Layard, Austen Henry, 1817-1894

Alternative names
Birth 1817-03-05
Death 1894-07-05

Biographical notes:

English orientalist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [London], to Sir Moses [Montefiore], 1865 May 27. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270595926

Francis T. Buckland, an English naturalist and the son of geographer William Buckland, worked mainly as an ichthyologist but also published articles on paleontology and the history of geology.

From the guide to the Francis Trevelyan Buckland letters, 1863-1872, 1863-1872, (American Philosophical Society)


From the description of Autograph letter signed, 1867 July 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270595423

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Riva, 1864 Sept. 4. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270597205

From the description of Autograph letter signed, 1855? June 20. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270595421

From the description of Autograph letters (2) signed : to Sir J.E. Millais, 1888 May 6 and 1891 Feb. 5. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270598288

Austen Henry Layard was a Victorian gentleman, who worked successfully as a lawyer, archaeologist, politician, and ambassador. Born in France to English parents and raised in Venice, he studied law under an uncle's guidance. Travelling to Ceylon, he passed through Mesopotamia, and was captivated by the desert and ruins he encountered there. He became one of the key archaeologists of his day, exploring important sites and publishing popular works describing his findings and observations in a unique form of scholarly travelogue. His active role in British government was highlighted by his service as Ambassador to Spain.

From the description of Austen Layard letter to Dear sir, 1865 Aug. 14. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 61325331

A.H. Layard wrote and illustrated accounts of excavations in the locales of Babylon and Nineveh, and about Italian schools of painting, and served as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the English government. Moses Montefiore led a humanitarian life.

From the description of ALS, 1865 March 28, [London, Eng.?] to Sir Moses [Montefiore] / A.H. Layard. (Haverford College Library). WorldCat record id: 42058633

Archaeologist and politician.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Aldermaston, to Mr. Mitchell, 1860 Feb. 26. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779365160

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to Mr. Mitchell, 1862 May 5. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779365497

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to Mr. Mitchell, 1861 July 31. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779379390

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to Mr. Mitchell, ca. 1862 June 9. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779397938

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to Mr. Mitchell, 1864 May 11. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779380709

From the description of Autograph letter signed : London, to "Mr. Mitchell", 1865 May 14. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779385511

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873, APS 1843) was a zoologist and geologist. A student of Georges Cuvier, Agassiz was renown for his six-volume work Poissons fossils, a study of more than 1,700 ancient fish. Equally important was his Ètudes sur les glaciers (1840). In 1845 Agassiz moved to the United States on a two-year study grant from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to compare the flora and fauna of the United States and Europe. While in the United States he was invited to deliver a course of lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston. He took America and New England by storm and as a result in 1847 was appointed professor of zoology and geology at Harvard’s new Lawrence Scientific School.

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz was born in Motier, Switzerland on May 26, 1807, the son of a Protestant minister Rodolphe Agassiz and his wife Rose Mayor. Despite family pressure to enter business, Agassiz early decided to devote himself to the study of nature. At the age of twenty-one he predicted that he would become “the first naturalist of his time, a good citizen and a good son.” His determination gained Agassiz an excellent education in the natural sciences at the Universities of Heidelberg and Munich. He also made important contacts in early life that formed his outlook and provided the basis for his early career. The naturalist Johann B. Spix allowed him to publish on a collection of fish from Brazil that Spix had gathered, while the anatomist Ignaz Döllinger trained him to use the microscope and introduced him to the field of embryology. Philosophically, Agassiz was influenced by the German idealism of Lorenz Okenfuss, who built a system of biological classification based upon increasing complexity of sense organs. Agassiz’s scientific thought and practice was characterized by two separate and often contradictory outlooks. One was exact and pragmatic; the other was transcendental. His approach was clearly influenced by French zoologist and paleontologist Georges Cuvier, who passed on to Agassiz his remarkable collection of fossil fish illustrations. He also impressed the geographer Alexander Humboldt, an adviser to the king of Prussia who arranged an appointment for him at the Collège de Neuchâtel in 1832, where he taught natural history for more than ten years. During these years (1832-42) he studied fossil fish in museums and private collections throughout Europe, resulting in his six-volume Poissons fossils that described more than 1,700 primeval fish, that he analyzed according to Cuvier’s comparative method. The work, which won high praise from major Bristish naturalists Sir Charles Lyell and Richard Owen, provided the basis for Agassiz’s scientific fame and fortune. His natural philosophy was infused with the belief in an all-powerful diety, who planned and created every single living being, plant and animal, undercutting any genetic connection between ancient and modern creatures.

