Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, established by Andrew Carnegie in 1910, is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States. Carnegie selected 28 trustees who were leaders in American business and public life; among them were Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot; philanthropist Robert S. Brookings; former Ambassador to Great Britain Joseph H. Choate; former Secretary of State John W. Foster; former president of MIT and then-president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Henry S. Pritchett; and Carnegie Institution of Washington president Robert S. Woodward. He chose longtime adviser Elihu Root -Senator from New York, former Secretary of War and of State, and future Nobel Peace Prize recipient- to be the Endowment's first president. The Endowment was initially organized into three divisions: the Division of Economics and History to study the causes and impact of war, the Division of Intercourse and Education to promote international understanding and cooperation, and the Division of International Law to aid in the development of international law and dispute settlement. A European Centre and advisory board, set up in Paris as part of the Division of Intercourse and Education, was initially headed by Baron Paul d'Estournelles de Constant, founder and president of the Association for International Conciliation. The Library of the Centre Europeen was founded in 1913 in order to establish a collection of works on international law, politics, economics, government, and social science. During the interwar period, the Endowment revitalized efforts to promote international conciliation, financed reconstruction projects in Europe, supported the work of other organizations, and founded the Academy of International Law at the Hague. Endowment publications of the interwar period included the unprecedented 22-volume Classics of International Law, and the 150-volume Economic and Social History of the World War. In 1925, Nicholas Murray Butler, also a Nobel Prize recipient, succeeded Elihu Root as president of the Endowment. Over the next 20 years he promoted his vision of international cooperation in business and politics. Among his other accomplishments, he was instrumental in fashioning the Kellogg-Briand no-war pact of 1928. The activities of CEIP European Centre were almost completely suspended during the Nazi occupation of Paris. In 1954 the Centre moved to Geneva. Following World War II and Butler's retirement, the Endowment's three divisions were consolidated under the direction of President Joseph E. Johnson. John Foster Dulles led the board. For the next two decades the Endowment conducted research and public education programs on a range of issues, particularly relating to the newly created United Nations and the future of the postwar international legal system. The Endowment provided diplomatic training for some 250 foreign service officers from emerging nations and published International Conciliation, a leading journal in the field.

From the description of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace records, 1910-1954. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 298686815

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was founded in 1910 by Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), who transferred to 28 selected trustees the sum of $10 million in bonds, the revenue of which was to be used to "hasten the abolition of international war." Two of the trustees, Elihu Root and Nicholas Murray Butler were very important figures in the formation of the Endowment. Elihu Root (1845-1937) served his country as Secretary of War, Secretary of State, and United States Senator. He received the Nobel Peace prize in 1912 and was President of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Endowment from 1910 to 1925. Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) served as President of Columbia University from 1902 to 1945 and shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Jane Addams in 1931. He succeeded Root as President of the Endowment, a post he held until 1945. The efforts of these men established the direction of the Endowment which encourages peace through educational enterprises that promote international understanding and the codification of international law. The Carnegie Endowment was headquartered in Washington, D.C., until it moved to New York City in 1950. The 60,000- volume library collection was sold to The George Washington University in 1950. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, which since 1983 has again been headquartered in Washington, D.C., continues the work begun by its founders. The collection reflects the aims of the Endowment and is thus a very useful research source for scholars.

From the description of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace pamphlet and microfilm collection, 1817-1950, bulk 1915-1945. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 85854575

BIOGHIST REQUIRED Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, established by Andrew Carnegie in 1910, is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States. Carnegie selected 28 trustees who were leaders in American business and public life; among them were Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot; philanthropist Robert S. Brookings; former Ambassador to Great Britain Joseph H. Choate; former Secretary of State John W. Foster; former president of MIT and then-president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Henry S. Pritchett; and Carnegie Institution of Washington president Robert S. Woodward. He chose longtime adviser Elihu Root -Senator from New York, former Secretary of War and of State, and future Nobel Peace Prize recipient- to be the Endowment's first president. The Endowment was initially organized into three divisions: the Division of Economics and History to study the causes and impact of war, the Division of Intercourse and Education to promote international understanding and cooperation, and the Division of International Law to aid in the development of international law and dispute settlement.

