Poor, Henry V. (Henry Varnum), 1812-1905

Variant names

Hide Profile

Henry Varnum Poor (1888-1970), best known as a potter and ceramic artist, was also an architect, painter, muralist, designer, educator and writer who lived and worked in New City, New York.

A native of Chapman, Kansas, Henry Varnum Poor moved with his family to Kansas City when his grain merchant father became a member of the Kansas Board of Trade. From a young age he showed artistic talent and spent as much time as possible - including school hours - drawing. When a school supervisor suggested that Henry leave school to study at the Art Institute of Chicago, the family disagreed. Instead, he enrolled in the Kansas City Manual Training High School where he delighted in learning skills such as carpentry, forge work, and mechanical drawing. In 1905, he moved with his older brother and sister to Palo Alto, California and completed high school there. Because Poor was expected to join the family business, he enrolled at Stanford University as an economics major, but much to his father's disappointment and displeasure, soon left the economics department and became an art major.

Immediately after graduation in 1910, Poor and his major professor at Stanford, Arthur B. Clark, took a summer bicycling tour to look at art in London, France, Italy, and Holland. Poor had saved enough money to remain in London after the summer was over. He enrolled in the Slade School of Art and also studied under Walter Sickert at the London County Council Night School. After seeing an exhibition of Post-Impressionism at the Grafton Galleries in London, Poor was so impressed that he went to Paris and enrolled in the Académie Julian. While in Paris Poor met Clifford Addams, a former apprentice of Whistler; soon he was working in Addams' studio learning Whistler's palette and techniques.

In the fall of 1911, Poor returned to Stanford University's art department on a one-year teaching assignment. During that academic year, his first one-man show was held at the university's Old Studio gallery. He married Lena Wiltz and moved back to Kansas to manage the family farm and prepare for another exhibition. Their daughter, Josephine Lydia Poor, was born the following year. Poor returned to Stanford in September 1913 as assistant professor of grahic arts, remaining until the department closed three years later. During this period, Poor began to exhibit more frequently in group shows in other areas of the country, and had his first solo exhibition at a commercial gallery (Helgesen Gallery, San Francisco). In 1916, Poor joined the faculty of the San Francisco Art Association. He and his wife separated in 1917 and were divorced the following year. Poor began sharing his San Francisco studio with Marion Dorn.

During World War I, Poor was drafted into the U. S. Army, and in 1918 went to France with the 115th Regiment of Engineers. He spent his spare time drawing; soon officers were commissioning portraits, and Poor was appointed the regimental artist. He also served as an interpreter for his company. Discharged from the Army in early 1919, Poor spent the spring painting in Paris. He then returned to San Francisco and married Marion Dorn.

Once Poor realized that earning a living as a painter would be extremely difficult in California, he and his new wife moved to New York in the autumn of 1919. They were looking for a place to live when influential book and art dealer Mary Mowbray-Clarke of the Sunwise Turn Bookshop in Manhattan suggested New City in Rockland County, New York as good place for artists. In January of 1920, the Poors purchased property on South Mountain Road in New City. The skills he acquired at the Kansas City Manual Training High School were of immediate use as Poor designed and constructed "Crow House" with the assistance of a local teenager. Influenced by the farmhouses he had seen in France, it was made of local sandstone and featured steep gables, rough plaster, chestnut beams and floors, and incorporated many hand-crafted details. Poor designed and built most of their furniture, too. Before the end of the year, he and Marion were able to move into the house, though it remained a work in progress for many years. Additions were constructed. Over time, gardens were designed and planted, and outbuildings - a kiln and pottery, work room, garage, and new studio - appeared on the property.

In 1925, two years after his divorce from Marion Dorn, Poor married Bessie Freedman Breuer (1893-1975), an editor, short story writer, and novelist. Soon after, he adopted her young daughter, Anne (1918-2002), an artist who served as his assistant on many important mural commissions. Their son, Peter (b. 1926) became a television producer. Crow House remained in the family until its sale in 2006. In order to prevent its demolition, Crow House was then purchased by the neighboring town of Ramapo, New York in 2007.

Between 1935 and 1966 Poor designed and oversaw construction of a number of houses, several of them situated not far from Crow House on South Mountain Road. Poor's designs, noted for their simplicity, featured modern materials and incorporated his ceramic tiles. Among his important commissions were houses for Maxwell Anderson, Jules Billig, Milton Caniff, MacDonald Deming, and John Houseman.

Poor's first exhibition of paintings in New York City was at Kevorkian Galleries in 1920, and sales were so disappointing that he turned his attention to ceramics. His first pottery show, held at Bel Maison Gallery in Wanamaker's department store in 1921, was very successful. He quickly developed a wide reputation, participated in shows throughout the country, and won awards. He was a founder of the short-lived American Designers' Gallery, and the tile bathroom he showed at the group's first exposition was critically acclaimed. Poor was represented by Montross Gallery as both a painter and potter. When Montross Gallery closed upon its owner's death in 1932, Poor moved to the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery.

Even though Poor's pottery and ceramic work was in the forefront, he continued to paint. His work was acquired by a number of museums, and the Limited Editions Club commissioned him to illustrate Ethan Frome, The Scarlet Letter, and The Call of the Wild .

