Ciardi, John, 1916-1986

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American poet and critic. Winner of Avery and Jule Hopwood Award in poetry, 1939. Professor of English at Harvard, 1946-48, and Rutgers, 1953-61.

From the description of Letter, 1980 Feb. 4, Key West, Fla., to Henry F. Pommer, Ripon, Wis. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 34364896

Poet, editor, literary critic, lecturer, and journalist. Full name: John Anthony Ciardi.

From the description of John Ciardi papers, 1910-1997 (bulk 1960-1985). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70979846

American poet, critic, and editor. Winner of Avery and Jule Hopwood Award in poetry, 1939. Professor of English at Harvard, 1946-48, and Rutgers, 1953-61.

From the description of Letters, 1952-1955, to J. Vernon Shea, Jr. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 34365082

American poet and critic; known for his English translation of Dante's Divine Comedy.

From the description of Letters, 1952-1969. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122493012

American poet.

From the description of Letter, ca. 1954, Bound Brook, New York, to Nelson [Algren?] [manuscript]. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647817382

Editor.

From the description of Letters, 1949-1953. (Indiana University). WorldCat record id: 38490347

Poet; Boston, Massachusetts.

From the description of The shock of recognition : art as the expression of human personality, 1953 June. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122515804

Biographical Note

  • 1916, June 24: Born, Boston, Mass.
  • 1933 - 1935 : Attended Bates College, Lewiston, Maine
  • 1935 - 1938 : Attended Tufts University, Medford, Mass., receiving B.A. in 1938
  • 1938 - 1939 : Attended University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., receiving M.A. in English in 1939
  • 1939: Avery Hopwood Award for poetry
  • 1940: Published Homeward to America (New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt and Co. 62 pp.)
  • 1940 - 1942 : Instructor in English, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Mo.
  • 1942 - 1945 : United States Army Air Corps
  • 1945: Eunice Tietjens Award for poetry
  • 1945 - 1946 : Instructor in English, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Mo.
  • 1946: Married Myra Judith Hostetter
  • 1946 - 1953 : Instructor and assistant professor, Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.
  • 1947 - 1955 : Lecturer in poetry, Bread Loaf Writers' Conference, Ripton, Vt.
  • 1949 - 1955 : Poetry editor, Twayne Publishers
  • 1954: Published translation of Inferno by Dante Alighieri (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 288 pp.)
  • 1953 - 1961 : Associate professor and professor, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.
  • 1955: Published As If: Poems New and Selected (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 143 pp.)
  • 1955 - 1972 : Director, Bread Loaf Writers' Conference, Ripton, Vt.
  • 1956 - 1972 : Poetry editor, Saturday Review
  • 1956: Prix de Rome, American Academy of Arts and Letters
  • 1959: Published The Reason for the Pelican (Philadelphia, Pa.: J.B. Lippincott. 63 pp.)
  • 1960: D. Litt., Tufts University, Medford, Mass.
  • 1961: Published translation of Purgatorio by Dante Alighieri (New York, N.Y.: New American Library. 350 pp.) Published I Met a Man (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin. 74 pp.)
  • 1963: Published Dialogue with an Audience (Philadelphia, Pa.: J.B. Lippincott. 316 pp.)
  • 1964: Published Person to Person (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 83 pp.)
  • 1966: Published The Monster Den (Philadelphia, Pa.: J.B. Lippincott. 62 pp.)
  • 1970: Published translation of Paradiso by Dante Alighieri (New York, N.Y.: New American Library. 367 pp.)
  • 1971: Published Lives of X (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 118 pp.) Published Manner of Speaking (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 118 pp.)
  • 1978: Published Limericks, Too Gross with Isaac Asimov (New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton. 101 pp.)
  • 1980: Published A Browser's Dictionary (New York, N.Y.: Harper & Row. 429 pp.)
  • 1981: Published A Grossery of Limericks with Isaac Asimov (New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton. 101 pp.)
  • 1983: Published A Second Browser's Dictionary (New York, N.Y.: Harper & Row. 329 pp.)
  • 1986, Mar. 30: Died, Edison, N.J.
  • 1987: Posthumous publication of Good Words to You (New York, N.Y.: Harper & Row. 343 pp.)
  • 1997: Posthumous publication of Collected Poems of John Ciardi edited by Edward M. Cifelli (Fayetteville, Ark.: University of Arkansas Press. 618 pp.)