A European Centre and advisory board, set up in Paris as part of the Division of Intercourse and Education, was initially headed by Baron Paul d'Estournelles de Constant, founder and president of the Association for International Conciliation. The Library of the Centre Europeen was founded in 1913 in order to establish a collection of works on international law, politics, economics, government, and social science. During the interwar period, the Endowment revitalized efforts to promote international conciliation, financed reconstruction projects in Europe, supported the work of other organizations, and founded the Academy of International Law at the Hague. Endowment publications of the interwar period included the unprecedented 22-volume Classics of International Law, and the 150-volume Economic and Social History of the World War.

In 1925, Nicholas Murray Butler, also a Nobel Prize recipient, succeeded Elihu Root as president of the Endowment. Over the next 20 years he promoted his vision of international cooperation in business and politics. Among his other accomplishments, he was instrumental in fashioning the Kellogg-Briand no-war pact of 1928. The activities of CEIP European Centre were almost completely suspended during the Nazi occupation of Paris. In 1954 the Centre moved to Geneva. Following World War II and Butler's retirement, the Endowment's three divisions were consolidated under the direction of President Joseph E. Johnson. John Foster Dulles led the board. For the next two decades the Endowment conducted research and public education programs on a range of issues, particularly relating to the newly created United Nations and the future of the postwar international legal system. The Endowment provided diplomatic training for some 250 foreign service officers from emerging nations and published International Conciliation, a leading journal in the field.

From the guide to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Records, 1910-1954., (Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, )

