Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832

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Charles Carroll (September 19, 1737 – November 14, 1832), known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III, was an Irish-American politician, planter, slaveholder, and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was the last surviving person to sign the Declaration of Independence, dying 56 years after signing the document, in addition to being the only Catholic signatory.

Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Carroll was known contemporaneously as the "First Citizen" of the American Colonies, a consequence of signing articles in the Maryland Gazette with that pen name. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and Confederation Congress. Carroll later served as one of the first United States Senators for Maryland. Of all of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, Carroll was reputed to have attained the highest formal education and wealthiest of the group. A product of his 17-year Jesuit education in France, Carroll spoke five languages fluently.

Born in Annapolis, Maryland, Carroll inherited vast agricultural estates and was regarded as the wealthiest man in the American colonies when the American Revolution commenced in 1775. His personal fortune at this time was reputed to be 2,100,000 pounds sterling; the equivalent to £273,902,687 in 2020 (US$375 million). In addition, Carroll presided over Doughoregan Manor in Maryland, a 10,000 acre estate that included approximately 300 enslaved people. Though barred from holding office in Maryland because of his religion, Carroll emerged as a leader of the state's movement for independence. He was a delegate to the Annapolis Convention and was selected as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776. He was part of an unsuccessful diplomatic mission, which also included Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase, that Congress sent to Quebec in hopes of winning the support of French Canadians.

Carroll served in the Maryland Senate from 1781 to 1800. He was elected as one of Maryland's inaugural representatives in the United States Senate but resigned from the United States Senate in 1792 after Maryland passed a law barring individuals from simultaneously serving in state and federal office. After retiring from public office, he helped establish the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

