Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962

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Vilhjalmur Stefansson was born on November 3, 1879 in Arnes, Manitoba, Canada. He attended the University of North Dakota from 1897-1902. He was voted the best orator in 1900, and also worked for the school newspaper. In 1930 he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree, only the third such degree awarded. He then transferred to the University of Iowa and graduated in 1903 with a degree from the School of Liberal Arts. He next enrolled at Harvard, graduating with a Master of Arts degree in 1906. Stefansson lived among the Eskimos from 1906-1907, along with Canadian zoologist Rudolph Anderson, Stefansson launched a major research expedition to the Canadian Northwest from 1908 to 1912. The team carried out ethnological and zoological studies among the Mackenzie and Copper Eskimo of the Coronation Gulf. He retired from active exploration in 1919, and focused on studying, writing and lecturing about the Arctic. He wrote more than 20 books and over 400 articles during his life. He assembled the Stefansson Collection, printed materials, manuscripts and photographs related to both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. During World War II, Stefansson studied the defense of Alaska, and wrote reports and manuals for the armed forces. In 1947, he began a position as Arctic consultant at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire. In 1951, the collection was transferred to Dartmouth. Vilhjalmur Stefansson died from complications of a stroke on August 26, 1962 in Hanover.

From the description of Papers, 1919-1989. (University of North Dakota). WorldCat record id: 48872408

Author and Arctic explorer.

From the description of Correspondence 1936. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 50306539

Canadian explorer of the arctic.

From the description of Letter, 1934. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122605212

Arctic explorer.

From the description of Book inscription from Vilhjalmur Stafansson to his former commander, Ernest de Koven Leffingwell, 1922 April 12. (Alaska State Library). WorldCat record id: 42068999

Vilhjalmur Stefansson was born November 3, 1879, in the Icelandic community of Arnes, in Manitoba, Canada. His family moved to North Dakota when he was one year old. After being expelled from the University of North Dakota for challenging the authority of his professors, Stefansson enrolled at the University of Iowa, and earned his Bachelor of Philosophy degree in June 1903. From 1903 to 1904, Stefansson studied at the Harvard Divinity School. During 1906, he joined the Anglo-American polar expedition, and lived with Inuit people, adapting their lifestyle. Stefansson joined UI colleague Rudolph Anderson in an Arctic mission from 1908 to 1912. During this mission, Stefansson took an Inuit wife, Fannie Pannigabluk, and their son, Alex, was born in 1910. Anthropologist and explorer Stefansson is noted for discovering the "Blond Eskimo" in 1910. Stefansson received an honorary doctorate at the University of Iowa, June 6, 1922, and an honorary law degree at the University of North Dakota in 1930. In the early 1950s, Stefansson and his second wife, Evelyn, were investigated for their Communist sentiments, and for their associations with radicals Emma Goldman and John Reed in New York, where Stefansson lived. Vilhjalmur Stefansson died August 26, 1962, in Hanover, New Hampshire. ]

From the description of Papers of Vilhjalmur Stefansson, 1903-1986. (University of Iowa Libraries). WorldCat record id: 236167966

Vilhjalmur Stefansson (b. November 3, 1879, Gimli, Manitoba, Canada-d. August 1962), Canadian Arctic explorer.

From the description of Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). naId: 17404933

Vilhjamur Stefansson was a Canadian-born explorer and ethnologist who studied the language and culture of the Inuit and Eskimo. He led several expeditions of exploration and of ethnological and archaeological investigation in the Arctic. In 1921, he went for a second time with a small party of Inuit settlers in a speculative attempt to claim Wrangel Island for Canada. In 1926, the Soviet Union ejected the survivors of Stefansson's Inuit squatters and established the settlement that survives to this day on the island. Stefansson died in 1962.