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Lindsay, Samuel McCune, 1869-1960. Samuel McCune Lindsay papers, 1877-1957. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Johnson, Grace A., 1871-1952. Papers: Subseries A-E, 1840-1952 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn World Peace Foundation. Records, 1902-1960. Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
referencedIn Walter Gropius papers, 1925-1969 (inclusive), 1937-1969 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Hull, William Isaac, 1868-1939. Papers, 1892-1939. Swarthmore College, FRIENDS HIST LIBR
referencedIn Heckert, Richard Edwin, 1924-2010. Papers, 1973-1992. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [Carnegie Endowment for International Peace pamphlets]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace pamphlet and microfilm collection, 1817-1950, bulk 1915-1945. George Washington University
referencedIn Wilgus, William J. (William John), 1865-1949. Papers, 1935-1937. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Pound, Ezra, 1885-1972. Papers of Ezra Pound h[manuscript], 1933-1937. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Robert Manning papers, 1938-1993. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Andrew Carnegie Papers, 1803-1935, (bulk 1890-1919) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Emma (Moffat) McLaughlin Papers, 1927- 1967 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Carnegie Corporation of New York. Carnegie Corporation of New York Records, 1900-2004. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn J. B. (John Bell) Condliffe Papers: Additions, 1919-1981, 1960-1969 Bancroft Library
referencedIn Harvard University. Center for Studies in Education and Development. Records of the Center for Studies in Education and Development, 1962-1977 (inclusive). Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919. Papers of Andrew Carnegie, 1803-1935 (bulk 1890-1919). Library of Congress
referencedIn McNamara, Robert S., 1916-2009. Robert S. McNamara papers, 1934-2009 (bulk 1968-2005). Library of Congress
creatorOf Mount Holyoke College Institute on the United Nations. Records. Mount Holyoke College, Williston & Miles-Smith Library
referencedIn Hans J. Morgenthau Papers, 1858-1981, (bulk 1925-1981) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Ogden, Montell E. Papers, 1928-1942, 1928-1936. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Papers of Charles William Eliot, 1807-1945. Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn Bishop, William Warner, 1871-1955. William Warner Bishop papers, 1891-1955. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn J. B. Matthews Papers, 1862-1986 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Robert S. McNamara Papers, 1934-2009, (bulk 1968-2005) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn William Warner Bishop Papers, 1891-1955 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace records, 1910-1954. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1966-1996. Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn John William Davis papers, 1846-1959 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Andreĭ Sakharov papers, 1852-2002 (inclusive), 1960-1990 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Mason, John Russell. John Russell Mason papers, 1931-1981. George Washington University
referencedIn Johnson, Joseph E. (Joseph Esrey), 1906-. Reminiscences of Joseph Esrey Johnson : oral history, 1968. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1894-1960 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Kinley, David, 1861-1944. Addresses and publications, 1893-1943. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
referencedIn Johnson, Joseph E. (Joseph Esrey), 1906-. Joseph E. Johnson papers, 1940-1983. Herbert Hoover Library
referencedIn Davis, Malcolm W. (Malcolm Waters), b. 1899. Malcolm W. Davis papers, 1883-1949. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Wallace, Tom, 1874-1961. Tom Wallace papers, 1925-1960. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn New York University. Office of the Executive Vice-Chancellor. Records of the Office of the Executive Vice-Chancellor, administrations of David D. Henry and Carroll Newsom, 1952-1956. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn John H. E. Fried Collection, 1815-1995 Leo Baeck Institute.
referencedIn Correspondence, 1860-1979. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Kellogg, Frank B. (Frank Billings), 1856-1937. Frank B. Kellogg papers, 1890-1942 [microform]. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Wilson, Howard Eugene, 1901-1966. Howard E. Wilson papers, 1919-1966. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
creatorOf Conference on Experience in International Administration (1943 : Washington, D.C.). Conference on Experience in International Administration proceedings, 1943. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
creatorOf Deutsch, Julius, 1884-1968. Memorandum on the Treaty of St. Germain, 1920 October. George Washington University
referencedIn Hiss, Alger. Reminiscences of Alger Hiss : oral history, 1968. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Papers, 1923-1978 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1884-1983, 1920-1960 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Wright, Paul Randall, 1876-1965. Paul Randall Wright papers, 1899-1965. Newberry Library
referencedIn George A. Plimpton Papers, 1634-1956 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Nicoletta Mattioli Hary typescript : The Vatican Library and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace : the history, the impact, and the influence of their collaboration in 1927-1947, 1991 Hoover Institution Archives.
