Shackleton, Ernest Henry, sir, 1874-1922

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British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001512.0x0000a1

The Endurance was a barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic during the ill-fated 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (also known as the "Endurance Expedition"); she was crushed under heavy ice and sank November 21, 1915 in the Weddell Sea. Completed in Norway on December 17, 1912 and christened Polaris, she was built of oak and Norwegian fir planks, sheathed in greenheart. As well as sails, she also had a 350 hp coal-fired steam engine capable of 10.2 knots, useful for pushing through heavy ice and capable of manuervering through loose pack ice. Upon her launch, she may have been the strongest ship ever built.

Ernest Shackleton, leader of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition and part of two other Antarctic expeditions, acquired Polaris after her owner's financial trouble. Renamed Endurance after the Shackleton family motto Fortitudine vincimus (By Endurance we Conquer), she sailed intending to accomplish the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent. She departed for her final voyage on December 15, 1914 but progress was slow, averaging about 30 miles per day through pack ice. A month later, within 200 miles of their destination of Vahsel Bay, a gale developed with sightings of heavy pack ice. She took shelter for the next two days under a large grounded berg and made more progress on January 18 until encountering another ice pack, full of thick but soft ice floes, and was beset by the ice. By January 24, the Endurance was forced to float, waiting for the ice to open up, until crushed on October 27, 1915, and sinking a month later.

The crew attempted to call for help, but their location was too remote for the wireless. Although the ship had been capable of withstanding massive stresses caused by the heavy ice, on October 24, the starboard hull caught against a large ice floe and the hull bent and splintered until water poured in. Shackleton gave the order to abandon ship three days later. Shackleton's mission changed from a transcontinental journey to one of survival. Traveling by foot was nearly impossible, and Shackleton decided to await the break-up of the ice, attempting two marches which were abandoned because of difficulties. On April 8, 1916, the ice floe the crew had been living on split suddenly, and the crew and Shackleton readied the lifeboats for departure towards land. Moving slowly through ice packs, the lifeboats made it to Elephant Island in April. However, Elephant Island was uninhabited and rarely visited by other ships so Shackleton with five other men readied the lifeboat James Caird for the 800 mile journey to South Georgia for help. On May 10, the party reached South Georgia. On August 30, 1916, Shackelton's rescue mission reached the twenty-two members of his crew left behind; all survived after being at sea for nearly two years.

