Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906

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Poet and author.

From the description of Papers of Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1873-1936. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71067921

Paul Laurence Dunbar of Dayton, Ohio, was an African-American writer of fiction, poetry, and plays. Dunbar is widely acknowledged as the first important black poet in American literature. He also worked at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C, as an assistant clerk, 1897-1898.

From the description of Paul Laurence Dunbar letters and leaflet, 1898-1904. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 48822700

Afro-American writer.

From the description of Signature, [ca. 1890-1906]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122586736

American poet.

From the description of Christmas is A-Comin : autograph poem signed : [n.p., n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270745076

From the description of Papers of Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1892-1902. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 32135370

Poet and novelist.

From the description of Paul Laurence Dunbar collection, 1892-1902. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122615905

African American poet and fiction writer.

From the description of Paul Laurence Dunbar "Rain Songs" manuscript, circa 1895. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 253640765

Epithet: Negro poet

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000684.0x0002cc

Paul L. Dunbar was a poet and an author who was acknowledged as the first important Black poet in American literature. The son of Matilda and Joshua Dunbar, natives of Kentucky, Dunbar was born on June 27, 1872, in Dayton, Ohio and died Feb. 9, 1906. Matilda Dunbar was a remarkable woman, who was devoted to her son and had a great influence on him. Dunbar attended Dayton's Central High School and graduated with honors in 1891. Paul, the only Black in his class, became class President, became an editor of the High School Times, and wrote the class song. Upon graduation he took a job as an elevator boy in the Callahan Building on Main Street. While employed there, he produced articles, short stories and poems that later earned him fame. In 1893 his first book Oak & Ivy was published by the United Brethren Publishing Co. On March 8, 1898, he married Alice Ruth Moore, a teacher and writer from New Orleans. They separated in 1902, and this caused Dunbar to suffer emotional depression. At the same time, he developed tuberculosis.

Dunbar gained popularity throughout the country because of his dialect poems and the positive reviews of his work received from William Dean Howells. Altogether Dunbar produced 12 poetry books, four books of short stories, five novels and one drama.

From the description of Paul L. Dunbar Collection 1890-to present. (Dayton Metro Library). WorldCat record id: 31773015

Paul Laurence Dunbar was a poet and an author who was acknowledged as the first important black poet in American literature. His poetic and literary knowledge is evident from the collection of his writings available in our library. His ability was recognized from early childhood and he enjoyed his greatest popularity in the early twentieth century; he wrote not only dialect poems but also novels, short stories, essays, and many poems in standard English.

Paul Laurence Dunbar, son of Matilda and Joshua Dunbar, was born on June 27, 1872, in Dayton, Ohio. Dunbar attended Dayton's Central High School and graduated with honors in 1891. Paul's parents separated in 1874 when Paul was two years old and essentially nothing is known of his father. Paul, the only black in his class, became class president, became an editor of The High School Times, and wrote the class song. Dunbar was a contemporary and neighbor of the Wright brothers, who published Dunbar's Dayton Tattler, a black-oriented weekly newspaper.

On March 8, 1898, he married Miss Alice Ruth Moore, a teacher and writer from New Orleans. They separated in 1902, and this caused Dunbar to suffer emotional depression. At the same time he developed tuberculosis. On February 9, 1906, he died in Dayton at the age of 33 and was buried in Woodland Cemetery.

Paul Laurence Dunbar, the son of Matilda and Joshua Dunbar, natives of Kentucky, was born on June 27, 1872, in Dayton, Ohio, and died there on February 9, 1906. Paul's parents separated in 1874 when Paul was two years old and essentially nothing is known of his father. Paul had a younger sister, Elizabeth, who died in infancy. His mother was left on her own, making a living as a "colored washerwoman." Among her customers was the Wright family. Matilda Dunbar was a remarkable woman, who was devoted to her son and had a great influence on him. Born in slavery, she learned poetry by listening to her slave-master read poetry to his family in the evenings, and she was determined that Paul receive an education and inspired him in the writing of poetry. Dunbar attended Dayton's Central High School and graduated with honors in 1891. Paul, the only black in his class, became class president, became an editor of The High School Times, and wrote the class song, a poem of eight stanzas which was sung at the commencement ceremonies on June 16, 1891, at the Grand Opera House. On December 13, 1890, Dunbar and an associate, Preston Finley, published the first issue of Dayton Tattler, a black-oriented weekly newspaper printed by Wright and Wright, Printers, owned by Orville and Wilbur Wright. He was chosen president of the "Philomathean Society," a literary organization, and in our collection we have cartoon illustrations done by Ernest Blumenschein, another classmate of Paul's who later became a well-known painter and illustrator. Ernest's father was also a well known and respected musician and composer associated with the Dayton Philharmonic Society. He set to music one of Dunbar's hymns.