Carroll was the last surviving member of those who signed the Declaration of Independence. He died in 1832 in Baltimore, Maryland and was buried in his Doughoregan Manor Chapel at Ellicott City, Maryland.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Powell, John, 1882-1963. Papers of John Powell [manuscript] 1895-1940. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Miller, Joseph. The history and construction of the Doughregan Manor [electronic resource] . University of Maryland (College Park, Md.). Libraries
referencedIn Signers collection, 1770-1826. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
creatorOf Beckwith, T. Stanley, fl. 1847,. Miscellaneous Virginia letters [manuscript] : including 6 letters of the Slater family, 3 Civil War and Reconstruction letters, a letter of William Branch Giles, and a letter pertaining to electromedical machinery, 1827-1867. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Autograph letter signed : to Ralph Izard, 1800 Nov. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Stone family papers, 1730-1863 (bulk 1770-1800). Library of Congress
creatorOf Aylett, Elizabeth Henry, 1769-1842,. Miscellaneous autograph collection [manuscript], 1790-1877. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Bamberger, Louis, 1855-1944,. Autograph collection, 1683-1929. New Jersey Historical Society Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Autograph letter signed : Doughoragen, 1792 Aug. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Dennis, James Teackle, 1865-1918. Papers, 1651-1917. Maryland Historical Society
referencedIn Blair Family Papers, 1755-1968, (bulk 1829-1892) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Marian S. Carson collection of manuscripts, 1656-1995, (bulk 1700-1876) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Morse family papers, 1806-1965. Library of Congress
referencedIn Freund, Paul A. Paul A. Freund papers. 1918-1993. Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
referencedIn Henry Oscar Houghton papers, 1773-1932 (bulk 1833-1895) Houghton Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Letter : Baltimore, Md., 1821 Dec. 8. Boston Athenaeum
referencedIn Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882. Letters to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1761-1904 (bulk 1820-1888) Houghton Library
creatorOf Allibone, S. Austin (Samuel Austin), 1816-1889. Correspondence of Baltimore, Maryland merchants 1771-1885. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Signed check for $955.50 payable to John White : Baltimore, 1829 Dec. 12. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. The Declaration of American Independence adopted by Congress July 4th 1776 : with the certificate of approbation of Charles Carroll of Carrol[l]ton, the last surviving signer of the original document : manuscript, 1826. New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Meredith, Jonathan D., 1783-1872. Papers of Jonathan D. Meredith, 1795-1859 (bulk 1810-1859). Library of Congress
referencedIn Blair, Francis Preston, 1791-1876. Blair family papers, 1755-1968 (bulk 1829-1892). Library of Congress
creatorOf Charles Carroll letter, 1779 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Carson, Marian S.,. Marian S. Carson collection of manuscripts (continuation record), 1656-1995 (bulk 1700-1876) Library of Congress
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Charles Carroll papers, 1749-1832 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part I: The Revolution and the Administration, 1669-1958. Houghton Library
creatorOf Priggs, John F. A. [Cadastral survey map of Charles Carroll Jr.'s land in central Washington D.C. in 1793] / laid down by a scale of eighty equal parts in an inch by John F.A. Priggs surv'r 1793. Library of Congress
referencedIn Hartridge, Walter Charlton, 1914-1974. Walter Charlton Hartridge, Jr. collection. Series VII : genealogies ; Carroll family, 1700s-1900s / Walter Charlton Hartridge. Georgia Historical Society
referencedIn Jonathan D. Meredith Papers, 1795-1859, (bulk 1810-1859) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Chase family. Chase family papers, ca. 1738-1899 (bulk ca. 1738-1855). Archives of the Episcopal Diocese of Maryland
creatorOf Gwathmey collection, 1708-1852 University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Draft on the Farmer's Bank of Maryland : manuscript, 1814 July 26. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. ALS, 1795 May 25, Doughoragen, to William Cooke. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn Thomas Addis Emmet collection, 1483-1876 (bulk:1700-1800) New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Robinson, Elmer E., 1894-1982,. Americana, 1765-1969. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Rosenbach, A. S. W. (Abraham Simon Wolf), 1876-1952,. Signers of the Declaration of Independence autograph collection, 1756-1818. Rosenbach Museum & Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Order to pay, 1764, October 14, Maryland. Brown University Archives, John Hay Library
referencedIn Johnson, Joshua, 1742-1802. Papers of Joshua Johnson, 1785-1788. Library of Congress
creatorOf Hammond, Kensey Johns, Rev., 1858-1937. Papers of the Hammond family [manuscript] 1751-1937. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Harvard University Archives Photograph Collection: Portraits, ca. 1852-ca. 2004 Harvard University Archives.
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Draft on the Farmer's Bank of Maryland : manuscript, 1814 July 26. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. ALS, 1791 Aug. 11, Doughoragen Manor, Howard Co., Md., to George Washington. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn Carter family. Papers, 1777-1885. Virginia Historical Society Library
referencedIn James McHenry Papers, 1775-1862, (bulk 1775-1816) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Mercer, John Francis, 1759-1821. Letter, 1792 October 28, Annapolis, [Maryland] to Thomas Jefferson, n.p. William & Mary Libraries
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Letter to Virgil Maxey, 1824 July 15. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Portrait file: Guide. Houghton Library
referencedIn McHenry, James, 1753-1816. James McHenry papers, 1775-1862 (bulk 1775-1816). Library of Congress
referencedIn Autograph File, H, 1584-1988. Houghton Library
referencedIn Carroll, Daniel, 1764-1849. Daniel Carroll papers, 1662-1920 (bulk 1791-1868). Library of Congress
referencedIn McHenry, James, 1753-1816. Papers, 1744-1815 (inclusive). Rutgers University
referencedIn George Washington papers, 1592-1943 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922,. Collection, 1779-1892. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. ALS, 1787 Jan. 22, Annapolis, Md., to John Fitzgerald, Alexandria, Va. Rosenbach Museum & Library
referencedIn Paul Ramsey Papers, 1934-1984 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. [Check] 1829 February 11, Baltimore to E.C. Wysham / Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Carson, Marian S.,. Marian S. Carson collection of manuscripts, 1656-1995 (bulk 1700-1876) Library of Congress
referencedIn George Washington papers, 1592-1943 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Thomas, William H. B. (William Henry Baldwin), 1918-,. Miscellaneous correspondence of noted Virginians [manuscript] 1820-33. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. ALS, 1804 May 21, Annapolis, to Daniel Carroll, Washington. George Washington University