From the guide to the Letter from Ernest Shackleton to J. Cates, Esq. (MS 378), 6th August, 1914, (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Reginald Skelton collection, 1899 - 1950 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir Raymond Priestley collection, 1907-1974 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Tannatt William Edgeworth David collection, 1907-1930 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Shackleton, Ernest Henry, Sir, 1874-1922. Letter. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Norman Mooney collection, 1921 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James Mann Wordie collection, 1914-1958 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Grosvenor, Edwin A. (Edwin Augustus), 1845-1936. Grosvenor family papers, 1827-1981 (bulk 1872-1964). Library of Congress
creatorOf Oswald-Sealy, L. R. Papers [manuscript]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Eric Stewart Marshall collection, 1907-1953 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Bartholomew collection, 1904 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Gerald Doorly collection, 1901 - 1929 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James Caird collection, 1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Shackleton, Ernest Henry Sir, 1874-1922. Signature [manuscript]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn William Beardmore collection, 1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James William Dell collection, 1908-1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Rupert Gould collection, 1921-1949 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Ernest Joyce collection, 1907-1930 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Frederick Pryce Evans collection, 1907-1909 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn George Mulock collection, 1902-1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Ships, Quest collection, 1921 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Orde Lees, Thomas, 1877-1958. Diary, 1915 March 24-1916 April 16. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Arthur Balfour polar correspondence collection, 1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Fridtjof Nansen collection, 1893-1925 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn George Murray collection, 1893-1905 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James Paton collection, 1910-1916 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Perce Blackborow collection, 19-- Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Greely, A. W. (Adolphus Washington), 1844-1935. Papers, 1876-1973. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Jones, Bassett, collector. Bassett Jones records, 1818-1938. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn J Austin Hussey collection, 1922-1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Verner Carse collection, 1936-1980 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Reginald William James collection, 1914 - 1957 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Henry Ernest Wild collection, 1914-1916 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Gray, Margaret. Scrapbooks, postcards, letter and photograph collected by Margaret Gray [manuscript], 1903-1911, (bulk 1910). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Leo Cotton collection, 1908 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Grosvenor Family Papers, 1827-1981, (bulk 1872-1964) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Dame Janet Stancomb-Wills collection, 1914-1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn British National Antarctic Expedition collection, 1899-1964 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn C Howle collection, 1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Herbert Asquith collection, [1909]-1916 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Maud Dorman collection, 1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Enid Briggs collection, 1910-1927 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn George Curzon collection, 1911-1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn George Douglas collection, 1921-1946 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sidney Riches collection, 1907-1909 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Quiller Rowett collection, 1922-1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charles Dorman collection, 1893-1901 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Emily Shackleton collection, 1885-1935 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Leonard Darwin collection, 1909-1931 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James Marr collection, 1922-1940 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Lee Keedick collection, 1920 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Nicetas Petrides collection, 1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Christie, William Henry Mahoney Sir. Papers [microform]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Antarctic Newspaper, The Blizzard, 1902 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charles Jagger collection, 1931 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charlotte and George Bernard Shaw collection, 1912-1924 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Henry William Massingham collection, 1919 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Douglas George Jeffrey collection, 1921-1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Walter How collection, 1905-1943 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James Francis [Frank] Hurley collection, 1912-1917 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charles Sarolea collection, 1905 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Shackleton, Ernest Henry, Sir, 1874-1922. Autograph letter signed : Marlborough Club, to Mr. Pierpont Morgan, 1911 July 25. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Alexander Hepburne Macklin collection, 1914 - 1964 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Mather collection, 1911-1913 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Dell, James William. Papers. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Hugh Robert Mill collection, 1897-1943 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Alfred Reid collection, 1908 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Paul Hodder-Williams collection, 1957-1958 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-1909, 1907-1909 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Rudyard Kipling collection, 1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Arthur Drummond Steel collection, 1912 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Henry Dunlop collection, 1907 - 1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Scott Keltie collection, 1907-1919 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Richards, Richard W. Letter, 1983 February 25, to William Laird McKinlay. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Rupert England collection, 1907-1924 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition [Ross Sea Party] 1914-1917, 1901-1917 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Great Britain, Admiralty, Hydrographic Department collection, 1840-1974 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charles Mackellar collection, 1908-1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir William Ellison-Macartney collection, 1900-1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John King Davis collection, 1905-1951 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn The Otago Harbour Board collection, 1916 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charles Maynard collection, 1918-1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Edward Shackleton collection, 1932-1994 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Hope Guthrie collection, 1922-1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Bassett collection, 1921 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn George Marston collection, 1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Thomas Hans Orde-Lees collection, 1914-1917 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir Harry Rawson collection, 1904-1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Alister Forbes Mackay collection, 1909 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Frank Worsley collection, 1889-1958 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn G S Lysaght collection, 1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton collection, 1874-1992 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Arthur Edward Harbord collection, 1907-1986 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn David, T. W. Edgeworth (Tannatt William Edgeworth) Sir, 1858-1934. With Shackleton : press cuttings. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Neville Chamberlain, polar correspondence, 1904-1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Robert Falcon Scott collection, 1889-1966 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf British Antarctic Expedition (1907-1909). [Signatures of members of the British Antarctic Expedition 1907-1909] [mansucript]. Newberry Library