While growing up, Paul helped his mother by delivering her laundry bundles and working part-time in hotels. Upon graduation he aspired to a career in law but was financially unable to continue his studies. He was rejected for jobs by many Dayton businesses, including newspapers, because of his race. He took a job as an elevator boy in the Callahan Building on Main Street. While employed as an elevator boy, he produced articles, short stories and poems that later earned him fame.

Dunbar's first appearance before a critical audience was on his twentieth birthday on June 27, 1892, when he gave the welcoming address to the Western Association of Writers, then convening in Dayton. This was arranged by one of his former teachers, Mrs. Helen Tuesdale. At the meeting Paul was befriended by James Newton Matthews, who praised Dunbar's work in a letter to an Illinois newspaper. Matthews' letter was eventually reprinted by newspapers throughout the country and brought recognition to Dunbar outside of Dayton. One of the readers was the poet James Whitcomb Riley, who read Dunbar's work and wrote him a commendatory letter. Paul was encouraged by Riley and Matthews and decided to publish his poems. With the assistance of William L. BLocher and Orville and Wilbur Wright, Dunbar approached the United Brethren Publishing House of Dayton, which eventually printed his first book, entitled Oak and Ivy . In 1895 Dunbar went to Toledo and, with the help of attorney Charles A. Thatcher and psychiatrist Henry A. Tobey, obtained work there reading his poetry at libraries and literary gatherings. Later the same year, Tobey and Thatcher published Dunbar's second collection of verse, Majors and Minors . Dunbar gained popularity throughout the country because of his dialect poems and the positive reviews hi work received from the eminent novelist William Dean Howells, writing in Harper's Weekly in 1896. This recognition by America's greatest critic was the beginning of Paul's national reputation.

In 1897, Dunbar was sponsored by the Savage Club in London, England, to give a series of readings and, after his return to America, he obtained employment at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The following year, on March 8, 1898, he married Miss Alice Ruth Moore, a teacher and writer from New Orleans. They separated in 1902, and this caused Dunbar to suffer emotional depression. At the same time he developed tuberculosis. After a short stay in Colorado he returned to Washington, where his health continued to decline even as he presisted in producing poems. But his reliance on alcohol to temper his physical and psychological problems only exacerbated his illness. In 1903 he visited his half-brother in Chicago. The following year he returned to Dayton to stay with his mother. On February 9, 1906, he died in his mother's arms at the age of 33.

Although ill and depressed toward the end of his life, Dunbar somehow found the resolve to continue his writing. Altogether he produced twelve poetry books, four books of short stories, five novels and one drama. Forty of his poems were set to music by famous musicians of his time, including Samuel Coleridge-Taylor and the black composer J. Rosamond Johnson. Fifteen of his short stories appeared in such publications as Lippincott's, The Sunday Evening Post, Independent, Dayton Tattler, Harper's Weekly, Century, Denver Post, Smart Set, Outlook, Bookman, and Current Literature .

The collection includes some material concerning Paul's mother, Matilda Jane Dunbar, who was born into slavery in Fayette County, Kentucky, near Shelbyville. She died in Dayton on February 24, 1943. She came to Dayton following the Civil War after marrying Joshua Dunbar, also born a slave. By a previous marriage to Wilson W. Murphy of Louisville, Kentucky, she had two children, William and Robert, about whom very little is known.

The final person to be discussed in this collection is the wife of Paul Laurence Dunbar, Mrs. Alice Ruth Moore Dunbar. She was born July 19, 1875, in New Orleans and died Septemebr 18, 1935, in Philadelphia. They were married on March 8, 1898, and were together only four years before separating in 1902. No children were born of this marriage. She had two more marriages, one to Henry Arthur Callis which lasted only a year and another to journalist Robert J. Nelson which lasted until her death. She had a Master of Arts degree from Cornell University and did postgraduate studies at Pennsylvania School of Industrial Art. She was a writer, taught at various schools and was active in organizations promoting racial equality and women's rights.

