Kellogg, Frank B. (Frank Billings), 1856-1937

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Lawyer and politician Frank Billings Kellogg was born in New York, and raised in Minnesota. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began a long career in public service as city attorney of Rochester, Minnesota. He served as president of the American Bar Association, and as United States Senator from Minnesota and Ambassador to Great Britain. While serving as Calvin Coolidge's Secretary of State, he co-authored the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, outlawing war and resolving to find peaceful resolutions to conflicts between nations. Although the pact was eventually ratified by some sixty-two nations, it failed to prevent the outbreak of war in the 1930s. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929.

From the description of Frank B. Kellogg letters, 1928-1929. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 64582035

Frank Billings Kellogg was born in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York on December 22, 1856. He moved with his parents to Minnesota in 1865 and studied law in Rochester, Minnesota, where he was admitted to the bar in 1877, becoming the city attorney of Rochester from 1878-1881 and county attorney for Olmsted county 1882-1887. In 1887 he moved to St. Paul, Minnesota and became a member of the Republican National Committee 1904-1912, and president of the American Bar Association in 1912 and 1913.

Kellogg was elected to the United States Senate in March of 1917 and served until March of 1923. After being appointed in 1922 by Warren G. Harding to be the United States delegate to the Fifth International Conference of American States, held in Santiago, Chile, Kellogg was then appointed United States ambassador to Great Britain by President Coolidge, a position he served until 1925. From 1925-1929 Kellogg was Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Coolidge, coauthoring the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact signed in 1928. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929 and served as an associate judge of the Permanent Court for International Justice from 1930-1935. Kellogg died in St. Paul, Minnesota on December 21, 1937.

Information from The Frank B. Kellogg Papers. Edited by Deborah Kahn Neubeck. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1977-1978. Microfilm: 54 reels and guide.