In addition to his work on fish, between 1837 and 1843 Agassiz did ground breaking work on glacial geology, presented in a paper presented to the Sociètè Helvétique des Sciences naturelles (July 1837) and in his book Etudes sur les glaciers in which he theorized that a massive glacier had once covered all of Europe. Although the idea had first been suggested by Swiss naturalist Jean de Charpentier, Agassiz was the first to publicize the idea and to apply it to all of Europe. A prolific writer, who wished to be personally involved with the production of his works, Agassiz developed a publishing house in Neuchâtel, that employed the latest technology in photo duplication and produced bibliographies, dictionaries and monographs by Agassiz and his assistants. In the spring of 1845 Agassiz’s fortunes abruptly shifted. His wife Cécile Braun Agassiz left her husband and Neuchâtel, his printing business closed due to accumulated debts, and he was forced to leave the Collège de Neuchâtel. Just as his luck seemed to run out, he received word of a 2-year grant secured for him by Humboldt from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia for $3,000 to do a comparative study of the flora and fauna of the United States and Europe.

Shortly after the arrival of Agassiz in the United States, John Amory Lowell, manufacturer and head of the Lowell Institute in Boston, invited him to deliver a course of public lectures. New Englanders found the Swiss naturalist, who spoke enthusiastically about primitive fish and prehistoric glaciers, intriguing. New England scientific luminaries such as Harvard botanist Asa Gray and Yale chemist Benjamin Silliman lauded Agassiz as “full of knowledge on all subjects of science.” His lectures created such a demand for speaking engagements, that within less than two years Agassiz was able to repay $20,000 in European debt. In the fall of 1847 Harvard University offered him a chair of zoology and geology at its newly established Lawrence Scientic School. In July 1848, after his wife’s death, he arranged for his children to join him in the United States. These events, together with his 1850 marriage to a bright well-connected Bostonian Elizabeth Cabot Carey, sixteen years Agassiz’s junior, permanently anchored the Swiss scientist in America. Soon afterward Agassiz’s home in Cambridge became a center of intellectual life. As a Harvard professor he badgered the University continually for funds to build a major natural history museum to instruct the public and help to train advanced students. His efforts paid off in November 1859, when the Museum of Comparative Zoology opened its doors. The Museum provided a unique resource for American students to gain unrestricted, first hand access to natural specimens. Many practicing American naturalists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were trained by Agassiz and worked in his museum. The Museum testified to Agassiz’s passion for collecting and identifying the “entire natural kingdom all at once,” a desire that quickly filled the repository to overflowing with specimens. From a philosophical perspective Agassiz planned the Museum as a demonstration of the “master plan” that the diety had executed in the creation of the natural world, displaying the “type plan” of different classes and stressing the separate creation of each species. Agassiz’s core belief in the special creation of species by God undergirded his quest to locate new species. However, some colleagues criticized him as “species mad,” arguing that his museum and his methods added little to the conceptual understanding of natural history.

Agassiz’s reputation took a major hit in a series of Boston debates on evolution, after the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859. Agassiz made a poor defense of special creation against Darwin’s defenders Asa Gray and William Barton Rogers. Furthermore, Agassiz’s understanding of special creationism as applied to human beings led him to view various races as distinct species, a rationale quickly adopted by the proponents slavery, who asserted a scientific basis to white supremecy.

Concerned about the decline of his professional reputation in the 1850s, in 1855 Agassiz announced the forthcoming publication of a projected ten-volume entitled Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. A total of 2,500 subscribers made advanced purchases at $12.00 each. The initial volume entitled Essay on Classification elaborated Agassiz’s views on classification, the philosophy of nature and the species concept. Appearing two years after Darwin’s Origin of Species, the work drew mixed reviews. Many were put off by the author’s dogmatism, others thought his views dated and moribund. Three more volumes appeared, but the publication of the projected set was never completed.

Many years later in 1872 Agassiz did reconsider evolution, trying to understand Darwin’s views by making a trip around South America, retracing Darwin’s voyage. However, he only became more convinced that the concept of evolution was “a scientific mistake, untrue to the facts, unscientific in its method, and mischievous in its tendency.” To the dismay of the scientific community Agassiz authored strident attacks on Darwinism in the popular press, infuriating Asa Gray and James Dana. Consequently, Agassiz was increasingly excluded from the politics of American science.

Agassiz remained at Harvard University until the end of his life. When he died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was deeply mourned by his adopted country.

From the guide to the Louis Jean Rodolph Agassiz papers, 1833-1873, 1833-1873 1833-1873, (American Philosophical Society)


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  • Salmon industry
  • Archaeologists--19th century--Correspondence
  • Salmon fisheries
  • Zoological specimens
  • Zoology
  • Birds--Research--England
  • Natural history museums--Massachusetts
  • Natural history--Study and teaching
  • Religion
  • Evolution
  • Mosaics
  • Fossils--Collection and preservation
  • Zoological museums--Massachusetts
  • Scientific expeditions
  • Geology--Research--United States
  • Mineralogy--Research--United States
  • Naturalists
  • Science and technology
  • Natural history


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  • Iran (as recorded)