From the guide to the John Ciardi Papers, 1910-1997, (bulk 1960-1985), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Ciardi, the son of Italian immigrants, was born in Boston's North End. He grew up in Medford, Massachusetts and studied at his hometown college, Tufts University, before receiving his M.A. from the University of Michigan in 1939.

After years of teaching English at Harvard (1946-1953) and Rutgers (1953-1961), Ciardi resigned his tenured faculty position to pursue an independent career. Ciardi wrote 21 books of poetry. He served as a highly popular poetry editor of the Saturday Review from 1956 to 1972. His occasional public television broadcasts were supplemented by his weekly National Public Radio series begun in 1980 entitled, "A Word in Your Ear." A National Teachers Award for Excellence in Poetry for Children was presented to Ciardi in 1982. He died of a heart attack on Easter Sunday in 1986.

From the guide to the John Ciardi letters, Ciardi (John) letters, 1952-1969, (Brown University Library Special Collections)

John Anthony Ciardi (1916-1986) was an American poet, translator, and etymologist. He is best known for his poetry, including a well-received translation of Dante's Divine Comedy and several volumes of children's poetry; other works include Person to Person, You Know Who, In the Stoneworks, and How Does a Poem Mean?

Born in Boston, Ciardi attended Tufts College (B.A., magna cum laude, 1938; D. Lit, 1960) and the University of Michigan (M.A., 1939).

Ciardi taught at Harvard College and Rutgers University, and was poetry editor of the Saturday Review from 1956 to 1972. He received several awards for his poetry, including the Prix de Rome of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1956 and honorary degrees from Wayne University, Ursinus College and Kalamazoo College. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Institute of Arts and Letters.