From the description of Vilhjamur Stefansson Papers. 1922-1962. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 225565109

Vilhjalmur Stefansson was born on 3 November 1879 in Manitoba, Canada, to Icelandic parents, who moved the family to North Dakota in 1881. He was educated at the State Universities of North Dakota and Iowa before proceeding to Harvard University in 1903 to study theology, later changing his study to anthropology the following year. He became a teaching fellow after two summers of field-work in Iceland between 1904 and 1905, and his knowledge of Icelandic literature led him to publish a paper on Norse colonization of Greenland. In 1906, Stefansson was invited to conduct a study of the Eskimo of the lower Mackenzie River on the U.S. Anthropological Expedition, 1906-1907, giving him his introduction to the people whose customs and way of life were to become a major study. His narrative of the expedition was published in Hunters of the Great North .

Stefansson returned north with Rudolph Martin Anderson on the U.S. Canadian Scientific Expedition (Stefansson-Anderson Arctic expedition), 1908-1912, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and the Geological Survey of Canada to study the Eskimos and natural history of Coronation Gulf, Victoria Island, and Banks Island. During these travels, he made a detailed study of the Copper Eskimo, later publishing My life with the Eskimo in 1913. On his return, he began to plan a more ambitious and extended expedition to the Arctic archipelago. Obtaining the backing of the Canadian government, Stefansson led the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918, organized to carry out a wide variety of geographical exploration and scientific work in the western Canadian Arctic. The expedition was divided into two parties, the Northern Division, under his command, and the Southern Division, led by Rudolph Martin Anderson. The expedition ship of the Northern Division, Karluk, under Captain Robert Bartlett, was originally assigned the role of establishing a base for Stefansson and the scientists on the northwestern fringe of the Canadian Arctic archipelago. However, after transporting Stefansson to Alaska, Karluk became beset in the ice and sank on 11 January 1914, the survivors later rescued in September 1914. Stefansson subsequently had to conduct the work of the Northern Division without either the ship or his scientific staff. He supported himself and his companions on long and difficult sledge journeys by hunting and fishing, dispelling the myth of a lifeless polar sea and proving that living off the land was possible in the Arctic. His account of the expedition The Friendly Arctic was published in 1921.

After this expedition, Stefansson returned to New York to concentrate on a career of lecturing, writing and consulting. Between 1919 and 1920, he promoted a scheme to introduce reindeer on a commercial scale to Baffin Island, although this venture proved unsuccessful. He gave up exploration after the Ostrov Vrangelya [Wrangell Island] expedition of 1921-1923, which he had organized and supported, resulted in the deaths of four expedition members. Continuing to take a strong interest in the development of the polar regions, he was an early proponent of a road to Alaska, an idea that ultimately led to the Alaska Highway. His personal research library grew to become one of the largest collections of polar literature in the world and became a special collection in the Dartmouth College Library at Hanover, New Hampshire in 1951. His wife, Evelyn, became the first librarian of the collection and Stefansson was appointed consultant to the College's polar studies programme. He died on 26 August 1962 in Hanover, New Hampshire, shortly after completing the manuscript of his autobiography Discovery .

From the guide to the Vilhjalmur Stefansson collection, 1903-1928, (Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge)

