Long, Esmond R. (Esmond Ray), 1890-1979

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Esmond Ray Long was born in Chicago. He was a graduate of the University of Chicago and did post-graduate work at the University of Prague in Czechoslovakia. Long joined the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1932 as a professor of pathology and director of the Henry Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment, and Prevention of Tuberculosis. He devoted his life to the study of tuberculosis, after having contracted it as a young man, and became known as one of the foremost leaders in the control of the disease. During World War II he served in the Army as chief consultant on the disease. Throughout his life Long received awards and citations for his efforts at treating tuberculosis.

From the description of Papers, [1917]-1965. (University of Pennsylvania). WorldCat record id: 122584943

Pathologist; interviewee d.1979.

From the description of Reminiscences of Esmond R. Long : oral history, 1963. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122587355

Dr. Esmond R. Long (1890-1979) was a graduate of the University of Chicago and received his medical degree from the university's Rush Medical College. Dr. Long also persued postgraduate studies at the University of Prague. He retired as professor emeritus of pathology at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was on the faculty from 1932-1955, and director of the Henry Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis. He was a specialist in the epidemiology, pathology and public health aspects of tuberculosis, particularly its treatment and prevention. He was greatly concerned about effecting change in the socio-economic problems associated with the disease. From 1919 to 1932, he taught at the University of Chicago, and from 1942 to 1946 he was chief consultant on tuberculosis to the Army Surgeon General.

Dr. Long authored several books, including The Chemistry of Tuberculosis, A History of Pathology, and History of the Therapy of Tuberculosis and the Case of Frederic Chopin . He was editor of the International Journal of Leprosy from 1964 to 1969.

From the guide to the Esmond Ray Long Papers, 1920-1974, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)

Hans Thacher Clarke studied chemistry at University College, London (1896-1905), worked for the Eastman Kodak Co. in Rochester (1914-1928), and was a professor of biological chemistry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University (1928-1956). Among other researches, he was involved in the production of penicillin in the U.S.

Hans Thacher Clarke (1887-1972) was born in Harrow, England. From 1896-1905, he attended University College London School, and went on to enter the University as a student of chemistry. There he studied under William Ramsey, J. N. Collie and Samuel Smiles. He also attended courses in physiological chemistry taught by R.H. A Plimmer and physiology with E. H. Starling, but found these studies boring at the time. After receiving his B.Sc. in 1908, Clarke continued to do research at University College under the direction of Smilesand A.W. Stewart. In 1911, he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Scholarship which he used to spend three semesters with Emil Fischer in Berlin and one semester with A.W. Stewart at Queen's College, Belfast. On his return he was granted the D.Sc. from London University in 1913.

Clarke's father had long been associated with Eastman Kodak Company as European representative. George Eastman occasionally consulted Hans on chemical matter and, at the beginning of World War I, when the company was forced to produce photographic chemicals which they had previously imported from Germany, they turned to Hans for help. Clarke moved to Rochester, N.Y. in 1914 only to discover that he was the sole organic chemist there! The correspondence retained from these years consists largely of requests for chemicals, arrangements for visits, and reports of Clarke's consultancy work which involved scanning the chemical literature (a task which continued to occupy him for two days a week until 1969!) [Box 3, 3 files, c.60 items, 191-1963]

At the suggestion of his friend Henry D. Dakin, Clarke accepted a position offered him as Professor of Biological Chemisty at Columbia's College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1928. When he first took on the post he received much advice from his friend and mentor, A.W. Stewart on how to start one's own academic department (Box 7, c. 20 items, 1926-1935). While at Columbia, Clarke took a personal interest in graduate students, of whom he demanded rigorous qualifications prior to admission (a list of the PhD.s granted from 1913 to 1957, with their positions as of 1955, is in Box 2, "Biochemistry at Columbia"). As time went on, Clarke found less and less time to devote to his own research. Other responsibilities interrupted his work, including the 1953 memorial lectures for his friend Henry Dankin, and subsequent arrangements for this event at Adelphi College every year to 1965 (Box 1, Adelphia Colege, 3 files, 1957-1965).

In 1956, Clarke retired from Columbia, but continued his research and some lecturing and conducting student seminars at the Biochemical Laboratories of the Graduate School of Yale University, to which he had been invited by Joseph Fruton. This arrangement was disrupted when the Medical School needed the space Clarke was occupying in the laboratory to accommodate newly appointed members of its staff in 1964 (Box 5, Dean Vernon W. Lippard). Clarke was able to continue his research at the Children's Cancer Research Foundation Center in Boston until 1970, when ill health forced him to retire.

One of the jobs Clarke valued most was his position, in 1951-1952, as Science Attache to the American Embassy in London. His post permitted him to work closely with Sir Robert Robinson, with whom he had edited a major book on research in penicillin in 1949, after prior government service as Assistant Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development in 1944 placed him in charge of coordinating penicillin production in the U.S. (Box 4, Paul D. Foote, and Box 6, 1959-1960, concern a controversy on patenting of production methods in U.K. and U.S. which casts light on Clarke's role in the penicillin production effort).

Clarke's activities int he NAS, including records of his receipt of the King's medal in 1948 and vitae of nominees from 1942 to 1971 have been retained (Box 6). His activity as chairman of the Rochester section of the American Chemical Society (1921), of the New York section (1946) and of the Organic Chemisty Division (1924-25) as well as his work on the Committee on Professional Training, and the Garvin Award Committee, are well documented (Box 1, 6 files). Clarke was also the president of teh American Society of Biological Chemists in 1947, but the collection contains very little of interest in this regard (Box 2, 5 files, 50 items, c. 1942-1963).

