Hendricks, Thomas A. (Thomas Andrews), 1819-1885

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Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885) was an American politician and lawyer from Indiana who served as the 16th governor of Indiana from 1873 to 1877 and the 21st vice president of the United States from March to November 1885. Hendricks represented Indiana in the U.S. House of Representatives (1851–55) and the U.S. Senate (1863–69). He also represented Shelby County, Indiana, in the Indiana General Assembly (1848–50) and as a delegate to the 1851 Indiana constitutional convention. In addition, Hendricks served as commissioner of the General Land Office (1855–59). Hendricks, a popular member of the Democratic Party, was a fiscal conservative. He defended the Democratic position in the U.S. Senate during the American Civil War and Reconstruction era and voted against the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. He also opposed Radical Reconstruction and President Andrew Johnson's removal from office following Johnson's impeachment in the U.S. House.

Born in Muskingum County, Ohio, Hendricks moved to Indiana, with his parents in 1820; the family settled in Shelby County in 1822. After graduating from Hanover College, class of 1841, Hendricks studied law in Shelbyville, Indiana, and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. He was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1843. Hendricks began his law practice in Shelbyville, moved to Indianapolis in 1860, and established a private law practice with Oscar B. Hord in 1862. The firm evolved into Baker & Daniels, one of the state's leading law firms. Hendricks also ran for election as Indiana's governor three times, but won only once. In 1872, on his third and final attempt, Hendricks defeated General Thomas M. Brown by a margin of 1,148 votes. His term as governor of Indiana was marked by numerous challenges, including a strong Republican majority in the Indiana General Assembly, the economic Panic of 1873, and an economic depression. One of Hendricks's lasting legacies during his tenure as governor was initiating discussions to fund construction of the present-day Indiana Statehouse, which was completed after he left office. A memorial to Hendricks was installed on the southeast corner of its grounds in 1890.