Archival Resources
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creatorOf Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962. Book inscription from Vilhjalmur Stafansson to his former commander, Ernest de Koven Leffingwell, 1922 April 12. Alaska State Library
referencedIn Dartmouth College. Library. Stefansson centenary, 1979. New Hampshire Newsp Project
creatorOf Finley, John H. (John Huston), 1863-1940. John H. Finley papers, 1892-1940, bulk (1913-1935). New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Robert Cushman Murphy journals, 1907-1971, 1907-1971 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn La Piana, George, 1879-1971. Papers, 1878-1972 (inclusive). Harvard University, Divinity School Library
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, Ben. person
associatedWith Adams, Charles C. person
associatedWith Adams, Charles C., (Charles Christopher), 1873-1955 person
associatedWith Alaska (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Alaska (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith American Museum of Natural History. Dept. of Anthropology. corporateBody
associatedWith American Polar Society corporateBody
associatedWith Andersen, Karsten. person
associatedWith Anderson, Rudolph M. person
associatedWith Anderson, Rudolph Martin, b. 1876. person
associatedWith Anderson, Rudolph, Mrs. person
associatedWith Andrews, Roy Chapman, 1884-1960. person
associatedWith Anglo-American Polar Expedition (1906-1908) corporateBody
associatedWith Anglo-American Polar Expedition, 1906-1908. corporateBody
associatedWith Aurora (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914) corporateBody
associatedWith Barnes, Joseph, 1907-1970. person
associatedWith Beals, Walter B. person
associatedWith Bear (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Belvedere (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Bernacchi, Louis Charles, 1876-1942. person
associatedWith Blackjack, Ada. person
associatedWith Brainerd, Betty, 1888-1984. person
associatedWith Brett, George P, Jr. person
associatedWith Briffault, Herma Hoyt. person
associatedWith Briffault, Herma Hoyt, 1898- person
associatedWith Brower, Charles D., 1863-1945. person
associatedWith Bruce William Speirs 1867-1921 person
associatedWith Buckner, Simon Bolivar, 1886-1945. person
associatedWith Burnham, John (John B.), founder of the American Game Protective and Propagation Association. person
associatedWith Cabot, Peter. person
associatedWith Cadzow, Dan. person
associatedWith Canadian Arctic Expedition (1913-1918) corporateBody
associatedWith Canadian Arctic Expedition Canada Arctic Archipelago 1913-1918 corporateBody
associatedWith Canby, Henry Seidel, 1878-1961. person
correspondedWith Carhart, Arthur Hawthorne, b. 1892 person
associatedWith Chipman, Kenneth G. person
associatedWith Clapp, Mary Brennan. person
associatedWith Comer, George. person
associatedWith Conklin, Edwin Grant, 1863-1952 person
associatedWith Cooley, Mary Elizabeth. person
associatedWith Cooley, Mary Elizabeth, 1904-1978. person
associatedWith Corell, P. E. person
associatedWith Corwin (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Cowell, Henry, 1897-1965. person
associatedWith Craig, Wallace person
associatedWith Crawford, Allan R. person
associatedWith Crawford, James R., Ship's engineer. person
associatedWith Dartmouth College. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Dartmouth College. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Dartmouth College. Northern and Polar Studies Program. corporateBody
associatedWith Dartmouth College. Northern Studies Program. corporateBody
associatedWith Dartmouth College. Office of the President. corporateBody
associatedWith Davenport, Charles Benedict, 1866-1944. person
associatedWith Dewey, John, 1859-1952 person
associatedWith Dibner, Bern, person
associatedWith Diubaldo, Richard J. person
correspondedWith Earnest A. Hooton person
associatedWith Eastern Snow Conference (1956 : Dartmouth College) corporateBody
associatedWith Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited. corporateBody