referencedIn Ships, Endurance collection, 20th century Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Shackleton, Ernest Henry, Sir, 1874-1922. Diary [microform] : on board the "Discovery". Libraries Australia
referencedIn Baron Desborough of Taplow collection, 1914 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Dr Leonard Hussey collection, 1914-1950 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Thomas Crean collection, 1905 - 1920 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Lionel Greenstreet collection, 1914-1964 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn George Wilkins collection, 1921-1935 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Philip Brocklehurst collection, 1907-1908 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Long, Robert L., Jr. Papers, 1956-1958 New Hampshire Newsp Project
referencedIn Reverend Arnold Patrick Spencer-Smith collection, 1915-1916 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn William Colbeck collection, 1902-1904 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Bryant, Henry G. (Henry Grier), 1859-1932. Correspondence books, 1897-1913. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn William Olliffe collection, 1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Alfred Hutchinson collection, 1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Harold Watts collection, 1921-1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir George Goldie collection, 1901-1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Worsley, Frank Arthur, 1872-1943. Journals [microform]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Stephen Gwynn collection, 1929 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Robert Francis Wild collection, 1873-1939 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Alfred Cheetham collection, 1907-1913 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Antarctic publication, Aurora Australis, 1908 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Michael Barne collection, 1901-1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Joseph Russell Stenhouse collection, 1914-1920 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Owen Burne collection, 1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Lachlan Cope collection, 1919-1926 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Lewis Beaumont collection, 1875-1922 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir William Huggins collection, 1901-1903 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition [Weddell Sea Party], 1914-1916 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Koettlitz, Reginald, 1861-1916. Autograph album, 1824-1900. New Hampshire Newsp Project
referencedIn Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic Expedition, 1921-1922, 1919-1923 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Letter from Ernest Shackleton to J. Cates, Esq. (MS 378), 6th August, 1914 University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
creatorOf Shackleton, Ernest Henry, Sir, 1874-1922. [Letters] [manuscript]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Sims, Irene Sickel, 1887-1980. Irene Sickel Sims diary, 1916-1967, bulk 1916-1917. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Robert Selbie Clark collection, 1911-1950 Scott Polar Research Institute
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Alexander Hepburne Macklin person
associatedWith Alfred B Cheetham person
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associatedWith Arthur Edward Harbord person
associatedWith Arthur Herbert Drummond Steel (Steel Maitland) person
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associatedWith Barne, Michael person
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associatedWith British Antarctic Expedition (1907-1909) corporateBody
associatedWith British National Antarctic Expedition 1901-1904. corporateBody
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associatedWith Charles Herbert Dorman person
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associatedWith Charlotte Francis and George Bernard Shaw person
associatedWith Christie, William Henry Mahoney Sir. person
associatedWith Colbeck, William person
associatedWith Crean, Thomas person
associatedWith Dame Janet Stancomb-Wills person
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associatedWith Edward Arthur Alexander Shackleton person
associatedWith Emily Mary Shackleton person
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associatedWith Enid Briggs as collator person
associatedWith Eric Stewart Marshall person
associatedWith Ernest Edward Mills Joyce person
associatedWith Frederick Pryce Evans person
associatedWith George Edward Marston person
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associatedWith George Hubert Wilkins person
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associatedWith George Vibert Douglas person
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associatedWith Gray, Margaret. person
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associatedWith Greely, A. W. (Adolphus Washington), 1844-1935. person
associatedWith Greenstreet, Lionel person
associatedWith Grosvenor family family
associatedWith Grove-Hills, Edmond Herbert, 1864-1922. person
associatedWith Guthrie, Hope person
associatedWith Gwynn, Stephen person
associatedWith Henry Ernest Wild person
associatedWith Henry Harry Dunlop person
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associatedWith Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-1917. corporateBody
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associatedWith James William Slesser Marr person
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associatedWith John Hugh Mather person
associatedWith John King Davis person
associatedWith John Lachlan Cope person
associatedWith John Quiller Rowett person
associatedWith John Robert Francis Frank Wild person
associatedWith John Scott Keltie person
associatedWith Jones, Bassett, collector. person
associatedWith Joseph) Rudyard Kipling person
associatedWith Joseph Russell Stenhouse and others person
associatedWith Keedick, Lee person
associatedWith Koettlitz, Reginald, 1861-1916. person
associatedWith Leo Arthur Cotton person
associatedWith Lewis Anthony Beaumont person
associatedWith Long, Robert L., Jr. person
associatedWith Maud Isabel Daisy Dorman person
associatedWith Morgan, J. Pierpont (John Pierpont), 1837-1913, person
associatedWith Nansen, Fridtjof person
associatedWith Norman Erlend Mooney person
associatedWith Orde Lees, Thomas, 1877-1958. person
associatedWith Oswald-Sealy, L. R. person
associatedWith Owen Tudor Burne person
associatedWith Paton, James person
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associatedWith Robert Falcon Scott and others person
associatedWith Robert Selbie Clark, Ernest Henry Shackleton, Robert Mossman, George Wilkins, Frank Worsley, Alexander Macklin person
associatedWith Rupert Thomas Gould and others person
associatedWith Sarolea, Charles person
associatedWith Sidney B Riches person
associatedWith Sims, Irene Sickel, 1887-1980. person
associatedWith Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton and others person
associatedWith Sir George Dashwood Taubman Goldie person
associatedWith Sir Harry Holdsworth Rawson person
associatedWith Sir Raymond Edward Priestley person
associatedWith Sir William Ellison-Macartney person
associatedWith Sir William Huggins person
associatedWith Tannatt William Edgeworth David person
associatedWith Thomas Hans Orde-Lees person
associatedWith Verner Duncan Carse person
associatedWith Walter Ernest How person
associatedWith Watts, Harold person
associatedWith William G Olliffe person
associatedWith William Henry Grenfell, Baron Desborough of Taplow person
associatedWith Worsley, Frank Arthur, 1872-1943. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Alaska
Antarctica
Great Britain
Antarctica
South Pole
Subject
Explorers--Correspondence
Endurance (Ship)
Imperial Trans--Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917)
Scientific expeditions
Occupation
Explorers
Function

Person

Birth 1874-02-15

Death 1922-01-05

Portuguese

English

Information

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