referencedIn Adams, John Quincy, 1767-1848. John Quincy Adams collection, 1827 Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Washington, George, 1732-1799. George Washington papers, 1592-1937 (bulk 1748-1799). Library of Congress
referencedIn Etting family collection, undated, 1755-1769, 1787-1830, 1836, 1913 American Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn War of 1812 mss., 1776-1879 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Catholic Church. Diocese of Québec. Correspondence, 1767-1838. University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
referencedIn Benjamin Franklin Papers Part 5 -- Letters to Franklin, 1779 December-1780 December American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Henry A. Willard II Collection, 1743-1888, (bulk 1770-1840) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Buchanan, James, 1791-1868. Autograph collection containing letters or signatures of James Buchanan, Charles Carroll, Henry Lee, George Washington Parke Custis, William Pitt, John Tyler, and William Wirt: [manuscript], 1757-1859. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Fuller, B. A. G., 1879-1956. Autograph collection, 1620-1920 Houghton Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Autograph letter signed : to Richard Caton, 1820 Oct. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Letter to Horatio Gates and portrait, 1776 June 14. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Willard, Henry A. (Henry Augustus), 1902-. Henry A. Willard II collection, 1743-1888 (bulk 1770-1840). Library of Congress
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Accounts, 1829-1834. Winterthur Library
referencedIn Letters and documents of signers of the Declaration of Independence, 1750-1933. Houghton Library
referencedIn Daniel Carroll Papers, 1662-1920, (bulk 1791-1868) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Autograph signature to receipt, 1830 Dec. 2. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Baltimore (Md.). Collection, 1717-1960 (bulk 1800-1899). University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
referencedIn Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866. Jared Sparks collection of American manuscripts, 1582-1843 Houghton Library
referencedIn Autograph File, C, 1554-2002. Houghton Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Check : [Baltimore, Md.], payable to Mrs. H. Carroll, n.p., 1830 Dec. 22. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Miller, Joseph. The history and construction of the Doughregan Manor. University of Maryland (College Park, Md.). Libraries
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1702-1782. Carroll family papers, 1684-1838. Library of Congress
creatorOf Taylor family. Papers : of John Cowdery Taylor and Harry Baylor Taylor, 1761-1913 (bulk 1868-1913). University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832. Port William Historical Society vertical files, 1816-1979. Kentucky Department of Libraries and Archives, Kentucky Guide Project Office
referencedIn Carroll Family Papers, 1684-1838 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Carroll collection, 1776-1867. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, John Quincy, 1767-1848. person
associatedWith Albert H. Small Declaration of Independence Collection (University of Virginia) corporateBody
associatedWith Bamberger, Louis, 1855-1944, person
correspondedWith Blair family family
associatedWith Bragg, Isaac E. person
associatedWith Burgoyne, John, 1722-1792. person
childOf Carroll, Charles, 1702-1782. person
correspondedWith Carroll, Daniel, 1730-1796 person
associatedWith Carroll, Daniel, 1756-1829. person
correspondedWith Carroll, Daniel, 1764-1849. person
memberOf Carroll family. family
associatedWith Carson, Marian S., person
associatedWith Carter family. family
associatedWith Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Baltimore (Md.) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Diocese of Québec. corporateBody
associatedWith Caton, Richard, person
correspondedWith Chase family. family
associatedWith Christie, Robert and James. person
associatedWith Cooke, William. person
associatedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876 person
correspondedWith Dennis, James Teackle, 1865-1918. person
associatedWith Durand, A. B. (Asher Brown), 1796-1886. person
associatedWith Emmet, Thomas Addis person
associatedWith Etting family (of Baltimore, Frankfort A/M, Philadelphia and York, Pa.) family
associatedWith Fitzgerald, John. person
associatedWith Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 person
associatedWith Fuller, B. A. G. (Benjamin Apthorp Gould), 1879-1956 person
associatedWith Gates, Horatio, 1728-1806, person
associatedWith Hanley, Thomas O'Brien, person
associatedWith Hartridge, Walter Charlton, 1914-1974. person
associatedWith Herring, James, 1794-1867. person
correspondedWith Houghton, Henry Oscar, 1823-1895 person
associatedWith Hubbard, John, collector. person
associatedWith Izard, Ralph, person
associatedWith Johnson, Joshua, 1742-1802. person
correspondedWith Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882 person
associatedWith Manning, Robert. person
associatedWith Maxey, Virgil, person
correspondedWith McHenry, James, 1753-1816. person
associatedWith Mercer, John Francis, 1759-1821. person
associatedWith Meredith, Jonathan D., 1783-1872. person
associatedWith Mifflin, Thomas, 1744-1800. person
associatedWith Miller, Joseph. person
associatedWith Moylan, Stephen, 1737-1811. person
associatedWith New York (N.Y.). Common Council. corporateBody
associatedWith Old South Association. corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf Paris. Lycée Louis-le-Grand corporateBody
associatedWith Paul A. Freund person
associatedWith Powell, John, 1882-1963. person
associatedWith Priggs, John F. A. person
correspondedWith Ramsey, Paul person
associatedWith Robinson, Elmer E., 1894-1982, person
associatedWith Rosenbach, A. S. W. (Abraham Simon Wolf), 1876-1952, person
associatedWith Schuyler, Philip John, 1733-1804. person
associatedWith Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 person
associatedWith Stewart, John. person
associatedWith Taylor family. family
associatedWith United States. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Constitutional Convention (1787) corporateBody
associatedWith Wanamaker, John, 1838-1922, person
correspondedWith Washington, George, 1732-1799. person
associatedWith Willard, Henry A. (Henry Augustus), 1902- person
associatedWith Wysham, E. C. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Frederick County MD US
Annapolis MD US
Baltimore MD US
Cecil County MD US
London ENG GB
Paris A8 FR
Howard County MD US
Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais, France 32 FR
Subject
Harness making and trade--Prices
Paper money
Carriages and carts--Maintenance and repair
Canadian invasion, 1775-1776
Food prices
Negotiable instruments
United States. Declaration of Independence--Signers
Clothing and dress--Prices
Draft
Bridges
Saddlery--Prices
Business record--19th century
Legislators--United States
Expense accounts
Occupation
Senators, U.S. Congress--Maryland
Planter
State Senator
Delegates, U.S. Continental Congress--Maryland
Public officers
Activity

Person

Birth 1737-09-20

Death 1832-11-15

Male

Britons,

Americans

English,

French

Information

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