associatedWith Elrod, Morton J., (Morton John), 1863-1953 person
associatedWith Espy, Watt. person
associatedWith Explorers Club corporateBody
associatedWith Farrelly, Theodore Slevin, 1883-1955. person
associatedWith Fay, Samuel Prescott. person
associatedWith Finley, John H. (John Huston), 1863-1940. person
associatedWith Finnie, Richard, 1906- person
associatedWith Flaccus, Kimball, 1911-1972. person
associatedWith Flathead Lake Biological Station. corporateBody
associatedWith Fletcher, Inglis, 1879-1969. person
associatedWith Foerster, Norman, 1887-1972. person
associatedWith Freuchen, Peter, 1886-1957. person
associatedWith Furlong, Charles Wellington, 1874-1967. person
associatedWith Furness, Caroline Ellen, 1869-1936. person
associatedWith Galbraith, Sigrid Halldorson Brynjolfson. person
associatedWith Gale, Zona, 1874-1938. person
associatedWith Galle, Milton. person
correspondedWith Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966 person
associatedWith Gardner, Gérard. person
associatedWith Geist, Otto William. person
associatedWith Greist, Henry W. person
correspondedWith Haller, Constance Reed, 1896-1987. person
associatedWith Hamel, Charles D. person
associatedWith Hamel, Charles Dennis, 1881-1970. person
correspondedWith Harding, T. Swann (Thomas Swann), 1890- person
associatedWith Harold, Freda Sophia. person
associatedWith Harper, Roland M., (Roland McMillan), 1878-1966 person
associatedWith Harrison, Harry P., 1878- , person
associatedWith Hartshorn, Florence M., 1869-1943. person
alumnusOrAlumnaOf Harvard university corporateBody
associatedWith Haynes, Muriel. person
associatedWith History of science society corporateBody
associatedWith Hobbs, William Herbert, 1864-1952. person
associatedWith Holden, Raymond P. (Raymond Peckham), 1894-1972. person
associatedWith Houghton Library. person
associatedWith Hudson Bay Reindeer Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Hudson's Bay Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Hunt, William R. person
associatedWith Hurley, Frank, 1885-1962. person
associatedWith Hurst, Fannie person
associatedWith Hutchinson, Isobel, 1889- person
associatedWith Iverson, Ruth. person
associatedWith Jeckell, George A. person
associatedWith Jenness, Diamond, 1886-1969. person
associatedWith Johansen, Fritz. person
associatedWith Jones, Bassett, collector. person
associatedWith Karanikas, Alexander. person
associatedWith Karluk (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Keen, E. V. W. person
associatedWith Kelly, Fred C. (Fred Charters), 1882-1959 person
associatedWith Keltie, John Scott, Sir, 1840-1927. person
associatedWith Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971. person
associatedWith Kilian, Martin, 1897-1977. person
associatedWith Klinkenberg, Charles. person
associatedWith Klinkenberg, Edna. person
associatedWith Knight, Errol Lorne, 1843-1923. person
associatedWith Knight, Errol Lorne, 1893-1923. person
associatedWith Krasin (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903- person
associatedWith La Piana, George, 1879-1971 person
associatedWith La Piana, George, 1879-1971. person
associatedWith Lappo, S. D. person
correspondedWith Lattimore, Owen, 1900-1989. person
associatedWith LeBourdais, D. M. (Donat Marc), 1887-1964. person
associatedWith LeBourdais, Donat person
associatedWith Leffingwell, Ernest de K. (Ernest de Koven), 1875-1971. person
associatedWith Lindeman, Eduard person
associatedWith Lomen Bros. corporateBody
associatedWith Lomen, Carl J, 1880?-1965. person
associatedWith Lomen family family
associatedWith Lomen family. family
associatedWith Lomen family. family
associatedWith Mackenzie, Wilda P. person
associatedWith Markey, Gene, 1895-1980. person
associatedWith Mary Sachs (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Mary Sachs (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Masik, August, 1888- person
associatedWith Mason, Beatrice. person
associatedWith Matthews, J. B. (Joseph Brown), 1894-1966 person
associatedWith Maurer, Frederick W. person
associatedWith McConnell, Burt M. (Burt Morton), 1888-1960. person