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [Carnegie Endowment for International Peace papers]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Peter H. Goldsmith Album Pages, 1915-1916 University of New Mexico. Center for Southwest Research
referencedIn Root, Elihu, 1845-1937. Papers of Elihu Root, 1863-1937 (bulk 1899-1937). Library of Congress
referencedIn Christian Archibald Herter papers, 1929-1967 (inclusive), 1943-1966 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn John Bates Clark Papers, 1848-1955, [Bulk dates: 1874-1938]. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Lee A. DuBridge papers, 1932-1986 California Institute of Technology. Archives.
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [Annual reports], 1912- Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, IUPUI
referencedIn DuBridge, Lee A. (Lee Alvin), 1901-1994. Papers, 1932-1986. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Davis, John W. (John William), 1873-1955. John William Davis papers, 1846-1959 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Southern Council on International Relations. Records of the Southern Council on International Relation, 1937-1978 (bulk 1937-1948). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Alexander G. Ruthven Papers, 1901-1961, 1906-1951 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Morgenthau, Hans J. (Hans Joachim), 1904-1980. Hans J. Morgenthau papers, 1858-1981 (bulk 1925-1981). Library of Congress
referencedIn Goldsmith, Peter H., 1865-1926. Peter H. Goldsmith album pages [picture] University of New Mexico-Main Campus
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Letters, 1951-1957, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Montague, Andrew Jackson, 1862-1937. Papers, 1854-1938. Library of Virginia
referencedIn University of Michigan. Inter-departmental Committee on Preparing Students for Foreign Service and International Affairs. Inter-departmental Committee on Preparing Students for Foreign Service and International Affairs (University of Michigan) records, 1950-1951. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1960. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Keys mss., 1972-1982 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
referencedIn Jessup, Philip C. (Philip Caryl), 1897-1986. Philip C. Jessup papers, 1574-1983 (bulk 1925-1983). Library of Congress
referencedIn Davis, Malcolm W. (Malcolm Waters), b. 1899. Reminiscences of Malcolm Waters Davis : oral history, 1950. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Conference on Experience in International Administration proceedings, 1943 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Brown, Kate B., 1879-1939. Papers 1918-1939. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
referencedIn Herter, Christian Archibald, 1895-1966. Christian Archibald Herter papers, 1929-1967 (inclusive), 1943-1966 (bulk). Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Davis, John W. (John William), 1873-1955. John William Davis papers, 1846-1959 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf The Carnegie peace pamphlet and microfilm collection. George Washington University
referencedIn Hutson, John B., b. 1890. John B. Hutson papers, 1914-1962 1930-1951. University of Kentucky Libraries
referencedIn Elihu Root Papers, 1863-1937, (bulk 1899-1937) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Letters sent to Walter Hines Page from various correspondents, English period, 1876-1937. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Records, 1910-1954. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Exploratory Conference on the Experience of the League of Nations Secretariat (1942 : New York, N.Y.). Exploratory Conference on the Experience of the League of Nations Secretariat proceedings, 1942. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Philip C. Jessup Papers, 1574-1983, (bulk 1925-1983) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Molyneaux, Peter Papers 62-092; 69-109; 70-034., 1910-1953 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Foreign Policy Association. Foreign Policy Association records, 1918-1996. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Sayre, E. Berthol. Reminiscences of E. Berthol Sayre : oral history, 1951. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Statement of Essential Human Rights Project Records, 1924-2008 University of Pennsylvania: Biddle Law Library: American Law Institute Archives
referencedIn Records of Educational Television at New York University, 1952-1956 New York University. Archives.
creatorOf Paffrath, Leslie, 1915-. Letters, 1951-1969, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Florinsky, Michael T., 1894-1981. Michael T. Florinsky Papers, 1914-1918. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Hary, Nicoletta Mattioli, 1927-. The Vatican Library and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace : the history, the impact, and the influence of their collaboration in 1927-1947 : typescript, 1991 / Nicoletta Mattioli Hary. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn J. Gus Liebenow, Collection, 1949-1999 Liberian Collectionshttp://www.onliberia.org
referencedIn Howard E. Wilson papers, 1919-1966 Hoover Institution Archives.
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith American Law Institute corporateBody
associatedWith Andrew Carnegie. person
associatedWith Andrew Carnegie. person
associatedWith Bishop, William Warner, 1871-1955. person
associatedWith Brown, Kate B., 1879-1939. person
