Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986

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Raymond Loewy (1893-1986) was an American industrial designer noted for his streamlined style found on hundreds of products, such as Lucky Strike packaging, the Studebaker Starliner, and locomotives on the Pennysylvania RR.

From the guide to the Raymond Loewy Studebaker Photographs, 1947, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Industrial designer. Full name: Raymond Fernand Loewy. Born in France; emigrated to the United States in 1919.

From the description of Raymond Loewy papers, 1929-1988 (bulk 1960-1976). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70983199

Industrial Designer. Born Paris, France, November 8, 1893/ Loewy initially studied electrical engineering, and by 1909, he has designed and sold a successful airplane model. He immigrated to the United States in 1919 and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Loewy began working as a freelance window display designer for Macy's and Saks Fifth Avenue, and as an illustrator for Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and others, from 1919.

From the description of Raymond Loewy papers, mid-1940s-early 1960s. (Smithsonian Institution Libraries). WorldCat record id: 39134673

Raymond Loewy was born in Paris on November 5, 1893. He was the third son of Maximillian and Marie (Labalme) Loewy and grew up in a bourgeois household. As a boy, he developed an interest in transportation and machines. At age seventeen, Loewy enrolled in a pre-engineering school, an experience that prepared him for the technical aspects of an industrial design career.

After distinguished service in World War I, Loewy emigrated to the United States in 1919, hoping to find work at General Electric. He settled in New York City and for the next decade had a varied career as a fashion illustrator, window dresser, and costume designer, but primarily as a commercial artist, specifically an advertising illustrator. His clients included Saks Fifth Avenue, Bonwit Teller, the White Star Line, and Renault, and his images appeared in Harper's Bazaar, and Vogue. Advertising illustration made Loewy a well-paid professional, but his real interest was in industrial design.

In 1929 Loewy received his first significant product design commission from Sigmund Gestetner, an Englishman who was seeking to modernize the look of his mimeograph machine. Loewy encased the machine's working parts inside a sleek, modern-looking shell and sales were dramatically increased. This project launched Loewy on his new career of industrial design. During the early 1930s, Loewy also worked for Westinghouse and the Hupp Motor Company, where he designed the prize-winning Hupmobile. His major breakthrough came in 1934 when he received the opportunity to redesign the Sears Coldspot refrigerator, and signed a contract with the Pennsylvania Railroad that launched a two-decade relationship with the "Standard Railroad of the World."

Loewy's work for the Pennsy did much to establish his reputation as the leading figure in the century's most noteworthy American design style: streamlining. His streamlined locomotives and passenger car interiors came to symbolize machine age modernism, a look that defined his body of work and industrial design during the interwar years. His interiors, designed for ships of the Panama Lines, Lord & Taylor department stores, and the Missouri Pacific Eagle railcar were stylish and comfortable. Loewy's "Transportation of Tomorrow" exhibit at the Chrysler Motors Pavilion at the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair included a streamlined taxi, liner, car and trucks, as well as a rocket ship that would travel between New York and London.

Loewy reached his peak in the post-war decades when his office focused on the American consumer and the suburbs. His company expanded to its greatest dimensions at mid-century. It had hundreds of contracts with a wide array of consumer product companies for which Loewy and his associates designed home appliances, bottles, kitchen utensils, living room furniture, dinette sets, dishware, silverware, food and beverage packaging, radios, television, and stereo systems. By this time the Loewy firm employed a large staff of designers, but it was the Raymond Loewy name that attracted clients. During this period Loewy's partner William Snaith (1908-1974) and the firm's in-house architects designed shopping centers, department stores, hotels, and supermarkets.

Loewy opened his first international office in London in the mid-1930s. The firm designed petrol pumps and scales for the Avery Hardoll company and automobiles for the Rootes group, and various packaging and appliances The London office was closed in 1939 due to World War II, but was reopened in 1947. He formed Compagnie de L'Esthetique Industrielle (CEI), in Paris, in 1952. CEI, a separate operation from the New York office, had been established to bring American-style industrial design to Europe. The office produced designs such as the Elna sewing machine, Le Creuset cookware, the Concorde for Air France, and various projects for Shell (such as corporate identity, gas attendant uniforms, and gas stations).