associatedWith McKennan, Robert A. (Robert Addison), 1903-1982. person
associatedWith Mikkelsen, Ejnar, 1880-1971 person
associatedWith Mill Hugh Robert 1861-1950 person
associatedWith Mirsky, Jeannette, 1903-1987. person
associatedWith Moon, Bucklin, 1911- person
correspondedWith Morgan, Arthur Ernest, 1878-1975 person
correspondedWith Morgan, Arthur Ernest, 1878-1975 person
associatedWith Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990 person
associatedWith Munro, John. person
associatedWith Murphy, Robert Cushman, 1887-1973. person
spouseOf Nef, Evelyn Stefansson, 1913- person
associatedWith New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Roosevelt Wild Life Forest Experiment Station. corporateBody
associatedWith New York (State). Legislature. Joint Legislative Committee to Investigate Seditious Activities. corporateBody
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
associatedWith Noice, Harold. person
associatedWith North Star (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith North Star (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith North Star (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Nutt, David C. (David Clark), 1919-2008. person
associatedWith Olḱhina, Evgenii︠a︡ Aleksandrovna. person
associatedWith Orin G. Libby Manuscript Collection (Chester Fritz Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Orin G. Libby Photographic Collection (Chester Fritz Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Pacific Geographic Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Pearl, Raymond, 1879-1940. person
correspondedWith Peary, Josephine Diebitsch, 1863-1955 person
correspondedWith Peary, Marie Ahnighito, 1893-1978 person
correspondedWith Peary, Robert E. (Robert Edwin), 1856-1920 person
correspondedWith Pease, Arthur Stanley, 1881- person
associatedWith Petersen, Th. (Theodor), b. 1875. person
associatedWith Pike, F. H., (Frank Henry) person
associatedWith Polar Bear (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Popini, Eloise McCaskill. person
correspondedWith Provine, William B. person
associatedWith Public Archives of Canada. corporateBody
associatedWith Review of Reviews (New York, N. Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Richards, R. W. (Richard Walter), b. 1893. person
associatedWith Robert Bob Abram Bartlett person
associatedWith Rood, Henry Edward, 1867-1954. person
correspondedWith Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919 person
associatedWith Rosie H. (Ship) corporateBody
associatedWith Rudmose-Brown Robert Neal 1879-1954 person
associatedWith Rukeyser, Muriel, 1913-1980, person
associatedWith Sarton, George, 1884-1956 person
associatedWith Savage, Leonard J. person
associatedWith Savage, Leonard J. person
associatedWith Scherman, Harry, b. 1887. person
associatedWith Seltzer, Carl C. (Carl Coleman), 1908-2003. person
associatedWith Shambaugh, Benjamin Franklin, 1871-1940, person
associatedWith Shambaugh, Bertha M. H. (Bertha Maude Horack), 1871-1953, person
associatedWith Shambaugh, B.M.H. (Bertha Maud Horack), 1871-1953, person
associatedWith Shaw, Edgar Dwight, 1871-1931. person
associatedWith Shelesnyak, M. C. (Moses Chaim), 1909- person
associatedWith Shipman, Genevieve Nolan, 1898- person
associatedWith Sink, Charles A. (Charles Albert), 1879-1972. person
associatedWith Skinner, Gladys. person
associatedWith Steele, Wilbur Daniel, 1886-1970. person
associatedWith Stefansson-Anderson Arctic Expedition of the American Museum. corporateBody
associatedWith Stefánsson-Anderson Arctic Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History (1908-1912) corporateBody
associatedWith Stefansson Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Stefansson, Valhjalmur, 1879-1962. person
associatedWith Stefansson Vilhjalmur 1879-1962 person
associatedWith Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962. person
associatedWith Stewart, Rolland C. person
associatedWith Storkerson, Storker Theodor, 1883-1940. person
associatedWith Storker Theodor Storkerson person
associatedWith Sverdrup, H. U. (Harald Ulrik), 1888-1957. person
