Snipes

Occupations:

  • Scientists.
  • Painters
  • Artists -- United States -- 19th century.
  • Ornithologists -- United States -- 19th century.
  • Wildlife artists.
  • Artists
  • Scientists
  • Ornithologists.
  • Naturalists.
  • Ornithologists --19th century --United States.
  • Naturalists
  • Artists.

Places:

  • Louisville (Ky.) (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)
  • Nova Scotia (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)
  • Kentucky (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Florida (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Nova Scotia (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts--Boston (as recorded)
  • Pennsylvania--Philadelphia (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Florida (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)
  • Ohio River Valley (as recorded)
  • New York (State) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts (as recorded)
  • Louisiana (as recorded)
  • Connecticut--New Haven (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)
  • New York (State)--New York (as recorded)
  • New Orleans (La.) (as recorded)
  • Great Egg Harbor (N.J. : Township) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • West (U.S.) (as recorded)
  • Worcester (Mass.) (as recorded)
  • North America (as recorded)