Transportation, particularly automobiles, was always one of Loewy's passions. After his design of the Hupmobile in the early 1930s, Loewy began work for Studebaker in 1936. His first project for Studebaker was the re-styling of the body of the 1938 President. A year later, the Champion was introduced, and both models boosted the company's image. The postwar Studebakers, particularly the 1947 Champion Regal Deluxe and the 1953 Regal Starlight coupe, had a strong influence on automotive design. Loewy's innovative design of the Avanti in 1962 was widely acclaimed.

Loewy's firm worked on a number of projects for the public sector, including habitability studies for the Navy, and trademark and identity programs for the Coast Guard, the Post Office, and other federal agencies. In 1962, Loewy redesigned Air Force One for President John F. Kennedy, changing the lettering and color scheme on the exterior, and redesigning the interior. Loewy believed that his most significant project for the government was his work with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). From 1967 to 1973 Loewy was retained by NASA as a habitability consultant for the Saturn, Apollo and Skylab projects. His recommendations for Skylab included the inclusion of a window through which the astronauts could view earth, as well as proposals for the comfort and privacy of crew members.

In November 1973, Loewy traveled to the Soviet Union to negotiate an industrial design contract with Licensintoge, a government agency, and the All Union Research Institute of Industrial Design. This was an effort to assist the Soviet Union in an attempt to create consumer goods that could compete successfully in American and Western European markets, and to expand the Soviet capacity in industrial design.. Loewy and the Soviets signed a multi-year agreement calling for scientific and design technology collaboration. In 1975, a five-year agreement between the U.S.S.R. and Raymond Loewy, International, Inc., USA was signed that broadened the original pact to include transportation design. Loewy was actively involved with the design of the proposed Moskvich automobile, but it was never produced.

Loewy's experiment with the Soviet Union marked the end of his industrial design career. Financial difficulties had beset the firm in the early 1970s and in 1975, Loewy attempted to stave off the monetary problems by merging all of his corporations into a firm called Raymond Loewy International. The following year, he and Viola (his wife) had sold their shares in that business, and by 1977 Raymond Loewy International declared bankruptcy. The Loewys moved to France and entered retirement. In 1979 his book Industrial Design: Raymond Loewy was published and a portfolio of lithographs of some of his best-known designs were released. Loewy died on July 14, 1986 in Monaco at age 92.

Loewy's life was chronicled in magazines and newspapers. His homes, particularly Tierra Caliente in Palm Springs, appeared in numerous architecture publications. In 1931 he married Jean Thompson, who was a partner in the design firm and played an important role in his early successes. They were amicably divorced in 1946. He married Viola Erickson (1922-1995) in December 1948. During their marriage, she played an increasingly significant role in managing company operations. Their daughter, Laurence Loewy (born 1953), is the CEO of Loewy Design, a firm that is reintroducing Raymond Loewy's designs to a new generation.

From the description of Archive, 1903-1982. (Hagley Museum & Library). WorldCat record id: 122648739

