Crane, Hart, 1899-1932

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BIOGHIST REQUIRED American poet.

From the guide to the Hart Crane Papers, ca.1909-1937, (Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library, )

Author; full name: Harold Hart Crane.

From the description of Postcard of Hart Crane, 1929. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79449992

American poet.

From the description of Hart Crane collection, 1999. (Johns Hopkins University). WorldCat record id: 148050139

From the description of Hart Crane papers, ca.1909-1937. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 609578482

U.S. poet.

From the description of Works, correspondence, galley proofs, clippings, and photographs, 1923-1933, 1961. (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC); University of Texas at Austin). WorldCat record id: 122632932

American poet Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, on July 21, 1899, the only child of Clarence and Grace Hart Crane. He moved with his family to Cleveland in 1908 and attended Cleveland public schools through the eleventh grade. From a young age Crane declared that he would be a poet and devote his life to literary pursuits. As a teen, Crane began the practice of completely immersing himself in the study of literature to relieve the constant tension created by his parents' unhappy marriage and subsequent divorce. In 1916, at the age of 17, Crane left school in Cleveland and moved to New York, ostensibly to prepare for entrance into Columbia University, but in reality to strike out on his own as a poet and writer, and to escape the unhappiness of his family life. From this point on, until his death in 1932, Crane lived in a number of different places including Cleveland, New York, Los Angeles, Isle of Pines, France and Mexico. He supported himself with a variety of writing jobs and publication of his poems, gifts from patrons, allowance from his family and a Guggenheim fellowship. His unstable finances, abuse of alcohol and family emergencies dictated many of these moves but his quest for solitude in which to compose his poems provided motivation as well. Crane is considered one of the greatest American poets of the early 20th century. His major work, The Bridge, is a mystical synthesis of America which connects the country's past, present and future. For this poem Crane received the Helen Haire Levinson Prize in 1931. While returning from Mexico in April, 1932, Crane lept to his death from the deck of the S.S. Orziba.

From the guide to the Hart Crane Collection, 1889-1987, 1920-1973, (Case Western Reserve University)

Hart Crane, twentieth-century American poet, author of The Bridge.

From the description of Hart Crane Collection (1910-1972). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702132839

Crane was born in Ohio, writing poetry from his earliest childhood. His two major themes are the sea and the city. He is famous for, The Bridge. He died tragically on his way back from Mexico by jumping ship.

From the description of Collection, 1923-1935 (inclusive), 1923-1929 (bulk). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122450707

At the time of his early death at thirty-two in 1932, Hart Crane was already recognized as a major American poet, though he had published only two volumes of poetry and a handful of poems in various magazines.

Born in the small town of Garretsville, Ohio, on July 21, 1899, the only child of Clarence A. and Grace Hart Crane, Harold Hart Crane experienced an unsettling childhood and adolescence that undoubtedly affected his adult personal life and poetical career. Though he was freed of economic want by his father's first success in the canning of syrup, then in the manufacturing of candy, Crane from an early age had to contend with the increasing marital unhappiness of his parents. Their constant bickerings eventually resulted in divorce in 1916, an event that his biographers agree left an ineradicable scar in the seventeen year old Crane's emotional makeup.

Partly because of his disrupted home life and partly out of an early desire to make a name for himself in the literary world, Crane left home at seventeen for New York City. Throughout his adult life he experienced professional disappointments, emotional crises, heavy drinking spells, and a series of short-lived jobs in advertising or sales, but Crane was not deterred from his ambition to become an acclaimed poet. Although he never completed high school and entered college only to take a single advertising course, he was extremely well read in American and European literature, both past and present. Moreover, he was fortunate to become associated at an early age with many prominent authors, critics, and artists, among them Sherwood Anderson, Gorham Munson, Malcolm Cowley, Allen Tate, Waldo Frank, Matthew Josephson, Samuel Loveman, Carl Schmitt, William Sommer, and Alfred Stieglitz.