Hendricks, a lifelong Democrat, was his party's candidate for U.S. vice president with New York governor Samuel Tilden as its presidential nominee in the controversial presidential election of 1876. Although they won the popular vote, Tilden and Hendricks lost the election by one vote in the Electoral College to the Republican Party's presidential nominee, Rutherford B. Hayes, and his vice presidential running mate, William A. Wheeler. Despite his poor health, Hendricks accepted his party's nomination for vice president in the election of 1884 as Grover Cleveland's running mate. Cleveland and Hendricks won the election, but Hendricks only served as vice president for about eight months, from March 4, 1885, until his death on November 25, 1885, in Indianapolis. He is buried in Indianapolis's Crown Hill Cemetery.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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referencedIn Porter, Albert G. (Albert Gallatin), 1824-1897. Series II : Family papers, 1814-1902. Indiana Historical Society Library
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creatorOf Jameson, Patrick H., fl. 1873. Appointment, 1873 January 22. Indiana Historical Society Library
creatorOf Campbell, Lewis D. (Lewis Davis), 1811-1882. Papers 1850-1877. Ohio History Connection, Ohio Historical Society
referencedIn Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874. Correspondence, 1829-1874 Houghton Library
creatorOf Hendricks, Thomas A. (Thomas Andrews), 1819-1885. Letter : Indianapolis, Ind., to [George W.] Paschal, n.p., 1867 Nov. 8. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Hay, Southard, 1875-1951,. Southard Hay autograph collection, 1750-1885 (inclusive). Yale University Library
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creatorOf Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866. Papers, 1774-1924 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866. Papers, 1774-1924 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Hendricks, Eliza Morgan. Mrs. Thomas A. Hendricks letter to the Oregonian [manuscript], 1888 February 17. Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Campbell, James Butler, 1808-1883. James Butler Campbell papers, 1826-1901. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Trueblood, Thomas H. Thomas H. Trueblood letters, 1885-1888. Indiana State Library - ISL
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referencedIn Brown, Austin H., 1828-1903. Austin H. Brown papers, 1830-1901. Indiana State Library - ISL
creatorOf Hendricks, Thomas A. (Thomas Andrews), 1819-1885. Autograph of Thomas A. Hendricks, 1877. Library of Congress
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creatorOf Hendricks, Thomas A. Thomas Hendricks letter : 1859. Kentucky Historical Society, Martin F. Schmidt Research Library
referencedIn James R. Doolittle Papers, 1859-1927, (bulk 1859-1896) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Baker, Hord, and Hendricks. Papers, 1862-1916. Indiana University
referencedIn Borden Family. Borden Family Papers, 1715-1902. Indiana State Library - ISL
referencedIn Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1762 - 1984. Letters Received, 1805 - 1889 National Archives Library, National Archives Records Administration
creatorOf Hendricks, Thomas A. (Thomas Andrews), 1819-1885. Papers, 1855-1885. Indiana Historical Society Library
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creatorOf Lewis, Meriwether, 1774-1809. Lewis-Marks, papers [manuscript] 1791-1858. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Asher, Louis Eller, 1877-1948. Lewis Eller Asher autograph collection, 1757-1925. Library of Congress
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referencedIn Baker, Conrad, 1817-1885. Papers, 1858-1902. Indiana Historical Society Library
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Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Asher, Louis Eller, 1877-1948. person
associatedWith Baker, Conrad, 1817-1885. person
associatedWith Baker, Hord, and Hendricks. corporateBody
associatedWith Baker, W. H., compiler. person
associatedWith Borden Family. person
associatedWith Boulder Daily Camera. corporateBody
associatedWith Bowers family. family
associatedWith Brown, Austin H., 1828-1903. person
associatedWith Campbell, James Butler, 1808-1883. person
associatedWith Campbell, Lewis D. (Lewis Davis), 1811-1882. person
associatedWith Capen, Nahum, 1804-1886. person
correspondedWith Case, Charles person
associatedWith Cleveland, Grover, 1837-1908. person
associatedWith Crittenden, John, fl. 1781-1783. person
associatedWith Crittenden, John J. (John Jordan), 1787-1863. person
associatedWith Davis, John Givan, 1810-1866. person
associatedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876 person
correspondedWith Denver, James William, 1817-1892. person
correspondedWith Doolittle, James R. (James Rood), 1815-1897. person
associatedWith Fendal, Philip R. person
associatedWith Hay, Southard, 1875-1951, person
spouseOf Hendricks, Eliza Morgan. person
correspondedWith Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878 person
associatedWith Indiana State University corporateBody
associatedWith Jameson, Patrick H., fl. 1873. person
associatedWith Lewis, Meriwether, 1774-1809. person
associatedWith McCormick, Cyrus Hall, 1809-1884. person
associatedWith Paschal, George W. (George Washington), 1812-1878 person
associatedWith Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869. person
associatedWith Porter, Albert G. (Albert Gallatin), 1824-1897. person
correspondedWith Richardson, William A. person
correspondedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874 person
associatedWith Tarkington, John S. person
associatedWith Taylor, Edmund H. person
associatedWith Thompson, James L. (James Livingstone), 1832-1913. person
associatedWith Trueblood, Thomas H. person
memberOf United States. Congress. House of Representatives corporateBody
memberOf United States. Congress. Senate corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Electoral Commission (1877) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. General Land Office. corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf University of Virginia corporateBody
associatedWith Ward, Jesse Durbin, 1819-1886. person
associatedWith Welles, Gideon, 1802-1878. person
associatedWith William L. Clements Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Xantus, Janos person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Shelbyville IN US
Indianapolis IN US
Muskingum County OH US
District of Columbia DC US
Madison IN US
Chambersburg PA US
Subject
African Americans--Civil rights
Contested elections
African Americans
Land titles--Registration and transfer
Public lands
Presidents--Election--1884
Presidents--Election--1876
Land grants
Civil rights
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Gatling guns
Occupation
Governors--Indiana
Senators, U.S. Congress--Indiana
Vice Presidents--United States
Lawyers
Representatives, U.S. Congress--Indiana
Activity

Person

Birth 1819-09-07

Death 1885-11-25

Male

Americans

English

Information

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