Poor's first work in true fresco was shown in a 1932 mural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. Between 1935 and 1949 he was commissioned to produce several murals in fresco for Section of Fine Arts projects at the Department of Justice and the Department of the Interior, The Land Grant Frescoes at Pennsylvania State College, and a mural for the Louisville Courier-Journal . Ceramic tile mural commissions included: the Klingenstein Pavilion, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York City; Travelers Insurance Co., Boston; the Fresno Post Office, California; and Hillson Memorial Gallery, Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass.

As a member of the War Artists' Unit, Poor was a "war correspondent" with the rank of major in World War II, and for several months in 1943 was stationed in Alaska. An Artist Sees Alaska, drawing on Poor's observations and experiences, was published in 1945. A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality, his second book, was published in 1958. It remains a standard text on the subject. While on the faculty of Columbia University in the 1950s, Poor and other artists opposed to the growing influence of Abstract Expressionism formed the Reality Group with Poor the head of its editorial committee. Their magazine, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, first appeared in 1953 featuring "Painting is Being Talked to Death" by Poor as its lead article. Two more issues were published in 1954 and 1955.

Along with Willard Cummings, Sidney Simon, and Charles Cuttler, in 1946 Henry Varnum Poor helped to establish the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine. He served as its first president. Poor and his daughter, Anne, were active members of the Board of Trustees and were instructors for many years. The summer of 1961 was Henry Varnum Poor's last as a full-time teacher, though he continued to spend summers at Skowhegan.

Henry Varnum Poor exhibited widely and received many awards, among them prizes at the Carnegie Institute, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Architectural League of New York. Poor was appointed to the United States Commission of Fine Arts by President Roosevelt in 1941 and served a five year term. He was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1943. The National Academy of Design named him an Associate Artist in 1954 and an Academician in 1963. He became a trustee of the American Craftsman's Council in 1956. The work of Henry Vernum Poor is represented in the permanent collections of many American museums including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Addison Gallery of American Art, and Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts.

Henry Varnum Poor died at home in New City, New York, December 8, 1970.

From the guide to the Henry Varnum Poor papers, 1873-2001, bulk dates 1904-1970, (Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf POOR, HENRY VARNUM. Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)
referencedIn Peirce, Waldo, 1884-1970. Papers of Waldo Peirce, 1889-1985. Library of Congress
referencedIn Poor family. Additional papers of the Poor family, 1778-2008 (inclusive), 1820-2006 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Leonard, Levi O., 1854-1942. Papers of Levi O. Leonard 1839-1941 (Part 2). University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Chandler, Alfred Dupont. Alfred D. Chandler papers, 1928-2004. Harvard Business School, Knowledge and Library Services/Baker Library
referencedIn Papers, 1791-1921 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Goelet, Peter, fl. 1763-1779. Papers, 1740-ca. 1900, 1770-1779. William & Mary Libraries
referencedIn Waldo Peirce Papers, 1889-1985 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949. Papers, 1872-1949 Houghton Library
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIg, 1887-1891 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Milton Caniff Collection, 1805-2007, 1910-1988 The Ohio State University Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum
creatorOf Henry Varnum Poor papers, 1873-2001, bulk dates 1904-1970 Archives of American Art
referencedIn Poor family. Papers, 1791-1921 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn J. B. Matthews Papers, 1862-1986 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Benton, William, 1900-1973 person
associatedWith Biddle, George, 1885-1973 person
associatedWith Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967 person
associatedWith Caniff, Milton Arthur, 1907-1988 person
associatedWith Chandler, Alfred Dupont. person
associatedWith Ciardi, John, 1916- person
associatedWith Dickson, Harold E., 1900- person
associatedWith Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968 person
associatedWith Esherick, Wharton person
associatedWith Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973 person
associatedWith Garrett, Alice Warder person
associatedWith Goelet, Peter, fl. 1763-1779. person
associatedWith Leonard, Levi O., 1854-1942. person
associatedWith Marston, Muktuk person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
associatedWith Meredith, Burgess, 1907-1997 person
correspondedWith Milton Caniff person
associatedWith Montross Gallery corporateBody
associatedWith Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990 person
associatedWith Peirce, Waldo, 1884-1970. person
associatedWith Poor family. family
associatedWith Poor family. family
associatedWith POOR FAMILY family
associatedWith Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture corporateBody
associatedWith Smith, David, 1906-1965 person
associatedWith Steinbeck, John, 1902-1968 person
correspondedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949 person
associatedWith Watson, Ernest William, 1884-1969 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Subject
Designers--New York (State)--New York
World War, 1914-1918
Architects--New York (State)--New York
Educators--New York (State)--New York
Muralists--New York (State)--New York
Artist's studios
Ceramicists--New York (State)--New York
Authors--New York (State)--New York
Painters--New York (State)--New York
Art--Study and teaching
Pottery--New York (State)--New York
Occupation
Activity

Person

Birth 1812-12-08

Death 1905-01-04

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6st7w30

Ark ID: w6st7w30

SNAC ID: 14244634