The city of Dayton and the entire nation have shown their appreciation of Paul Laurence Dunbar's contributions to American literature. Schools, banks, and hospitals all over the country have been named in his honor. In the Dayton area, we have Dunbar Avenue, changed from Baxter Street in 1909. Dunbar High School was erected in 1933. In 1938, his family home was dedicated as a state museum by the Ohio Historical Society and is now a national landmark. In 1976, the U.S. Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp in his honor. His tomb at Dayton's Woodland Cemetery is marked by a statue erected in his memory. Most recently, the University Library of Wright State University has been renamed the Paul Laurence Dunbar Library.

Dunbar's work represents a legacy not only to black Americans but to all people who have loved his poetry. Many have been inspired by his work, which represents a triumph of the human spirit over racism, poverty, and adversity.

From the guide to the Paul Laurence Dunbar Collection, 1890-2001, (Dayton Metro Library)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Cosme, Eusebia. Eusebia Cosme papers, 1927-1973. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Stor, Jean. Dawn : song for contralto / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Jean Stor. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Papers of Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1892-1902. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Metcalf, Gene. Papers. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. My neighbor / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Cook, Will Marion. Lover's lane / words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Will Marion Cook. University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. Beside the sea / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Reynolds, Paul Revere, 1864-1944. Records, 1899-1980. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Haufrecht, Herbert, 1909-1998. O li'l lamb ; for voice and piano / music by Herbert Haufrecht ; adapted from a poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Woodberry Poetry Room (Harvard College Library) poetry readings, 1931- (ongoing). Woodberry Poetry Room, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Smith, David Stanley, 1877-1949. Sunset / David Stanley Smith. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Paul Revere Reynolds Papers, 1899-1980. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Flodin, Jack. A thing forgotten / [words by] Hilda Conkling ; [music by] Jack Flodin. Ships that pass in the night / [words by] Paul L. Dunbar ; [music by] Jack Flodin. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Howells, William Dean, 1837-1920. Papers of William Dean Howells [manuscript], 1866-1919. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Kramer, A. Walter (Arthur Walter), 1890-1969. A death song : song for baritone voice : op. 25, no. 1 / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] A. Walter Kramer. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Kinscella, Hazel Gertrude. Song / words by Paul Lawrence Dunbar ; music by Hazel Gertrude Kinscella. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Engle, Hilda P. Lead gently, Lord / [words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Hilda P. Engle]. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Meriwether, Lawrence. A prayer / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Lawrence Meriwether. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Paul Laurence Dunbar letters and leaflet, 1898-1904. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
creatorOf Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel, 1875-1912. A corn song : for voice, strings & harp / S. Coleridge Taylor. Northwestern University
referencedIn Vol. I, ff. 346, A-G.includes:f. 1 Joseph Adams, MD; biographer of John Hunter: Letter to W. Clift: 1817. f. 3 William Davenport Adams, author: Letter to C. D. Sherborn: 1891. f. 4 William Harrison Ainsworth, alias 'Cheviot Ticheburn'; novelist: Le... British Library
referencedIn Paul Laurence Dunbar commemorative card, 1924 June 27. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. The poet and his song / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Eusebia Cosme papers, 1927-1973 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. What's the use? / words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Atlanta Life Insurance Company. Advertisement. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
creatorOf Arteaga, Ivan, 1974-. Oral history interview with Ivan Arteaga, 2009 October 27. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Sheet Music Collection, 1847-1956 1860-1910. University of Toledo, William S. Carlson Library
referencedIn Charles M. Austin Collection, 1981-1999 Wright State University, Special Collections and Archives
referencedIn Cullen, Countee, 1903-1946. The Countee Cullen/Harold Jackman Memorial Collection. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. Sympathy / words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Christmas is A-Comin : autograph poem signed : [n.p., n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. William Stanley Braithwaite collection, 1899-1939. Morgan State University
referencedIn The Moldenhauer Archives at Harvard University: Manuscript music compositions, 1880-1985. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Signature, [ca. 1890-1906]. Brown University, John Hay Library