From the guide to the John Ciardi Papers, 1957, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Ginsberg, Allen, 1926-1997. Typed letter signed : NYC, to [John] Ciardi, 1959 Aug. 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Boys, Richard Charles, 1912-. Correspondence, 1949-1954. University of Michigan
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letter to T.O. Mabbott. : [MA.] 1948 May 14. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf White, William, 1910-1995. Papers of William White [manuscript], 1875-1987. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. John Ciardi papers, 1910-1997 (bulk 1960-1985). Library of Congress
referencedIn Mowrer, Paul Scott, 1887-1971. Paul Scott Mowrer papers, 1894-1988, bulk 1912-1971. Newberry Library
creatorOf John Ciardi Papers, 1910-1997, (bulk 1960-1985) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Crews, Judson. Papers, 1935-1981 (bulk 1940-1966). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn White mss., 1932-1969 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
referencedIn Records, 1946-2000 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Poetry mss., 1954-2002 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)http://www.indiana.edu/~liblilly
referencedIn Meredith, William, 1919-2007. William Meredith papers, 1947-1979. Library of Congress
creatorOf Hazo, Samuel John. Papers, 1952-1990. University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
creatorOf Penn State Writers Conference (1961 : University Park, Pa.). Penn State Writers Conference correspondence, 1960-1961. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Berry, Jason. Papers 1966-1987. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
creatorOf Feinberg, Charles E., 1899-. John Ciardi papers in the Charles E. Feinberg collection, 1936-1970. Library of Congress
creatorOf Adamic, Louis, 1899-1951,. Letters to Alfred Kreymborg [manuscript], 1921-1956. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Yaddo records, 1870-1980 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Bowen, Catherine Drinker, 1897-1973. Catherine Drinker Bowen papers, 1793-1980 (bulk 1934-1972). Library of Congress
referencedIn Bliven, Bruce, 1889-1977. Bruce Bliven papers, 1906-1985. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn University of Southern California oral histories, 1960-1970 USC Libraries Special Collections
referencedIn Ben Johnson Papers, 1951-1968 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Manuscripts of John Ciardi [manuscript], n.d. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Judson Crews Papers TXRC94-A16., 1935-1981, (bulk 1940-1966) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Read Bain papers, 1893-1972 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Davidson, Donald, 1893-1968. ALS, 1960 October 11. Vanderbilt University Library, Jean and Alexander Heard Library
referencedIn Turnbull, Eleanor L. (Eleanor Laurelle). Eleanor Turnbull papers, 1887-1960. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company correspondence, 1881-1981 (inclusive), 1940-1979 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Ellison, Ralph. Ralph Ellison papers, 1890-2005 (bulk 1930-1994). Library of Congress
creatorOf Lechlitner, Ruth, 1901-1989. Papers of Ruth Lechlitner, 1919-1988. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Rice, Warner Grenelle, 1899-. Correspondence, with literary notables, 1955-1961. University of Michigan
referencedIn John Ciardi Autographed Photograph Inscribed to Faye Vernon, Undated
referencedIn A. B. Guthrie Jr. Papers, 1901-1991 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Rutgers University. Office of the University Chaplain. Records of the University Chaplain, 1928-1974. Rutgers University
referencedIn Dannay, Frederic, 1905-1982. Papers, ca.1920-1982. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Hale, Nancy, 1908-1988. Nancy Hale papers [manuscript], 1950. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf De Gastyne, Serge. A plea : op. 48, no. 2 / [text by] John Ciardi ; [music by] Serge de Gastyne. Northwestern University
creatorOf McCord, David Thompson Watson, 1897-1997. Award for Excellence in Poetry for Children collection 1952-[ongoing]. Boston Public Library, Central Library in Copley Square
referencedIn Robert Francis Papers MS 403., 1891-1986 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
creatorOf Danielson, Richard Ely, 1885-1957. Richard Ely Danielson papers, 1940-1948. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letter from John Ciardi [manuscript], 1959. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Modern poetry collection of miscellaneous manuscripts, 1920-1964. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Cal Coolidge & the Co. : poem for $98.41 plus, hopefully, bonuses / John Ciardi. The Sage Colleges Libraries
referencedIn Woodberry Poetry Room (Harvard College Library) poetry readings, 1931- (ongoing). Woodberry Poetry Room, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Bishop, Isabel, 1902-1988. Isabel Bishop papers, 1914-1983. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Witter Bynner papers, 1829-1965. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Ginsberg, Allen, 1926-1997. Typed postcard signed : NYC, to [John] Ciardi, 1959 Sept. 3. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn New Directions Publishing Corp. records, ca. 1933-1997. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Lamb, Kristen. Cheslock composers concert [sound recording]. University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Semans Library