correspondedWith Thayer, William Roscoe, 1859-1923 person
associatedWith Thomas Connon Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Thomas, Wilfried person
associatedWith Tuck, John. person
associatedWith United States Anthropological Expedition Canada Alaska 1906-1907 corporateBody
associatedWith United States Canadian Scientific Expedition Canada Alaska 1908-1912 Stefansson-Anderson Arctic Expedition corporateBody
associatedWith University of Iowa corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Anthropological Expedition (1906-1907) corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES); Cold Regions Research Engineering Laboratory (CRREL); Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Canadian Scientific Expedition (1908-1912) corporateBody
associatedWith U.S. Canadian Scientific Expedition (1908-1912) corporateBody
correspondedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949 person
associatedWith Von Bergen, Werner, 1897- person
associatedWith Wallace, Henry A. (Henry Agard), 1888-1965, person
correspondedWith Walters, Thorstina Jackson, 1887-1959. person
associatedWith Washburn, Elizabeth F. person
associatedWith Weddell, Alexander Wilbourne, 1876-1948. person
associatedWith Weems, John Edward. person
associatedWith Welzl, Jan, 1870-1951. person
associatedWith Western Michigan University. C.C. Adams Center for Ecological Studies. corporateBody
associatedWith Wiegand, W. B. person
associatedWith Wilcox, Olive Rathburn. person
associatedWith Wilkins, George H. (George Hubert), Sir, 1888-1958. person
associatedWith Wilson, Edwin Bidwell, 1879-1964 person
associatedWith Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947 person
correspondedWith Woollcott, Alexander, 1887-1943 person
associatedWith Wrangel Island Expedition (1921-1923) corporateBody
associatedWith Wrangel Island Expedition (1921-1923) corporateBody
associatedWith Wrangel Island Expedition (1921-1923) corporateBody
associatedWith Wrangel Island Relief Expedition (1923) corporateBody
associatedWith Wrangel Island Relief Expedition (1923) corporateBody
associatedWith Wright Charles Seymour 1887-1975 person
associatedWith Young Kathleen 1878-1947 wife of 1st Baron Kennet sculptor person
associatedWith Zeusler, F. A. (Frederick A.) person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Nome (Alaska)
Collinson Point (N.W.T.)
Barrow, Point (Alaska)
Herschel Island (Yukon)
Northwest, Canadian
Collinson Point (Alaska)
Tanana (Alaska)
Wrangel Island (Russia)
Flaxman Island (Alaska)
Barrow, Point (Alaska)
Baxter Island (Alaska)
Adélie Coast (Antarctica)
Greenland
Northwest Territories
Fort Yukon (Alaska)
Arctic regions Discovery and exploration
Bernard Harbor (N.W.T.)
Bathurst, Cape (N.W.T.)
Adirondack Mountains (N.Y.)
Herschel Island (Yukon)
Mackenzie (N.W.T.)
Fort Yukon (Alaska)
Banks Island (N.W.T.)
Victoria Island (Nunavut and N.W.T.)
Greenland
Cape Bathurst (N.W.T.)
Camden Bay (Alaska)
Latin America
Tanana (Alaska)
Baxter Island (Alaska)
Arctic regions
Fort McPherson (N.W.T.)
Manitoba 03 CA
Bernard Harbor (N.W.T.)
Canada
Wrangel Island (Russia)
Flaxman Island (Alaska)
Tanana (Alaska)
United States
Herschel Island (Yukon)
Hanover NH US
Canada, Northern
Antarctica
Wrangel Island (Russia)
Northwest Territories
Flaxman Island (Alaska)
Bernard Harbor (N.W.T.)
Fort Yukon (Alaska)
Collinson Point (Alaska)
Victoria Island (Nunavut and N.W.T.)
Krusenstern, Cape (Alaska)
Subject
Inuit--Costume
Mackenzie Eskimos--Social life and customs
Reindeer industry
Muskox
Reindeer
Explorers--Correspondence
Fishing
Anthropologists--Archives
Inuit--Social life and customs
Chautauquas
Explorers--Archives
Literary forgeries and mystifications
Ecology
Archaeology
Eskimos
Mining and engineering
Explorers
Hunting
Copper Inuit--Social life and customs
Biology
Arctic peoples--Research
Body marking
Human ecology
Mining engineering
Eskimos--Material culture
Zoology
Geology
Eskimos--Boats
Occupation
Collector
Function

Person

Birth 1879-11-03

Death 1962-08-26

Canadians

English

Information

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Ark ID: w6jb6wh0

SNAC ID: 83865665