Zhongguo guo min dang

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Chinese nationalist political party.

From the description of Zhongguo guo min dang records, 1894-1987. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754872866

Historical Note

Sun Yat-sen and other overseas Chinese concerned about the situation in China founded the Hsing Chung Hui in Hawaii on 24 November 1894. This organization was superseded by the Tung Meng Hui, formed by Sun and other Chinese in Tokyo on 20 August 1905. The headquarters of the Tung Meng Hui moved to Nanjing after the Republic of China was established in January 1912. Later that year it merged with other groups to form the Kuomintang (Zhongguo guo min dang or Nationalist Party of the Republic of China), with Sun as chairman.

The organization of the Kuomintang (KMT) expanded rapidly. At the First National Party Congress in January 1924 a party constitution was adopted. The congress elected a Central Executive Committee (CEC) to handle party affairs when the congress was not in session, and established a Central Control Committee to oversee party affairs. The CEC was headed by the director of the party, who had final decision-making power over the resolutions passed by the CEC. Sun Yat-sen, who died on 12 March 1925, was the first director. He set up a Political Committee in 1924 to handle party-government relations. At first the Political Committee met by itself, but in 1927 it began meeting with the CEC. The CEC elected a Standing Committee to handle party affairs when the full CEC was not in session. Various departments were established under the CEC, with departmental reorganizations occurring occasionally. This structure remained largely unchanged until 1950.

In 1938, after the war with Japan began, a National Supreme Defense Commission was founded with KMT director general Chiang Kai-shek as its head. All CEC departments, the entire national government, and all military affairs fell under the jurisdiction of this new unit.

The Kuomintang (KMT) was defeated in 1949 by Chinese Communist Party forces and forced to relocate in Taiwan. Following the removal, the KMT entered a period of reorientation and reformation. A Central Reform Committee (CRC) was established in August 1949 to determine the most effective way to revitalize the party. It drafted a new party platform and studied organizational changes, among other activities.

The recommendations of the CRC were subsequently adopted by the Seventh National Party Congress (October 10-20, 1952), and the former Central Executive Committee and the Central Control Committee were replaced by a single Central Committee (CC). The CC elected a Central Standing Committee (CSC), chaired by the director general, with a secretary general to oversee the work of the party departments and committees. Initially the CSC had six sections concerning party affairs in Taiwan, party affairs in mainland China, party affairs overseas, propaganda, handling social organizations, and social and economic research and planning strategies against the enemy. The CSC also had four committees for evaluation, discipline, finance, and party history. A Secretariat for the CSC handled documents, accounting, personnel, and party member welfare.

Another part of the KMT's self-reformation movement in the early 1950s involved intensification of training and indoctrination of cadres working with various mass organizations, like the Chinese Federal of Labor, Chinese Women's Anti-Aggression League, and National Association of Youth Organizations, formed. A system of "basic party cadres" was established to revitalize the party and ensure thorough implementation of party policies and programs at the local level. The cadres worked closely with youth, farmers, laborers, and other groups.

For the two decades after the 1952 reform, the KMT presided over an increasingly repressive political system, followed in the 1970s by cycles of loosening and tightening of controls. Facilitated by party members in critical government positions at all levels, the KMT was able to activate its policies through the legislative and executive yuan (branches) of the government.

The basic structure of the party remained fairly constant during this period. Its organization formed a pyramid paralleling the organization of the government. Local units of up to 15 members formed the base, with the subdistrict, district, county, and provincial organizations above it. At the top was the central unit, the Central Committee. Each level of organization maintained a central committee and an advisory committee. The committees at the base were elected directly by party members, and the congresses (known as assemblies at district and lower levels) at each higher level elected the central and advisory committees for their respective levels.

Going down the pyramid, the Provincial Congress met every two years. It decided on the methods for implementing the KMT's programs and elected the Central Committee. The County Congress met annually to elect its committee members and to formulate policy at its level of authority. The district and subdistrict assemblies were comprised of all party members in the area concerned. The basic unit of 3 to 15 members was responsible for carrying the party's message to the people and recruiting members. Members with no fixed residence, such as railroad workers, seamen, other vocational groups, and Overseas Chinese, had special organizations under the direct control of the central party headquarters.

At the national level, the National Congress, scheduled to meet every few years, continued to be the highest unit of the party. Its chief duties were to amend the party constitution, determine the party platform and policies, review the work of the Central Committee, train and guide party cadres, elect the president, and elect members of the Central Committee.