Having already published a number of poems in various magazines by the time he was twenty-five, Crane experienced his first major success in 1926 with the publication of White Buildings, his first volume of verse. Allen Tate called it "the most distinguished poetry of the age," and Yvor Winters claimed that this volume placed Crane among the five or six greatest contemporary poets in English. Between the publication of White Buildings and his death in 1932, Crane published only some fifteen poems in magazines, his poetic efforts being channeled to a completion of his seven-year project, The Bridge . Reaction to this long poem in 1930 was mixed, but The Bridge has come to be generally regarded as one of the supreme poetic statements of twentieth-century American literature. As Crane himself termed his poem, The Bridge was "a synthesis of America and its structural identity," an attempt to amalgamate and objectify the diverse American experience into a cohesive statement.

In 1931 Crane, with a Guggenheim fellowship, went to live in Mexico to work on a poetic drama of Montezuma's life. Heavily into drink and experiencing alternating periods of elation and depression, he made little headway on the projected poem and feared a loss of creative inspiration. Sailing back to the United States to resolve financial problems in his father's estate, Crane ended his life on April 26, 1932, by leaping from the deck of the S. S. Orrizaba . The publication of Crane's personal letters, several major biographies, and numerous critical studies have revealed Hart Crane to be one of the most complex, accomplished, and troubled voices of modern American poetry.