Biographical Note and Business Chronology

  • 1893, Nov. 5: Born, Paris, France
  • 1910: Graduated, University of Paris, Paris, France
  • 1914 - 1918 : Captain, Corps of Engineers, Fifth French Army, France
  • 1918: Graduated, Ecole de Lanneau, Paris, France
  • 1919: Emigrated to United States
  • 1919 - 1929 : Fashion illustrator, Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, Wanamaker's, Saks Fifth Avenue, and Bonwit Teller
  • 1929: Established industrial design office Redesigned Gestetner mimeograph machine Art director, Westinghouse Electrical Co.
  • 1931: Married Jean Thomson (divorced 1945)
  • 1931 - 1934 : Designed Hupmobile, Hupp Motor Co.
  • 1932 - 1935 : Redesigned Coldspot refrigerator, Sears, Roebuck and Co.
  • 1935 - 1939 : Opened first London, England, office
  • 1937 - 1943 : Designed locomotives, Pennsylvania Railroad
  • 1938: Became citizen of the United States
  • 1942: Redesigned Lucky Strike cigarettes package
  • 1944: Cofounded Society of Industrial Designers (later IDSA) Established Raymond Loewy Associates with A. Baker Barnhart, Jean Thomson Loewy, Jack Breen, and William Snaith
  • circa 1945: Opened offices in Chicago, Ill., South Bend, Ind., and Los Angeles, Calif.
  • 1946: Designed Greyhound Scenicruiser bus
  • 1947: Designed Coca-Cola dispenser Designed Champion car, Studebaker Corp.
  • 1948: Married Viola Erickson
  • 1948 - 1951 : Opened second London, England office
  • 1949: Incorporated the Raymond Loewy Corp.
  • 1951: Published Never Leave Well Enough Alone (New York: Simon and Schuster. 377 pp.)
  • 1956: Incorporation of the Raymond Loewy Corp. amended as Raymond Loewy and William Snaith, Inc., with William Snaith as managing partner
  • 1961: Established Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc., and Raymond Loewy/William Snaith Associates, Inc., with William Snaith as president and Raymond Loewy as chairman of the board Established Compagnie de l'Esthetique Industrielle, Paris, France
  • 1962: Designed Avanti car, Studebaker Corp.
  • 1964: Established Market Concepts, Inc., subsidiary for confidential research operations
  • 1966: Developed Exxon Corp. name and logo
  • 1967: Merged Raymond Loewy/William Snaith Associates, Chicago, Inc., with Raymond Loewy/William Snaith Associates, Inc.
  • 1967 - 1973 : Habitability consultant, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Skylab project
  • 1969: Opened third office, London, England
  • 1972: Designed Fairchild-Hiller Safety Car, Fairchild-Hiller, Inc.
  • 1974: Death of William Snaith; Loewy firms near bankruptcy
  • 1975: Established Raymond Loewy International by merging all coexisting corporations
  • 1976: Sold Raymond Loewy International to Sheridan Funding Corp. Established Museum Administration and Planning Services, Inc. (MAPS) as a subsidiary Opened office, Atlanta, Ga.
  • 1977: Raymond Loewy International declared bankruptcy Industrial design operations sold to former employee, David Butler, to form Lister and Butler, Inc. Function and Vision, Inc., organized as debtor in possession to handle liquidation of Raymond Loewy International
  • 1977: Established Sheridan Associates specializing in interior design
  • 1986, July 14: Died, Monte Carlo, Monaco