Clarke's activity on grants allocation committees is well documented. As a member of teh Otological Society he served on a grants committee from 1956-1962 (Box 1, 9 files). As Chairman of the Merck Fellowship Board of the National Academy of Sciences in 1957, Clarke retained such interesting correspondence as a letter from Warren Weaver to A.N. Richards recommending the use of the Merck money for two or three research professorships at $15,000 p.a. rather than only for post-doctoral research, and a letter from Kenneth B. Raper at Wisconsin approving of this proposal which was passed on to the Merck Board in March 1957 (Box 5).

Clarke was in much demand for his talents as a lucid writer and was called on to serve as editor or referee throughout his career. He served on the editorial board of Organic Synthesis from 1921 to 1932 (Box 6, 3 files), of the Journal of Biological Chemistry from 1937 to 1951, and as associate editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society from 1928 to 1938 (JBC, Box 4, 8 files up to 1960, also, Box 3, Clarke's 50th Anniversary article on the Journal).

From the guide to the Hans Thacher Clarke Papers, Circa 1903-1973, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Long, Esmond R. (Esmond Ray), 1890-1979. Esmond R. Long papers, 1920-1974. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn H. Corwin Hinshaw Papers, 1925-1994, 1925-1994 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Long, Esmond R. (Esmond Ray), 1890-1979. Reminiscences of Esmond R. Long : oral history, 1963. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Clarke, Hans Thacher, 1887-1972. Papers, ca. 1903-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Esmond Ray Long Papers, 1920-1974 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Florence Barbara Seibert papers, 1920-1977, 1920-1977 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Richard Harrison Shryock papers, [ca. 1918-1972], Circa 1918-1972 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Hans Thacher Clarke Papers, Circa 1903-1973 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Long, Esmond R. (Esmond Ray), 1890-1979. Papers, [1917]-1965. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn Rivers, Thomas M. (Thomas Milton), 1888-1962. Papers, [ca. 1941-1963]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Sabin, Florence Rena, 1871-1953. Papers, 1907-1940. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Shryock, Richard Harrison, 1893-1972. Papers, [ca. 1918-1972]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Henry Ernest Sigerist papers, 1891-1991 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Thomas M. Rivers Papers, 1887-1963 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Seibert, Florence Barbara, 1897- . Papers, 1920-1977. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Lewis, Warren H. (Warren Harmon), 1870-1964. Papers, ca. 1913-1964. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Warren H. (Warren Harmon) Lewis papers, ca. 1913-1964, 1913-1964 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Long, Esmond R. (Esmond Ray), 1890-1979. Collected papers, 1913-1950. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Sigerist, Henry E. (Henry Ernest), 1891-1957. Henry Ernest Sigerist papers, 1891-1991 (inclusive). Yale University Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Chemical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Otological Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Society of Biological Chemists. corporateBody
associatedWith Bethlehem Steel Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Clarke, Agnes Helfreich person
associatedWith Clarke, Hans Thacher, 1887-1972. person
associatedWith Conant, James Bryant, 1893-1978 person
associatedWith Du Vigneaud, Vincent, 1901-1978 person
associatedWith Emerson, Alfred E., (Alfred Edwards), 1896-1976 person
associatedWith Fruton, Joseph S., (Joseph Stewart), 1912- person
associatedWith General Cigar Company (Philadelphia, Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith Gies, William John, 1872-1956 person
associatedWith Henry Phipps Institute, Philadelphia corporateBody
associatedWith Hinshaw, H. Corwin, 1902-2000 person
associatedWith Huxley, Julian, 1887-1975 person
associatedWith Lewis, Warren H. (Warren Harmon), 1870-1964. person
associatedWith Luck, James Murray, 1899- person
associatedWith Maddox Potteries Company (Trenton, N.J.) corporateBody
associatedWith Middleton, Dorothy Clarke person
associatedWith Moe, Henry Allen, 1894-1975 person
associatedWith National Institute of Health (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Phillips, Harlan B., person
associatedWith Planck, Erwin person
associatedWith Rivers, Thomas M. (Thomas Milton), 1888-1962. person
associatedWith Sabin, Florence Rena, 1871-1953. person
associatedWith Seibert, Florence B., 1897. person
associatedWith Seibert, Florence Barbara, 1897- . person
associatedWith Shockley, William, 1910- person
associatedWith Shryock, Richard Harrison, 1893-1972. person
associatedWith Sigerist, Henry E. (Henry Ernest), 1891-1957. person
associatedWith Smiles, Samuel, 1877-1953 person
associatedWith Sperry, Warren Myron, 1900- person
associatedWith Stetson Hat Factory (Philadelphia, Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith Stewart, Alfred W., (Alfred Walter), b. 1880 person
associatedWith Taylor, Geoffrey Ingram, Sir, 1886-1975 person
associatedWith Tuve, Merle Antony, 1901-1982 person
associatedWith United States. Public Health Service. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Veterans Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Veterans Administration. Tuberculosis Service. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
History of Medicine
Photographic chemistry
Public health
World War, 1939-1945


Birth 1890

Death 1979-11-11


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