associatedWith Buck, Pearl S. 1892-1973. person
associatedWith Butler, Nicholas Murray, 1862-1947. person
associatedWith Byrd, Richard Evelyn, 1888-1957. person
associatedWith Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919. person
associatedWith Carnegie Corporation of New York. corporateBody
associatedWith Clark, John Bates, 1847-1938 person
correspondedWith Condliffe, J. B. (John Bell), 1891-1981 person
associatedWith Conference on Experience in International Administration (1943 : Washington, D.C.) corporateBody
associatedWith Davis, John W. (John William), 1873-1955. person
associatedWith Davis, Malcolm Waters, 1889- person
associatedWith Davis, Malcolm W. (Malcolm Waters), b. 1899. person
correspondedWith Doris Stevens person
associatedWith DuBridge, Lee A. (Lee Alvin), 1901-1994. person
associatedWith Dulles, John Foster, 1888-1959. person
associatedWith Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955. person
associatedWith Eliot, Charles William, 1834-1926 person
associatedWith Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-Benjamin Balluet, baron d', 1852-1924. person
associatedWith Exploratory Conference on the Experience of the League of Nations Secretariat (1942 : New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Florinsky, Michael T., 1894-1981. person
associatedWith Foreign Policy Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. person
associatedWith Garland, Hamlin, 1860-1940. person
associatedWith Geneva Research Center. corporateBody
associatedWith Goldsmith, Peter H., 1865-1926. person
associatedWith Gropius, Walter, 1883-1969 person
associatedWith Harvard University. Center for Studies in Education and Development. corporateBody
associatedWith Hary, Nicoletta Mattioli, 1927- person
associatedWith Heckert, Richard Edwin, 1924-2010. person
associatedWith Herter, Christian Archibald, 1895-1966. person
associatedWith Hiss, Alger. person
associatedWith Hiss, Alger. person
correspondedWith Hocking, William Ernest, 1873-1966 person
associatedWith Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964. person
associatedWith Hudson, Manley Ottmer, 1886- person
associatedWith Hull, William Isaac, 1868-1939. person
associatedWith Hutson, John B., b. 1890. person
associatedWith International Labour Organization. corporateBody
associatedWith Jessup, Philip C. (Philip Caryl), 1897-1986. person
associatedWith Johnson, Grace A., 1871-1952. person
associatedWith Johnson, Joseph E. (Joseph Esrey), 1906- person
associatedWith Kellogg, Frank B. (Frank Billings), 1856-1937. person
correspondedWith Keys, Donald person
associatedWith Kinley, David, 1861-1944. person
associatedWith Leacock, Stephen, 1869-1944. person
associatedWith League of Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith League of Nations Union. corporateBody
associatedWith Liebenow, J. Gus person
associatedWith Lindsay, Samuel McCune, 1869-1960. person
correspondedWith Manning, Robert, 1919- person
associatedWith Mason, John Russell person
associatedWith Masters, Edgar Lee, 1868-1950. person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
correspondedWith McLaughlin, Emma Moffat, 1880-1968 person
associatedWith McNamara, Robert S., 1916-2009. person
associatedWith Mili︠u︡kov, P. N. 1859-1943. person
associatedWith Mili︠u︡kov, P. N. (Pavel Nikolaevich), 1859-1943 person
associatedWith Molyneaux, Peter person
associatedWith Montague, Andrew Jackson, 1862-1937. person
associatedWith Morgenthau, Hans J. (Hans Joachim), 1904-1980. person
associatedWith Mount Holyoke College Institute on the United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith New York University. Office of the Executive Vice-Chancellor. corporateBody
associatedWith Ogden, Montell E. person
associatedWith Paffrath, Leslie, 1915- person
associatedWith Page, Walter Hines, 1855-1918 person
associatedWith Plimpton, George A. (George Arthuer), 1855-1936 person
associatedWith Pound, Ezra, 1885-1972. person
associatedWith Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962. person
associatedWith Root, Elihu, 1845-1937. person
associatedWith Ruthven, Alexander Grant, 1882- person
correspondedWith Sakharov, Andreĭ, 1921-1989 person
associatedWith Sayre, E. Berthol. person
associatedWith Southern Council on International Relations. corporateBody
correspondedWith Soyinka, Wole. person
associatedWith Stevenson, Adlai E. 1900-1965. person
associatedWith United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Michigan. Inter-departmental Committee on Preparing Students for Foreign Service and International Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith Wallace, Tom, 1874-1961. person
associatedWith Wilgus, William J. (William John), 1865-1949. person
associatedWith Wilson, Howard Eugene, 1901-1966. person
associatedWith Wister, Owen, 1860-1938. person
associatedWith World Peace Foundation. corporateBody
associatedWith Wright, Paul Randall, 1876-1965. person
associatedWith Zeligs, Meyer Aaron, 1909-1978 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
France--Paris
Washington (D.C.)
New York (State)--New York
Subject
Endowments
Endowments--Statistics
Endowments--France--Paris
World War, 1914-1918
Endowments--New York (State)--New York
Humanitarianism
Endowments--Finance
Endowments--Officials and employees
Charitable uses, trusts, and foundations
Labor
International law
Philanthropists
International relations--Research
World War, 1939-1945
Peace--Societies, etc
Endowments--United States
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

International

Multiple languages,

French,

English,

Spanish; Castilian,

German

Information

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