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letters, 1952-1969. Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Inventory to the Records of the Conference on Literature and Urban Experience (CLUE), Rutgers University Newark, April 17-19, 1980, 1978-1983 Rutgers University. Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Isabel Bishop papers, 1914-1983 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Records, 1953-1967 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Bingham, Millicent Todd, 1880-1968. Millicent Todd Bingham papers, 1865-1968 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letters, 1952-1955, to J. Vernon Shea, Jr. University of Michigan
referencedIn Davie, Donald. Donald Davie letters and notes, 1942-1966. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letter to T.O. Mabbott. : [New York, NY.] 1950 Feb. 9. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Correspondence, 1972 June-Aug., Metuchen, N.J., with Stephen M. Savage, Cambridge, Mass. Ball State University Library, Bracken Library
referencedIn Stanley Burnshaw Papers TXRC93-A78., 1927-1987, (bulk 1945-1987) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Guy Owen Papers (#4287), 1951-1981 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection
referencedIn Millicent Todd Bingham papers, 1865-1968 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn V. R. Lang additional papers, 1947-1956. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Alternative Press (Detroit, Michigan). The Alternative Press records, 1961-1998 (bulk 1970-1995). University of Michigan
referencedIn Lamont, Corliss, 1902-1995. Corliss Lamont papers, 1891-1993. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Sward, Robert, 1933-. Papers. Washington University in St. Louis, .
creatorOf Scott, Winfield Townley, 1910-1968. Papers, 1921-1966. Brown University, John Hay Library
creatorOf Burnshaw, Stanley, 1906-2005. Papers, 1927-1987, (bulk 1945-1987). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Marshall, Lenore, 1897-1971. Papers, 1887-1980. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letters, 1949-1953. Indiana University
referencedIn Sward, Robert, 1933-. Papers, 1951-1971. Washington University in St. Louis, .
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letter, ca. 1954, Bound Brook, New York, to Nelson [Algren?] [manuscript]. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Papers, 1920-1995. Houghton Library.
referencedIn George Dillon Papers, 1862-1982 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
creatorOf Moffitt, John. Papers of John Moffitt, 1916-1974. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Bain, Read, 1892-. Read Bain papers, 1893-1972. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Simpson, Louis, 1923-. Papers of Louis Aston Marantz Simpson, 1943-1969. Library of Congress
referencedIn Ginsberg, Allen, 1926-1997. Allen Ginsberg papers, 1944-1991. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Gates, Joanna. Performance hour [sound recording]. University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Semans Library
referencedIn Wagoner, David. Papers, 1943-1965. Washington University in St. Louis, .
creatorOf Davis, Joe Lee. Joe Lee Davis papers, 1954-1973. University of Michigan
referencedIn David Posner poems and correspondence with John Ciardi, 1950-1958 University of Delaware Library - Special Collections
referencedIn Olson, Ted, 1899-1981. Papers, 1935-1973. University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center
referencedIn Jackson, Shirley, 1916-1965. Shirley Jackson papers, 1932-1991 (bulk 1932-1965). Library of Congress
referencedIn Frederic Dannay Papers, ca.1920-1982. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. How to read Dante [manuscript]. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn John Ciardi Autographed Photograph Inscribed to Faye Vernon. Florida State University
referencedIn MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982. Papers, 1907-1981 (bulk 1925-1970). Library of Congress
referencedIn Guthrie, A. B. (Alfred Bertram), 1901-1991. A. B. Guthrie Jr. Papers, 1901-1991. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Papers. 1948-49. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Inventory to the Records of the Conference on Literature and Urban Experience (CLUE), Rutgers University Newark, April 17-19, 1980, 1978-1983 Rutgers University. Special Collections and University Archives.
creatorOf Bowers, Fredson. Papers of Fredson Thayer Bowers, 1595-1992 (bulk 1922-1992). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn E. E. Cummings papers, 1870-1969. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Merriam, Eve, 1916-1992. Additional papers of Eve Merriam, ca. 1930-1992. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Bookstore Press Records., undated, 1967-1976. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Autograph letter signed John to: [Doris Holmes Eyges] December, 1959]. Wellesley College
referencedIn University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. University of Southern California oral histories, 1960-1970. University of Southern California, USC Libraries
creatorOf Merrill, James Ingram. Autograph letters signed (3) : New York City, to John Ciardi, 1949 June 28, July 17 and 28. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Turco, Lewis. Papers, 1949-1988. EO Smith High School
referencedIn Inventory to the Records of the Rutgers University Chaplain (Bradford S. Abernethy), 1928-1974 Rutgers University Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Archibald MacLeish Papers, 1907-1981, (bulk 1925-1970) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn George P. Garrett Papers, 1929-2008, (bulk 1960-2000) David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Alumni Association (University of Michigan), Individual Photographs, ca. 1880-ca. 1960s Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Burack, A. S. (Abraham Saul), 1908-. Abraham Burack collection, 1922-1997. Boston University. School of Medicine