  • 1856: Born December 22 in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, the eldest of three children of Asa Farnsworth Kellogg and Abigail Billings Kellogg. Asa Kellogg also had a son by a first marriage.
  • 1857: Family moved to Long Lake, Hamilton County, New York.
  • 1865: Family moved to a small farm near Viola, Olmsted County, Minnesota.
  • 1870: Assumed primary responsibility for working the family farm because of his father's poor health. Could no longer attend school; received no additional formal education.
  • 1872: Family moved to a larger farm in Olmsted County near Elgin, Wabasha County, Minnesota.
  • 1875: Left the family farm. Moved to Rochester, Olmsted County, Minnesota, to read law in the office of Halftan A. Eckholdt, in exchange for doing chores and errands. Supported himself by working on nearby farms, either for room and board or for a small salary.
  • 1877: Admitted to the Minnesota bar. Began to practice law in Rochester.
  • 1878: Formed law partnership with Burt W. Eaton, also a self-taught lawyer. Appointed Rochester city attorney by the city council. A Republican, served until 1881, when defeated for re-election by his Democratic opponent.
  • 1881: Elected Olmsted County attorney on the Republican ticket. Served until 1887.
  • 1884: In first important legal case, agreed to represent two Wabasha County townships, Plainview and Elgin, in a lawsuit against the Winona and St. Peter Railroad Company. Prior to accepting the case and during the course of the litigation sought the advice of his cousin, Cushman K. Davis, former governor of Minnesota and prominent St. Paul attorney.
  • 1886: Married Clara M. Cook of Rochester on June 16. They had no children. Unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for Minnesota attorney general. Accepted invitation to join the St. Paul law firm of Davis, newly elected U.S. senator from Minnesota, and Cordenio A. Severance.
  • 1887: Law firm of Davis, Kellogg, and Severance established with Kellogg as acting head. During the next thirty years the firm became one of the most prominent and successful corporate law firms in the Upper Midwest, representing many powerful companies and individuals. Formed lasting relationships with some of the country's most influential businessmen and politicians.
  • 1901: Became senior partner in the law firm after the death of Davis in 1900.
  • 1904: Minnesota delegate to the Republican National Convention. Elected Republican national committeeman from Minnesota. Served 1904-1912, [post-1916?]-1920. U.S. delegate to the Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists, held in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • 1905: Appointed special assistant attorney general to prosecute the federal government's case against the General Paper Company of Wisconsin and Minnesota (the so-called Western Paper Trust) for alleged violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Served until 1906, when the company was declared illegal and dissolved as a combination in restraint of trade. Received widespread attention in the press as a trust-buster.
  • 1906: With Severance, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as special counsel to the Interstate Commerce Commission for its investigation of Edward H. Harriman's financial manipulations and railroad consolidations, particularly of the Union Pacific, Southern Pacific, and subsidiary railroads. Served until 1908. Appointed special assistant attorney general to lead the federal government's prosecution of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Served until 1911.
  • 1908: With Severance, appointed special assistant attorney general to prosecute the federal government's suit against the Union Pacific Railroad under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Served until 1912. Minnesota delegate to the Republican National Convention.
  • 1911: U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the government in the Standard Oil case. The so-called Standard Oil Trust ordered dissolved; Kellogg hailed as the nation's number one trust-buster.
  • 1912: U.S. Supreme Court decided the Union Pacific case in favor of the government. Elected president of the American Bar Association for 1912-1913. Minnesota delegate to the Republican National Convention. Walked out of the convention with the rest of the Minnesota delegation in support of Theodore Roosevelt. Did not join the Progressive party; instead, worked to restore unity in the Republican party.
  • 1916: After initially declining to become a candidate, elected to the U.S. Senate on the Republican ticket, the first senator from Minnesota to be elected by popular vote. Served 1917-1923 (65th-67th Congresses). Campaigned on a platform of war preparedness, economy in government, prosecution of the trusts, and tariff reduction. As senator, primarily concerned with issues relating to his committee assignments (Judiciary, Interstate Commerce, National Banks, Public Lands, Joint Committee for Revision of the Federal Statutes, Foreign Relations) and with agriculture.
  • 1920: Minnesota delegate to the Republican Convention.
  • 1922: Defeated for re-election to the Senate by Henrik Shipstead, Minnesota Farmer-Labor party candidate.
  • 1923: U.S. delegate to the Fifth International Conference of American States, held in Santiago, Chile (appointed in 1922 by President Warren G. Harding.) Briefly rejoined law firm in St. Paul. Appointed U.S. ambassador to Great Britain by President Coolidge. Served until 1925.
  • 1924: While ambassador, served as one of two American delegates to the London Reparation Conference, which negotiated the Dawes Plan to revise the schedule of World War I reparations payments by Germany to the Allies.
  • 1925: While ambassador, represented the United States at the Conference of Finance Ministers, held in Paris, which agreed on the distribution of reparations payments by Germany to the Allies. Assumed the office of secretary of state in Coolidge's cabinet. Served until 1929. Primarily concerned with Latin American problems, including U.S. relations with Mexico and Nicaragua and the Tacna-Arica boundary dispute between Chile and Peru; revision of American policies toward China, particularly with respect to tariffs and extraterritoriality privileges; American relations with Canada and the St. Lawrence waterway project; settlement of World War I debts; disarmament; negotiation of international arbitration and conciliation agreements; U.S. participation in the World Court; and negotiation of the Pact of Paris.
  • 1928: Signed the Pact of Paris August 27.
  • 1929: Rejoined law firm in St. Paul.
  • 1930: Elected to a nine-year term as judge of the World Court. Served until 1935, resigning because of ill health. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1929 for his work in negotiating the Pact of Paris.
  • 1937: Died in St. Paul December 21.

From the guide to the Frank B. Kellogg papers., 1880-1942 [bulk 1890-1937]., (Minnesota Historical Society)