From the guide to the Raymond Loewy Papers, 1929-1988, (bulk 1960-1976), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Mary Lasker Papers, 1940-1993. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986 : [miscellaneous ephemeral material]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Letter, 1957, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Taille-crayon, vers 1933 [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Archive, 1903-1982. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Engineering Dept. Maps and drawings, 1876-1976 (bulk, 1900-1950). Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Kruck, Ralph E., 1906-1994. Ralph E. Kruck drawings 1927-1935 [technicl drawings] Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Heinz History Center Detre Library and Archives
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Raymond Loewy papers, mid-1940s-early 1960s. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Towle, H. Ledyard (Harold Ledyard), 1890-1973. Papers, 1931-1952. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Interior design for a Greyhound bus, [c1939]. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Vice President-Operations. Records, 1917-1968 (bulk 1930-1964). Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Personal papers, 1903-1982 (bulk, 1950-1973). Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Raymond Loewy : vertical file. Centre canadien d'architecture, | Canadian Centre for Architecture | CCA
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Taille-crayon, vers 1933. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Raymond Loewy Studebaker Photographs, 1947 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Mattie E. Hewitt & Richard A. Smith Photograph Collection, 1919-1961 (bulk 1920-1939) © 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Exner, Virgil M. (Virgil Max), 1909-1973. Virgil M. Exner papers, 1913-1986 (bulk 1931-1973). The Henry Ford, Benson Ford Research Center
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief Engineer, New York Zone. Records, 1929-1954. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Public relations files, 1921-1981. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Brooklyn Museum. Dept. of Photography. Records, Exhibition negatives: installations. Table Settings: The Old With the New. 1957. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Motive Power Dept. Records, 1881-1964 (bulk 1910-1948). Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. Plans of ferry Princess Anne, 1935-1936. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Lasker, Mary. Mary Lasker papers, 1940-1993. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief Engineer. Records, 1862-1976 (bulk 1885-1965). Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief of Passenger Transportation. Records, 1927-1954. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Raymond Loewy Associates. Reo Motors Inc. / single rotor lawn mower / general layout. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. General office files, 1931-1982 (bulk, 1960-1977). Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn G. E. Mueller Papers, 1876-1997, (bulk 1935-1995) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Artist file. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Mueller, G. E. (George Edwin), 1918-. G.E. Mueller papers, 1876-1997 (bulk 1935-1995). Library of Congress
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief Engineer-Eastern Region. Records, 1927-1955. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Herbert Matter papers, ca. 1937-1984 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Matter, Herbert, 1907-1984. Herbert Matter papers, circa 1937-1984. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Porter, Glenn,. Collection of Raymond Loewy miscellany, 1936-1995. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Loewy, Raymond : [miscellaneous ephemeral material]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
creatorOf Raymond Loewy Papers, 1929-1988, (bulk 1960-1976) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. Raymond Loewy papers, 1929-1988 (bulk 1960-1976). Library of Congress
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Abbott Laboratories. corporateBody
associatedWith Abraham & Straus. corporateBody
associatedWith Agronsky, Martin, person
associatedWith Air France. corporateBody
associatedWith American Airlines, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith American Presidents Line, Ltd. corporateBody
associatedWith Ancon (Steamship) corporateBody
associatedWith Argentina (Steamship) corporateBody
associatedWith Armour and Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Avon Products, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Barcalo Manufacturing Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Bienfait, Jean, 1908-1992. person
associatedWith Bloomingdale's (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Borg-Erickson Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Brasil (Steamship) corporateBody
associatedWith Brooklyn Museum. Dept. of Photography. corporateBody
associatedWith Brown-Forman Distillers Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Canada Dry Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Coca-Cola Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Coca-Cola Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Coca-Cola Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Coca-Cola Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Coca-Cola Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Coca-Cola Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Compagnie Américaine de l'Esthétique Industrielle. corporateBody
associatedWith Compagnie de l'Esthétique Industrielle. corporateBody
associatedWith Compagnie de l'Esthétique Industrielle. corporateBody
associatedWith Ecko Products Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Empire State Building (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Essex House (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Eversharp, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Exner, Virgil M. (Virgil Max), 1909-1973. person
associatedWith Exxon Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Foley's (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Formica Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Fostoria Glass Company. corporateBody
associatedWith General Aniline & Film Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith General Aniline & Film Corporation. Ansco Division. corporateBody
associatedWith General Motors Corporation. Frigidaire Division. corporateBody
associatedWith Gestetner Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Gestetner Duplicating Machine Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Gimbel Brothers. corporateBody