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letter, 1980 Feb. 4, Key West, Fla., to Henry F. Pommer, Ripon, Wis. University of Michigan
referencedIn Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004 Harvard University Archives.
referencedIn First Poems of American Poets. First Poems of American Poets records, 1969-1970. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Shirley Jackson Papers, 1932-1991, (bulk 1932-1965) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Jean Burden Papers, 1931-1992 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Modern Poetry Collection of Miscellaneous Manuscripts, 1920-1964 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-. The shock of recognition : art as the expression of human personality, 1953 June. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Henry Varnum Poor papers, 1873-2001, bulk dates 1904-1970 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Gramercy Bookshop (New York, N.Y.). Grammercy Bookshop records, [ca. 1931]-1979. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn MacLeish, Archibald, 1892-1982. Papers of Archibald MacLeish, 1907-1981 (bulk 1925-1970). Library of Congress
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. John Ciardi correspondence with Richard Brautigan [manuscript], 1965. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Stephens, Jacqueline. Jacqueline Stephens and Jeannie Greenlee letters, 1961 University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Additional poems, 1896-1967. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. Letter, 1958 Apr. 10, New Brunswick, N.J., to [Warner G.] Rice, Ann Arbor. University of Michigan
referencedIn Gordon Cairnie papers, 1922-1973. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Lang, V. R., 1924-1956. V. R. Lang additional papers, 1947-1956. Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Pollack, Peter, 1909-1978. Peter Pollack papers, 1945-1978. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Davis, Joe Lee. Papers, 1954-1973. University of Michigan
creatorOf John Ciardi Papers, 1957 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
creatorOf John Ciardi letters, Ciardi (John) letters, 1952-1969 Brown University Library, Special Collections
creatorOf Thompson, Lawrance Roger, 1906-1973. Papers : concerning Robert Frost, ca. 1940-1973. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn WUOM records, 1914-1982, 1940s-1960s Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Angoff, Charles, 1902-1979. Charles Angoff collection, 1927-1978. Boston University. School of Medicine
referencedIn Moose, Ruth. Ruth Moose papers, 1960s-2000 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Richard Ely Danielson papers, 1940-1948 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Carr, Virginia Spencer. Virginia Spencer Carr papers, 1867-2009. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn New Yorker records, ca.1924-1984 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Davie, Donald. Donald Davie letters and notes, 1942-1966. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Ralph Ellison Papers, 1890-2005, (bulk 1930-1994) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Ciardi, John, 1916-1986. The grasshopper and the ant / illustrations by Suzanne Clark. University of Hartford Libraries, University Libraries (W.H. Mortensen Library & Allen Library)
referencedIn Albert Ellis Papers, 1920-2007, [Bulk Dates: 1965-1997]. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Catherine Drinker Bowen Papers, 1793-1980, (bulk 1934-1972) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Oscar Williams papers concerning The war poets, 1944-1945. Houghton Library.
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correspondedWith Abbe, George, 1911-1989 person
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correspondedWith Angoff, Charles, 1902-1979. person
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associatedWith Clark, Suzanne, 1943- person
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correspondedWith Cousins, Norman person
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correspondedWith Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1962 person
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associatedWith Williams, Virginia Carnes. person
associatedWith Williams, William Carlos, 1883-1963. person
associatedWith Woodberry Poetry Room (Harvard College Library). corporateBody
associatedWith WUOM (Radio station : Ann Arbor, Mich.) corporateBody
associatedWith Yaddo (Artist's colony) corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Alabama
Massachusetts--Boston
Subject
American periodicals
Poets
Poets, American--Correspondence--20th century
Authors, American--20th century
Poets, American--20th century
Protest movements
English language--Study and teaching
Art, Modern
Lectures and lecturing
English literature--Censorship
Segregation--Alabama
Protest movements--United States
Editing
Segregation
Literature--American Fiction
Children's poetry
Plagiarism
Publishers and Publishing
Science fiction
American poetry
Literature--American Poetry
Translators
Authors, American--Correspondence
Art, American
Oral interpretation of poetry
Illustrated books
Poetry
Art--Exhibitions
Occupation
Authors
Critic
Journalists
Editors
Poets
Lecturers
Function

Person

Birth 1916-06-24

Death 1986-03-30

Americans

English

Information

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