The Central Committee met annually. Its functions were to execute resolutions of the National Congress and represent the party in its external relations, discuss and administer party and political affairs, organize and direct party branches at various levels, train and guide party cadres, enforce party discipline, and raise funds and administer the party budget.

Because of the large membership of the Central Committee (CC), the real power was vested in its Central Standing Committee (CSC), whose members were elected by the CC. The CSC functioned during the recess of the plenary session of the CC. It could issue orders, make appointments, and call an extraordinary plenary session of the CC when necessary. The CSC initially held unlimited authority because the director general of the party was its chairman, and the ultimate source of power in the party resided with the director general. The director general was elected by the National Congress and possessed absolute veto authority over the decisions of the CC. Chiang Kai-shek was director general from 1938 until his death on 5 April 1975. After his death the position was retired, and Chiang Ching-kuo became party chairman.

A Central Advisory Committee was added in 1969, and the number of seats in the CSC was gradually increased to 21 members.

From the guide to the Zhongguo guo min dang records, 1894-1987, (Hoover Institution Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Zhongguo guo min dang. Zhongguo guo min dang records, 1894-1987. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Yan Lisan papers, 1910-1944 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Wheeler, W. Reginald (William Reginald), 1889-1963. William Reginald Wheeler papers, 1927-1957. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Nelson T. Johnson Papers, 1916-1955, (bulk 1922-1954) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Ishihama, Tomoyuki, 1895-1950. 880-02 Jūkei genzai no nidai mondai : Kokkyō mondai to ryōshoku mondai / Ishihama Tomoyuki. Library of Congress, RCCD CJK
referencedIn Mah, Soo-Lay, 1909-2006. Mah Soo-Lay papers, 1941-2000. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Lai, H. Mark. Him Mark Lai research files, 1778-1995 (bulk 1970-1995) UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Suttie, Melvin. Oral history interviews with Melvin Suttie, 1985. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Custer, Sadie. Oral history interview with Sadie Custer, 1992 [sound recording]. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Chung Yang Er Pao newspaper article translations, 1927 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Yan, Lisan, 1892-1944. Yan Lisan papers, 1910-1944. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Howes, Roger W. Papers of Roger W. and Mary F. Howes, 1899-1993. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Ruan Yicheng collection, 1953-1974 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Hankou miscellaneous records, 1946-1949 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Him Mark Lai Papers, 1778-[on-going], (bulk 1970-1995) University of California, Berkeley. The Ethnic Studies Library.
referencedIn Cornell University Library. Wason Collection. Cornell University Library Wason Collection miscellany, 1857-1934. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Chung Yang Er Pao newspaper article translations, 1927. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Schoerner, Otto Frederick. Papers of Otto Frederick Schoerner, 1949-2006. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Anderson, Helen. Papers of Helen and Ian Anderson, 1928-1995. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Tsai Meng-gian papers, 1945-1986 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Fairclough, Charles. Prayer letter of Charles Fairclough, 1928. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Kuhn, Eileen J. Oral history interviews with Eileen J. Kuhn, 1992-1994 [sound recording]. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Hankou (Wuhan, China). Hankou miscellaneous records, 1946-1949. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Chin, John C. Oral history interview with John C. Chin, 1982. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Sundquist, Ruth. Oral history interviews with Ruth Sundquist, 1984. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Cheng Tianfang papers, 1940-1967 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Zhang, Lisheng, 1900-1971. Zhang Lisheng papers, 1926-2006. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Kane, J. Herbert. Papers of J. Herbert Kane, 1934-1987. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Goforth, Jonathan, 1859-1936. Papers of Jonathan and Rosalind Goforth, 1888-1981. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Cheng, Tianfang, 1899-1967. Cheng Tianfang papers, 1940-1967. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