associatedWith Goldberg, Rube, 1883-1970. person
associatedWith Greyhound Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Hallicrafters Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Hammer, Armand, 1898-1990. person
associatedWith Higbee Co. corporateBody
associatedWith Hilton International (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Hupp Motor Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Industrial Designers Society of America. corporateBody
associatedWith International Harvester Company. corporateBody
associatedWith John Wanamaker (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Kilgallen, Dorothy, person
associatedWith Kruck, Ralph E., 1906-1994. person
associatedWith Lasker, Mary. person
associatedWith Lever House (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Lime Rock Park (Lime Rock, Conn.) corporateBody
associatedWith Loewy, Viola Erickson. person
associatedWith Lord & Taylor. corporateBody
correspondedWith Lovelace, Joseph person
correspondedWith Lovelace, Joseph person
associatedWith Lucent Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Lurline (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Martin Marietta Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Matson Navigation Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Matter, Herbert, 1907-1984. person
associatedWith Mengel Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Monon Railroad. corporateBody
associatedWith Moore-McCormack Lines, Inc. corporateBody
correspondedWith Mueller, G. E. (George Edwin), 1918- person
associatedWith Nabisco, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith National Biscuit Company. corporateBody
associatedWith New York World's Fair (1939-1940). corporateBody
associatedWith Norfolk and Western Railway Station (Roanoke, Va.) corporateBody
associatedWith Occidental Petroleum Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Panama Line. corporateBody
associatedWith Panama Line. corporateBody
associatedWith Panama (Steamship) corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Engineering Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Motive Power Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief Engineer. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief Engineer-Eastern Region. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief Engineer, New York Zone. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Chief of Passenger Transportation. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Office of Vice President-Operations. corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Station (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Pitney-Bowes, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Porter, Glenn, person
associatedWith Quaker Oats Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy Associates. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy Associates. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy Associates. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy Associates. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy Foundation International. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy International, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy International, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Renwick Gallery. corporateBody
associatedWith Rosenthal-Block China Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Schick, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Shell Chemical Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Shell Oil Company. corporateBody
correspondedWith Sheridan, James J., 1933- person
associatedWith Sibley, Lindsay and Curr Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Singer Manufacturing Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Skylab Program. corporateBody
associatedWith Smithsonian Institution. corporateBody
correspondedWith Snaith, William, 1908-1974 person
associatedWith Soloviev, Yuri B. person
associatedWith Stouffer Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Strawbridge & Clothier. corporateBody
associatedWith Studebaker Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Symington, James W. (James Wadsworth), 1927-. person
associatedWith Towle, H. Ledyard (Harold Ledyard), 1890-1973. person
associatedWith Trans World Airlines. corporateBody
associatedWith United Air Lines, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations Development Programme. corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations Special Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith United Nations. Technical Assistance Board. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Forest Service. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith United States Postal Service. corporateBody
associatedWith Wallace, Mike, 1918- person
associatedWith Woodward & Lothrop. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
France
United States
France
Soviet Union
United States
Great Britain
Soviet Union
United States
Soviet Union
United States
Subject
Brand name products
Locomotives--Design
Trademarks--Design
Industrial design
GG 1 (Electric locomotive)
Hupp automobile
Tupolev 144 (Jet transport)
Streamlined ships
Plastic tableware--Design
Advertisement
Hydrofoil boats
Industrial designers
Streamlining
Tableware--Design
Supermarkets--Design
Streamlined Moderne
Service stations--Design
Eagle (Express train)
Jeffersonian (Express train)
Restaurants--Design
Packaging
BarcaLounger chairs
Melamine plastic tableware
Lucky strike cigarettes
Airplanes--Design
Studebaker automobile
Interior decoration
Industrial design--Exhibitions
Department stores--Design
Greyhound buses
Streamlined trains
Lincoln automobile
Railroad stations--Design
Air Force One (Presidential aircraft)
Industrial design--France
Aunt Jemima (Advertising icon)
Cartoons (Humorous images)
Industrial design--Great Britain
Logos (Philosophy)--Design
Broadway Limited (Express train)
Avanti automobile
Coldspot refrigerators
Wall coverings--Design
Shopping centers--Design
Corporate image--Design
Architecture
Industrial design coordination
Railroad passenger cars--Design
Furniture design
Apartment houses--Design
Logos (Christian theology)--Design
McDonnell Douglas DC-8 (Jet transport)
Razors--Design
Greyhound buses--Designs and plans
Design, Industrial--Exhibitions
Marketing
Shopping malls--Design
Sikorsky helicopters
Automobiles--Design
Logos (Symbols)--Design
Brand name products--Design
Packaging--Design
Design, Industrial
Industrial design--United States
Radio scripts
Consumer goods--Design
Beverges--Packaging
Industrial design--Soviet Union
Express trains--Design
Architecture, Modern
Speeches
Scrapbooks
Occupation
Industrial designers
Packaging designers
Interior designers
Function

Person

Birth 1893-11-05

Death 1986-07-14

Americans

English,

French,

German

Information

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