creatorOf Righter, Miriam. Compensation / music by Miriam Righter ; words by Paul Laurence Dunbar. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Watkins-Lehman Family Collection, 1897-1909. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Stor, Jean. Duty : song for contralto : from the oratorio Ione / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Jean Stor. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Crouse, John Robert, 1874-1946. John Robert Crouse autograph collection, [15--]-ca. 1946. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. Songs / Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Brawley, Benjamin Griffith, 1882-1939. Benjamin Griffith Brawley papers, 1917-1936. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
referencedIn Richard B. Harrison collection, 1930-1935 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Jean Wagner papers, 1945-1983 (inclusive), 1957-1963 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. Because / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988. Small collections in the James Weldon Johnson collection, 1850-1976. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Hines, Gabriel L. (Gabriel Lincoln), 1891?-1933. Piano compositions and songs, [ca. 1910]-1924. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
creatorOf Lunde, Johan Backer, 1874-1958. Compensation / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music [by] Johan Backer Lunde. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Kerr, Thomas H. Riding to town / [music by Thomas H. Kerr, Jr.]. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1887-1953. Sympathy, [for voice and piano] Words by Paul Laurence Dunbar. Eastman School of Music
creatorOf Busch, Marie F. A prayer / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Marie F. Busch. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. I grew a rose / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Paul Laurence Dunbar collection The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Small Collections in the James Weldon Johnson collection, 1850-1976 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Musical composers. African American Sheet Music Collection, 1879-1940 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. The poet and his song / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922. Papers 1839-1921. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Nevin, Ethelbert, 1862-1901. An African love song / [words by Paul Lawrence [sic] Dunbar ; [music by] Ethelbert Nevin. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Martin, Charles Douglass, 1873-1942. Charles D. Martin collection, 1889-1942. North Carolina Central University, James E. Shepard Memorial Library
referencedIn Ingersoll, Robert Green, 1833-1899. Letter : Dobbs' Ferry-on-Hudson, [N.Y.], to Mr. [James B.] Pond, 1896 Sept. 14. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Frederick Douglass Papers, 1841-1967, (bulk 1862-1895) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895. Papers of Frederick Douglass, 1841-1967 (bulk 1862-1895) Library of Congress
referencedIn Haufrecht, Herbert, 1909-1998. Oh! li'l lamb / by Herbert Haufrecht. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895. Frederick Douglass papers, 1841-1967 (bulk 1862-1895). Library of Congress
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Papers of Paul Laurence Dunbar, 1873-1936. Library of Congress
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Papers 1895-1906. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. The love of Landry : novel, [189-?]. Ohio State University Libraries
referencedIn William R. and Louise Fielder Sheet Music Collection Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
creatorOf Meyer, Lillian Stemple. Death song : Beneaf' de willows / Paul Laurence Dunbar ; Lillian Stemple Meyer. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Busch, Marie F. A misty day / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Marie F. Busch. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Kerr, Thomas H. In memoriam / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Thomas H. Kerr, Jr. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf McClenney, Abram. Compensation / words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Abram McClenney. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Du Bois, Shirley Graham, 1896-1977. Papers, 1865-1998 (inclusive), 1905-1975 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Crosby, Nina Hard. Ole Brer trouble / Paul L. Dunbar ; Nina Hard Crosby. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Paul Laurence Dunbar commemorative stamp ceremonies program and first day covers, 1975 May 1. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
creatorOf Hay, John, 1838-1905. Correspondence, 1854-1914, "Dewey" to "Elliott". Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn John MacKay Shaw Collection, 1737-2007
referencedIn Young, Pauline A., 1900-1991. Pauline A. Young Papers. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn African-American related sheet music and sheet music written by African-Americans, 1851-1974 Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Paul Laurence Dunbar "Rain Songs" manuscript, circa 1895. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Paul L. Dunbar Collection 1890-to present. Dayton Metro Library
referencedIn Papers, 1897-1930. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Spencer, Anne, 1882-1975. Papers of Anne Spencer and the Spencer family [manuscript], 1829, 1864-2007. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Price, Florence, 1888-1953. Ships that pass in the night / [words by] Paul Laurence Dunbar ; [music by] Florence B. Price. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn African American Sheet Music Collection 2002-063, 2002-264., 1879-1940 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