creatorOf Zhongguo guo min dang records, 1894-1987 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Zhang Lisheng papers, 1926-2006 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Huang, Jen., 1911-. Life in China, Taiwan, and the United States : Jen Huang, a life story, 1997. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Little, Marie. Oral history interviews with Marie Little, 1985. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Dunn, Miriam. Autobiographical manuscript of Miriam Dunn, 1973-1978. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Ekvall, Robert B. (Robert Brainerd), 1898-1983. Ephemera of Robert Brainerd Elkvall, 1933-1980. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
creatorOf Portland Chinese Benevolent Association. Portland Chinese Benevolent Association papers [microform], 1908-1951 (bulk 1908-1931). California Digital Library
referencedIn Moynan, Mary Goforth. Papers of Mary Goforth Moynan, 1918-1994. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Sun, Yat-sen, 1866-1925. Miscellaneous Zhongguo guo min dang (KMT) documents, [ca. 1920s-1930s]. California Digital Library
referencedIn William Reginald Wheeler papers, 1927-1957. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Mah Soo-Lay Papers, 1941-2000 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn McDonald, Jessie. Papers of Jessie McDonald, 1907-1951. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Elliott, Ruth, 1908-1995. Papers of Ruth Elliot, 1910-1988. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Rosinger, Lawrence K. (Lawrence Kaelter), 1915-. Lawrence K. Rosinger papers, 1937-1973 (bulk 1937-1953). University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Bartel, Susan Schultz. Oral history interviews with Susan Schultz Bartel, 1978-1979. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Gieser, P. Kenneth. Papers of P. Kenneth Gieser, 1934-1979, (bulk 1934-1940). Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Stam family. Ephemera of the Stam Family, 1919-2003. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Ruan, Yicheng, 1905-,. Ruan Yicheng collection, 1953-1974. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Bell, L. Nelson, 1894-1973. Papers of L. Nelson Bell, 1923-1973. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Zuo, Shunsheng, 1893-1969. Reminiscences of Shun-sheng Tso: oral history, 1961. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Owen, Marguerite G. Papers of Marguerite G. and Henry Owen, 1929-2002. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Tsai, Meng-gian, 1904-2000. Tsai Meng-gian papers, 1945-1986. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Wilbur, C. Martin (Clarence Martin), 1908-1997. C. Martin Wilbur Papers, ca.1950-1992. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Plymire, Victor Guy. Papers of Victor Guy Plymire, 1908-1957. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
referencedIn Thomas, Howard E., 1906-. Papers of Howard E. Thomas, [1946?], 1985. Billy Graham Center Archives, BGC Archives
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Anderson, Helen. person
associatedWith Bartel, Susan Schultz. person
associatedWith Bell, L. Nelson, 1894-1973. person
associatedWith Cheng, Tianfang, 1899-1967. person
associatedWith Chin, John C. person
associatedWith Chung Yang Er Pao (Hankow) corporateBody
associatedWith Cornell University Library. Wason Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Custer, Sadie. person
associatedWith Dunn, Miriam. person
associatedWith Ekvall, Robert B. (Robert Brainerd), 1898-1983. person
associatedWith Elliott, Ruth, 1908-1995. person
associatedWith Fairclough, Charles. person
associatedWith Gieser, P. Kenneth. person
associatedWith Goforth, Jonathan, 1859-1936. person
associatedWith Hankou (Wuhan, China) corporateBody
associatedWith Hankou (Wuhan, China) corporateBody
associatedWith Howes, Roger W. person
associatedWith Huang, Jen., 1911- person
associatedWith Ishihama, Tomoyuki, 1895-1950. person
associatedWith Johnson, Nelson T. (Nelson Trusler), 1887-1954 person
associatedWith Kane, J. Herbert. person
associatedWith Kuhn, Eileen J. person
associatedWith Lai, H. Mark person
associatedWith Lai, H. Mark. person
associatedWith Little, Marie. person
associatedWith Mah, Soo-Lay, 1909-2006. person
associatedWith McDonald, Jessie. person
associatedWith Moynan, Mary Goforth. person
associatedWith Owen, Marguerite G. person
associatedWith Plymire, Victor Guy. person
associatedWith Portland Chinese Benevolent Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Rosinger, Lawrence K. (Lawrence Kaelter), 1915- person
associatedWith Ruan, Yicheng, 1905-, person
associatedWith Schoerner, Otto Frederick. person
associatedWith Stam family family
associatedWith Sundquist, Ruth. person
associatedWith Suttie, Melvin. person
associatedWith Thomas, Howard E., 1906- person
associatedWith Tsai, Meng-gian, 1904-2000. person
associatedWith Wheeler, W. Reginald (William Reginald), 1889-1963. person
associatedWith Wilbur, C. Martin (Clarence Martin), 1908-1997. person
associatedWith Yan, Lisan, 1892-1944. person
associatedWith Zhang, Lisheng, 1900-1971. person
associatedWith Zuo, Shunsheng, 1893-1969. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
China
Taiwan
China
Taiwan
Subject
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1894

Active 1987

Chinese

Information

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