Audubon, John Woodhouse, 1812-1862

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John James Audubon (1785-1851), known as the American Woodsman, is a legend as a naturalist and bird artist. He was not the first person to attempt to paint and describe all the birds in America, but his unique technique of depicting his subjects dramatically contributed to his renown. His technique of painting freshly killed specimens surrounded by their natural habitats added a wealth of knowledge to the emerging discipline of ornithology in the nineteenth century.

Audubon was born April 26, 1785 in Santo Domingo (now Haiti) to a French naval captain, Jean Audubon, and his mistress, Jeanne Rabine. Formally adopted in 1794, Jean-Jacques Fougere Audubon was raised by the Captain's wife, Anne Moynet Audubon, and lived in France till 1803. In that year, Audubon came to America to escape conscription into Napoleon's army. He oversaw his father's farm, Mill Grove, in Pennsylvania, twenty-four miles northwest of Philadelphia. In these happy days, hunting, fishing, drawing and music completely occupied the naturalist. It was at this time, that he developed his technique for passing wires through freshly killed birds to fix them in characteristic poses on which he based his life-like sketches.

After marrying Lucy Bakewell in 1808, Audubon sold Mill Grove Farm and moved to Kentucky to try his hand in business. While there, Lucy gave birth to two sons, Victor Gifford and John Woodhouse. After several failed commercial ventures, Audubon, at thirty-four years old, settled down to his life's ambition, to paint every bird in the United States and its territories. His plan was to have prints made from his paintings, which he would sell on a subscription basis.

In 1824, Audubon made his way to Philadelphia, portfolio in hand, to find an engraver and publisher for his work. While his decision to depict all the birds in America was an ambitious one, it was not original. Noted Scottish Naturalist, Alexander Wilson, had published a nine-volume set titled, American Ornithology, between 1808 and 1814. James Mease, curator of the American Philosophical Society, introduced Audubon to some influential individuals in the city. One of these individuals was the nephew of Napoleon, Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte, a knowledgeable ornithologist and artist. Bonaparte then presented him to the members of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Audubon offended this august group by disparaging Wilson's work. The Academy members had intellectual, as well as, financial interest in Wilson's work. Many of the members of the Academy, particularly George Ord, saw to it that Audubon would not receive the support he sought.

As a result, in 1826, Audubon sailed to Great Britain to seek his fame and fortune. His works were more successfully received in England and Scotland. He first employed W.H. Lizars of Edinburgh to engrave copper plates and pull prints. But due to labor unrest in Lizars firm, he turned to Robert Havell & Son, of London, to do the majority of the work.

Audubon's masterpiece, The Birds of America, a four-volume elephant folio with four hundred and thirty-five colored plates of 1,065 individual birds in life-size depictions measuring more than two by three feet, accompanied by a synopsis and index was completed in June, 1838. The text to The Birds of America was published separately as a five-volume work entitled Ornithological Biography . Done in collaboration with the Scottish ornithologist, William MacGillivray, it describes life histories of each of the species with anecdotes of Audubon's adventures. This work was completed in 1839 as a companion to the elephant folio edition. Following the completion of the double elephant folio, a seven-volume octavo edition of The Birds of America was published and completed by 1844. The size, ten and a half by six and a half inches, was more popular and more affordable than the larger edition.

With the publication of the first volume of The Birds of America, Audubon's reputation in the scientific community was secured. He was elected to membership of the American Philosophical Society in 1831 and even the Academy of Natural Sciences elected him an honorary member. Each institution then subscribed to Audubon's work and both still own original copies of the elephant folio edition.

The four volumes of The Birds of America were published over a ten-year period (1827-1838). During 1831 and 1834, Audubon made additional trips for collections and paintings to Florida, South Carolina, and Labrador. It was during 1832 that Victor sailed to England to become his father's business agent. Audubon spent much of 1834 and 1835 in England working on The Birds of America and Ornithological Biography .

Audubon, over this ten-year period, acquired many helpers and friends. George Lehman, Maria Martin, and Joseph Mason are some of the artists who painted backgrounds to be incorporated into the overall work. Robert Havell not only engraved the copper plates but also completed some of Audubon's paintings. But Audubon's most loyal American supporter was the Naturalist Rev. John Bachman of Charleston, South Carolina. He supplied many specimens for The Birds of America and later collaborated with him on his final work, The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America .

In 1839, Audubon and his family settled in New York City and in 1842 they built their first permanent home along the Hudson River, called "Minnie's Land." Work on the Quadrupeds began in 1840. A mammal project, John Bachman wrote much of the scientific text. Audubon undertook a final expedition up the Missouri River from March to September 1843 to gather specimens for this work. He then returned east to paint and travel to solicit subscriptions.