creatorOf Kerr, Thomas H. Thou art my lute / words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Thomas H. Kerr, Jr. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 1872-1906. Paul Laurence Dunbar collection, 1892-1902. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Paul Laurence Dunbar Collection, 1890-2001 Dayton Metro Library
creatorOf Edmunds, Audrey. Layin' mong de 'tings Is allus knowed / words by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; lyrics [i.e. music] by Audrey Edmunds. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Comstock, Bertha R. Letter, 1905, January 21, Dayton, Ohio [to] Varnum Vaugh, Boston, Mass. / Bertha R. Comstock. Northern Illinois University
creatorOf Busch, Marie F. Why fades a dream / poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar ; music by Marie F. Busch. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Howells family papers, 1850-1954 (inclusive). Houghton Library.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Press Association, corporateBody
associatedWith Arteaga, Ivan, 1974- person
associatedWith Atlanta Life Insurance Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Austin, Charles M. person
associatedWith Boyd, Rubie. person
correspondedWith Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962. person
associatedWith Brawley, Benjamin Griffith, 1882-1939. person
associatedWith Bullock, Hugh, Mrs, person
associatedWith Busch, Marie F. person
correspondedWith Century Company corporateBody
associatedWith Clark, Davis Wasgatt, b. 1849. person
associatedWith Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel, 1875-1912. person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Comstock, Bertha R. person
associatedWith Cook, Will Marion. person
associatedWith Cosme, Eusebia. person
associatedWith Created by John MacKay Shaw person
associatedWith Cromwell, John Wesley, 1846-1927. person
associatedWith Crosby, Nina Hard. person
associatedWith Crouse, John Robert, 1874-1946. person
associatedWith Cullen, Countee, 1903-1946. person
correspondedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith Dodd, Edward, 1905-1988. person
correspondedWith Douglass, Frederick, 1818-1895. person
associatedWith Du Bois, Shirley Graham, 1896-1977. person
associatedWith Dunbar, Alice Ruth Moore. person
associatedWith Dunbar family. family
associatedWith Dunbar, Mathilda Jane, 1848-1943. person
associatedWith Dunbar, Matilda Jane. person
correspondedWith Dunbar-Nelson, Alice Moore, 1875-1935 person
associatedWith Edmunds, Audrey. person
associatedWith Engle, Hilda P. person
associatedWith Fauset, Arthur Huff, 1899-1983. person
associatedWith Fielder, William R. Fielder, Louise person
associatedWith Flodin, Jack. person
associatedWith Gilder, Richard Watson, 1844-1909. person
associatedWith Hackley, Edward H., person
associatedWith Harrison, Richard B person
associatedWith Haufrecht, Herbert, 1909-1998. person
associatedWith Hay, John, 1838-1905. person
associatedWith Henderson, Julia L. person
associatedWith Hines, Gabriel L. (Gabriel Lincoln), 1891?-1933. person
associatedWith Howells, William Dean, 1837-1920. person
associatedWith Hynes, Elizabeth. person
associatedWith Ingersoll, Robert Green, 1833-1899. person
associatedWith Kerr, Thomas H. person
associatedWith Kinscella, Hazel Gertrude. person
associatedWith Kramer, A. Walter (Arthur Walter), 1890-1969. person
associatedWith Lanahan, Annie Snowden, person
associatedWith Lunde, Johan Backer, 1874-1958. person
associatedWith Lydenberg, Harry Miller, 1874-1960. person
associatedWith Martin, Charles Douglass, 1873-1942. person
associatedWith McClenney, Abram. person
associatedWith Meriwether, Lawrence. person
associatedWith Metcalf, Gene. person
associatedWith Meyer, Lillian Stemple. person
associatedWith Moldenhauer, Hans person
associatedWith Musical composers person
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associatedWith Nevin, Ethelbert, 1862-1901. person
associatedWith Ohio Historical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Patterson, John Henry, 1844-1922. person
associatedWith Pond, Mayor, person
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associatedWith Redding, J. Saunders (Jay Saunders), 1906-1988. person
associatedWith Reynolds, Paul R. person
associatedWith Reynolds, Paul Revere, 1864-1944. person
associatedWith Righter, Miriam. person
associatedWith Secor, David Pell, 1824-1909, person
associatedWith Sisson, Grace S., person
associatedWith Smith, David Stanley, 1877-1949. person
associatedWith Spencer, Anne, 1882-1975. person
associatedWith Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 1833-1908, person
associatedWith Stor, Jean. person
associatedWith Tobey, Henry A. person
associatedWith Toomey, Richard E. S. person
associatedWith Wagner, Jean, 1919- person
associatedWith Willets, Gilson, b. 1869, person
associatedWith Woodberry Poetry Room (Harvard College Library). corporateBody
associatedWith Young, Pauline A., 1900-1991. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
United States
Ohio
Dayton (Ohio)
Subject
African American authors
Publishers and Publishing
African Americans--Music
African American poets
American literature--African American authors
African Americans
African Americans--History--Sources
Race discrimination
Poetry
Occupation
Authors
Poets
Function

Person

Birth 1872-06-27

Death 1906-02-09

Americans

English

Information

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