Archival Resources
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creatorOf Davis, Kellogg & Severance (Saint Paul, Minn.). Law firm records, 1878-1941. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
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creatorOf Kellogg, Frank B. (Frank Billings), 1856-1937. Frank B. Kellogg letters, 1928-1929. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Cordell Hull Papers, 1908-1956, (bulk 1933-1944) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Andrew J. Volstead and family papers., 1868-1955 (bluk 1920-1922). Minnesota Historical Society.
referencedIn Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930. Papers of William H. Taft, 1784-1973. Library of Congress
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creatorOf Kellogg, Clara Cook, 1861-1942. Clara Cook Kellogg and family papers, 1923-1929, 1938-1940. Minnesota Historical Society, Division of Archives and Manuscripts
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referencedIn John Callan O'Laughlin Papers, 1895-1949 Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
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Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith American Bar Association. corporateBody
associatedWith American Peace Society. corporateBody
associatedWith American Society of International Law. corporateBody
associatedWith Anderson, Chandler P. (Chandler Parsons), 1866-1936. person
associatedWith Astor, Nancy Witcher Langhorne Astor, Viscountess, 1879-1964. person
associatedWith Bacheller, Irving, 1859-1950. person
associatedWith Beal, Boylston Adams, 1865-1944, person
associatedWith Beck, James M. (James Montgomery), 1861-1936. person
correspondedWith Bliss, Robert Woods, 1875-1962 person
associatedWith Bohnen, Carl person
associatedWith Bohnen, Carl, 1872-1951. person
correspondedWith Borah, William Edgar, 1865-1940. person
associatedWith Brent, Charles Henry, 1862-1929. person
correspondedWith Bryan, William Jennings, 1860-1925. person
associatedWith Bryn-Jones, David. person
associatedWith Bryn-Jones, David, 1882-1976. person
associatedWith Burnquist, J. A. A. (Joseph Alfred Arner), 1879-1961. person
associatedWith Butler, Nicholas Murray, 1862-1947. person
associatedWith Butler, Pierce, 1866-1939. person
associatedWith Cadman, S. Parkes (Samuel Parkes), 1864-1936, person
associatedWith Cannon, Walter B., (Walter Bradford), 1871-1945 person
associatedWith Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. corporateBody
associatedWith Cavert, Samuel McCrea, 1888-1976, person
associatedWith Christianson, Theodore, 1883-1948. person
associatedWith Citizens' Non-Partisan Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Conference for the Limitation of Naval Armament (1927 : Geneva, Switzerland) corporateBody
correspondedWith Coolidge, Calvin, 1872-1933. person
associatedWith Coolidge, Jennie, 1866-1933. person
associatedWith Council on Foreign Relations. corporateBody
associatedWith Coursolle, Nazard M. 1887- person
associatedWith Cowling, Donald J. (Donald John), 1880-1965. person
associatedWith Cray, Willard Rush, 1853-1938. person
associatedWith Davis, Dwight Filley, 1879-1945. person
associatedWith Davis, James J. (James John), 1873-1947. person
associatedWith Davis, John W. (John William), 1873-1955. person
associatedWith Davis, Kellogg & Severance (Saint Paul, Minn.). corporateBody
correspondedWith Davis, Roy Tasco, 1889-1975. person
associatedWith Day, Frank A. (Frank Arah), 1855-1928. person
associatedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876 person
associatedWith Ellsworth, Lincoln, 1880-1951. person
associatedWith Fletcher, Henry Prather, 1873-1959. person
associatedWith Frelinghuysen, Joseph S. (Joseph Sherman), 1869-1948. person
correspondedWith Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966 person
associatedWith Georgia (Republic). person
associatedWith Grew, Joseph C. (Joseph Clark), 1880-1965. person
associatedWith Haines, Lynn, 1876-1929. person
associatedWith Hale, Frederick, 1874-1963 person
associatedWith Hammond, John Hays, 1855-1936. person
associatedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
associatedWith Hard, William, 1878-1962. person
associatedWith Hayden, Joseph Ralston, 1887-1945 person
correspondedWith Hay, Eugene Gano, 1853-1933. person
associatedWith Heisey, George A., 1893-. person
associatedWith Henderson, Loy W. (Loy Wesley), 1892-1986. person
associatedWith Herrick, Myron T. (Myron Timothy), 1854-1929. person
associatedWith Hilles, Charles Dewey, 1867-1949. person
associatedWith Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964. person
associatedWith Houghton, Alanson Bigelow, 1863-1941. person
associatedWith Hudson, Manley O. (Manley Ottmer), 1886-1960. person
associatedWith Hughes, Charles Evans, 1862-1948. person
correspondedWith Hull, Cordell, 1871-1955. person
associatedWith Jacob Gould, Schurman 1854-1942. person
associatedWith Jansky, Cyril Moreau, 1895-1975. person
associatedWith Johnson, Nelson T. (Nelson Trusler), 1887-1954. person
correspondedWith Jones, Hilary Pollard, 1863-1938. person
associatedWith Kellogg, Clara Cook, 1861-1942. person
associatedWith Lane, Arthur Bliss, 1894-1956. person
associatedWith Lange, D. (Dietrich), 1863-1940. person
associatedWith League of Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith Leffingwell, R. C. (Russell Cornell), 1878-1960 person