By the mid-1840s, Audubon had turned over much of his pursuits to his sons. John contributed substantial artistic talent to the Quadrupeds and Victor continued to be his father's business manager. Audubon died at Minnie's Land at the age of sixty-six on January 27, 1851. His sons completed publication of the Quadrupeds . Lucy Audubon, finding herself in financial straits, in 1863, sold Minnie's Land and the original drawings of The Birds of America to the New York Historical Society.

Though John James Audubon during his lifetime disconcerted both the artistic and scientific communities, his legacy is that he forever changed the way in which birds are illustrated. His ability to replicate their physical features made birds come alive in their natural environment. The freshness of his life-size images displays his genius as a meticulous ornithological recorder and as an exceptional artist.

From the guide to the John James Audubon Papers, 1821-1845, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Morris Tyler family collection of John James Audubon, 1697-1982 (bulk 1820-1855). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Letters received, 1831-1853. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
referencedIn John James Audubon papers, 1813-1880 (inclusive), 1828-1855 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Letters, 1821, 1836, 1840. Winterthur Library
creatorOf Harris, Edward, 1799-1863. Papers, 1797-1959. Alabama Department of Archives and History
creatorOf Audubon, Mary Eliza Bachman, 1818-1841. The friendly repository and keepsake of Mary Eliza Bachman, 1831-1839. Winterthur Library
referencedIn John James Audubon papers, 1813-1880 (inclusive), 1828-1855 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material Bancroft Library
creatorOf Audubon, John Woodhouse, 1812-1862. Memorandum of an agreement, 1849 Jan 27. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn John James Audubon letters and drawings, 1805-1892 (inclusive), 1805-1847 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Adams, Charles C. (Charles Christopher), 1873-1955. Charles C. Adams papers, 1931-1948. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf John James Audubon Papers, 1821-1845 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Audubon, John Woodhouse, 1812-1862. Check. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Dwight, Edward H., 1919-1981. Edward H. Dwight papers, 1950-1977. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Sage, Gardner A. Map of lands in the 12th ward of the City of New York belonging to the Hamilton Mining and Manufacturing Company / Gardner A. Sage. Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
creatorOf Audubon, John Woodhouse, 1812-1862. Artist file. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Lambert, John S. John S. Lambert and John B. Lambert letters relating to the California gold rush, [19--]. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Lambert, John S. John S. Lambert and John B. Lambert letters relating to the California gold rush, [19--]. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Abert, John James, 1788-1863 person
associatedWith Adams, Charles C. (Charles Christopher), 1873-1955. person
associatedWith Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. person
associatedWith Audubon, Lucy Green Bakewell, 1788-1874 person
associatedWith Audubon, Mary Eliza Bachman, 1818-1841. person
associatedWith Audubon, Victor Gifford, 1809-1860 person
associatedWith Bachman, John, 1790-1874 person
associatedWith Bakewell, William person
associatedWith Berthoud, Nicholas person
associatedWith Bonaparte, Charles Lucian Jule person
associatedWith Brewster, Thomas person
associatedWith Chetwynd, Henry John, Earl of Shrewsbury person
associatedWith Children, John George, 1777-1852 person
associatedWith Cooper, William, 1798? -1864 person
associatedWith Dibner, Bern, person
associatedWith Dwight, Edward H., 1919-1981. person
associatedWith Gaston, William person
associatedWith Harlan, Richard, 1796-1843 person
associatedWith Harris, Edward person
associatedWith Harris, Edward, 1799-1863. person
associatedWith Havell, Robert, Jr. 1793-1878 person
associatedWith Honeyman, Robert B. person
associatedWith Lambert, John S. person
associatedWith Lehman, George person
associatedWith Lizars, W. H. (William Home), 1788-1859 person
associatedWith Mallory, Henry C. person
associatedWith Martin, Maria, 1794-1863 person
associatedWith McCulloch, Thomas, Jr. person
associatedWith McMurtry, Henry person
associatedWith Ord, George, 1781-1866 person
associatedWith Rathbone, William person
associatedWith Rothschild, Baron Nathan Mayer de person
associatedWith Sage, Gardner A. person
associatedWith Waller, J. Walthen person
associatedWith Waterton, Charles, 1782-1865 person
associatedWith Webb, Henry Livingston. person
associatedWith Whittlesey, Edward W. person
associatedWith Wilson, Alexander, 1766-1813 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Subject
Birds--North America
Literature, Arts, and Culture
Business and Skilled Trades
Natural History--North America
Printing and Publishing
Naturalists
Ornithology--North America
Overland journeys to the Pacific
Ornithologists
Science and technology
Natural history
Occupation
Artists
Publisher
Function

Person

Birth 1812

Death 1862

Americans

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