associatedWith Leffingwell, R. C. (Russell Cornell), 1883-1960. person
associatedWith Levinson, Salmon Oliver, 1865-1941. person
associatedWith Lilly, Richard C. , 1884-1959. person
associatedWith Lind, John, 1854-1930. person
associatedWith Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974. person
associatedWith Little, Clarence C. (Clarence Cook), b. 1888 person
associatedWith Long, George Alexander, 1870-1958. person
associatedWith Loomis, Francis B. (Francis Butler), 1861-1948. person
associatedWith Ludlow, Louis, 1873-1950 person
associatedWith Mackay, Clarence Hungerford. person
associatedWith Marcosson, Isaac Frederick, 1876-1961. person
associatedWith Marriner, J. Theodore, 1892-1937. person
associatedWith Mayo, Charles Horace, 1865-1939. person
associatedWith Mayo, William James, 1861-1939. person
associatedWith Mellon, Andrew W. (Andrew William), 1855-1937. person
associatedWith Mills, Ogden Livingston, b. 1884. person
associatedWith Minnesota Woman Suffrage Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Moos, Charles J., 1880- person
associatedWith Morgan, George W., 1884- person
associatedWith Morrow, Dwight W. (Dwight Whitney), 1873-1931. person
associatedWith Mount Zion Hebrew Congregation (Saint Paul, Minn.) corporateBody
associatedWith Murray, Francis Henry, 1873-1963. person
associatedWith Nelson, Knute, 1843-1923. person
associatedWith Neubeck, Deborah Kahn, 1942- person
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
associatedWith Nolan, W. I. (William Ignatius), 1874-1943. person
associatedWith O'Laughlin, John Callan, 1873-1949. person
associatedWith Olds, Robert Edwin, 1875-1932. person
associatedWith Ottis, Francis J., 1871-1935. person
associatedWith Page, Thomas Walker, 1866-1937. person
associatedWith Pan American Union. corporateBody
associatedWith Park, Agnes Morrison, 1893- person
associatedWith Permanent Court of International Justice. corporateBody
associatedWith Preus, J. A. O. (Jacob Aall Ottesen), 1883-1961. person
associatedWith Prohibition National Committee (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Reeves, Jesse Siddall, 1872- person
associatedWith Republican Party (Minn.) corporateBody
associatedWith Republican Party (U.S. : 1854- ) corporateBody
associatedWith Rines, Henry, 1872-1950. person
correspondedWith Robinson, Corinne Roosevelt, 1861-1933 person
associatedWith Roosevelt Memorial Association. corporateBody
associatedWith Roosevelt, Nicholas, 1893-1982 person
associatedWith Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919. person
associatedWith Root, Elihu, 1845-1937. person
associatedWith Rowe, L. S. (Leo Stanton), 1871-1946. person
associatedWith Sageng, Ole O., 1872-1963. person
correspondedWith Schley, Reeve, 1881-1960. person
associatedWith Schurman, Jacob Gould, 1854-1942. person
associatedWith Severance, Cordenio Arnold, 1862-1925. person
associatedWith Severance, Erasmus Cordenio, 1829-1904. person
associatedWith Sheffield, James R. (James Rockwell), 1864-1938. person
associatedWith Simpson, J. H. (James Hervey), 1813-1883. person
associatedWith Sons of the American Revolution. Minnesota Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Spencer, George H. person
associatedWith Sterling, Frederick, b. 1876. person
associatedWith Stimson, Henry L. (Henry Lewis), 1867-1950. person
associatedWith Stone, Elihu David, 1889-1952 person
associatedWith Strawn, Silas Hardy, 1866- person
associatedWith Swenson, Laurits Selmer, 1865-1947. person
associatedWith Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930. person
associatedWith Underwood, Oscar W. (Oscar Wilder), 1862-1929. person
associatedWith United States. Dept. of State. corporateBody
correspondedWith Van Devanter, Willis, 1859-1941. person
correspondedWith Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949 person
associatedWith Volstead, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1860-1947 person
associatedWith Volstead, Andrew John, 1860-1947. person
associatedWith Warburg, Paul M. (Paul Moritz), 1868-1932. person
associatedWith Warren, Charles Beecher. person
associatedWith Wenzell, Henry B. (Henry Burleigh), 1853-1936. person
associatedWith Wheelock, H. M. (Harry M.), 1859-1939. person
associatedWith Wickersham, George W. (George Woodward), 1858-1936. person
associatedWith Willis, Frank Bartlett, 1871-1928. person
associatedWith Wilson, George Grafton, 1863-1951. person
associatedWith Wright, Charles J., 1852-1913. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Minnesota
Nicaragua
China
United States
Colombia
Mexico
Russia (Federation)
Europe
Minnesota--Saint Paul
Canada
United States
United States
Subject
Agriculture
Railroads
Arms control
Telecommunication
World War, 1914-1918--Reparations
International organization
Chaco War, 1932-1935
Peaceful change (International relations)
Political Campaigns
Tacna--Arica question
Courts
Politicians--20th century--Correspondence
Depressions--1929
Pan--Americanism
Judicial process
Elections
Occupation
Statesmen--United States
Diplomats
Ambassadors--United States
Judges
Lawyers--Minnesota--Saint Paul
Politicians
Legislators--United States
Function

Person

Birth 1856-12-24

Death 1937-12-22

Americans

English

Information

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Ark ID: w6wd43pr

SNAC ID: 55692870