From the guide to the Hart Crane Collection, (1910-1972), (Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Ernie O'Malley Papers, Bulk, 1920-1957, 1643-2010; bulk 1920-1957 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Hart Crane papers, ca.1909-1937. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Little review (Chicago, Ill.). Little Review records, 1914-1964. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, UWM Libraries
creatorOf Sommer, William, 1867-1949. William Sommer papers, 1890-1970. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Works, correspondence, galley proofs, clippings, and photographs, 1923-1933, 1961. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Bernard Augustine De Voto Papers, 1918-1955 (inclusive), 1944-1951 (bulk) Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Toomer, Jean, 1894-1967. Papers. 1969. Tulane University, Amistad Research Center
referencedIn Lewis, Fredrica Crane. Reminiscences of Fredrica Crane Lewis : oral history, 1962. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. The complete poems and selected letters. Greater Victoria Public Library
creatorOf Bazelon, Irwin. Legends and love letters : five songs from Hart Crane poems : for soprano and chamber ensemble / Irwin Bazelon. University of Maryland Libraries, UMD Libraries
referencedIn WBAI Radio (New York, N.Y.). Hart Crane project : oral history, 1963. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Schiff, David. At Melville's tomb / David Schiff ; [words by] Hart Crane. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Spender, Stephen, 1909- . Letter to Paul Engle. Duevonich, Yugoslavia. [19--] May 12. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Dial/Scofield Thayer papers, 1879-1982, 1920-1925 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Ashe, Nathan. Reminiscences of Nathan Ashe, Peggy Baird, Solomon Grundberg, Samuel Loveman, and John Unterecker : oral history, [197-?]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Thayer, Scofield, b. 1889. Dial/Scofield Thayer papers, 1879-1982 (bulk 1920-1925). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Crane, Joan St. C. Papers of Joan St. C. Crane [manuscript], 1969-1995. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Mariani, Paul L. Paul L. Mariani papers, 1961-2003. Boston College, Thomas P. O'Neill Library
referencedIn E. E. Cummings additional papers, 1870-1969. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Tunstall, Virginia Hunter Lyne, d. 1987. Papers of Virginia Hunter Lyne Tunstall [manuscript] 1869-1959. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Collection, 1923-1935 (inclusive), 1923-1929 (bulk). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Beals, Carleton, 1893-1979. Carleton Beals collection, 1916-1979. Boston University, School of Medical
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Hart Crane papers, 1926-1930. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946. Alfred Stieglitz / Georgia O'Keeffe archive, 1728-1986 (bulk 1880-1986). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1918-1932. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1968. E.E. Cummings Collection, 1902-1962. Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Frank, Waldo David, 1889-1967. Reminiscences of Waldo David Frank : oral history, 1963. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Crosby, Caresse, 1892-1970. Caresse Crosby papers, 1912-1970. Southern Illinois University, Morris Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Letters, 1924. Ohio State University Libraries
referencedIn Speck, R. S. R. S. Speck bibliographic writings : typescripts. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Loveman, Samuel, 1887-1976. Reminiscences of Samuel Loveman : oral history, 1962. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Correspondence file, 1929-1930, from Horace Liveright, Inc. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Mitchell, Stewart, 1892-1957. Papers, 1839-1957. Boston Athenaeum
referencedIn Rudman, Mark. Office files of The American Poetry Review, 1979-1995. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Hart Crane Papers, ca.1909-1937 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn Zabel, Morton Dauwen. Papers, 1901-1964 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946. Alfred Stieglitz / Georgia O'Keeffe archive, 1728-1986. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Burke, Kenneth, 1897-1993. Kenneth Burke papers. 1906-1960. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Office files of The American Poetry Review, 1995. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Jean Toomer papers, 1898-1963 (inclusive), 1920-1954 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Zabel, Morton Dauwen, 1901-1964. Morton Dauwen Zabel papers 1901-1964 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Galpin, Alfred Maurice, 1901-1983. Alfred Maurice Galpinon papers [on Hart Crane & Samuel Loveman] 1922-1981. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Contempo. Contempo records, 1930-1934. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Brown University. Library (Providence, Rhode Island). Selected correspondence, 1913-1993, "Coombs" to "Gerald". Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn E. E. Cummings Collection TXRC98-A2., 1902-1968 Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Croyston, John, 1933-. The broken Tower [manuscript] : an account of the American poet Hart Crane / by John Croyston. University of Queensland, UQ Library
referencedIn Winters, Yvor, 1900-1968. Yvor Winters and Janet Lewis papers, 1906-1982. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn De Voto, Bernard Augustine, 1897-1955. Bernard De Voto papers, 1918-1955 (bulk 1944-1951). Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Tate, Allen, 1899-1979. Reminiscences of Allen Tate : oral history, 1962. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Hart Crane collection, 1999. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
referencedIn Roberta Bobba and Peter Martin Photographs, circa 1918-1959 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn New Directions Publishing Corp. records, ca. 1933-1997. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Weber, Brom, 1917-1998. Brom Weber papers, 1919-1969. University of California, Davis, Shields Library
referencedIn WBAI Radio (New York, N.Y.). WBAI radio station project : oral history, [197-?]. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Richard W. Rychtarik/Hart Crane Papers, 1923-1935 Fales Library & Special Collections
referencedIn Alfred Stieglitz / Georgia O'Keeffe archive, 1728-1986 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Papers of Robert Graves: Correspondence (arranged by correspondent), c1909 to 2004 St John's College, Oxford
creatorOf Hart Crane Collection, 1889-1987, 1920-1973 Case Western Reserve University
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Letter, 1930, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Papers, 1897-1930. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Babcock, Margaret. Reminiscences of Margaret Babcock : oral history, 1963. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Toomer, Jean, 1894-1967. Jean Toomer papers, 1898-1963 (inclusive), 1920-1954 (bulk). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Durieux, Caroline. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1929-1972, n.d. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Booth, Edwin, 1833-1893. Miscellaneous manuscripts, 19th and 20th century. State Library of Ohio
referencedIn Gordon, Caroline. Autograph letter signed : [n.p.], to [Richard M. Ludwig?], 1969 Dec. 23. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. To Emily Dickinson : ms. S, [undated]. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Signal Archive, ca. 1963-1965 Fales Library & Special Collections
referencedIn Green, George, 1930-. Repose of rivers : for mezzo-soprano and orchestra / by George Green ; text by Hart Crane. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
referencedIn Norman, Lou Ann. "Nothing looks the same" : style and the narrator's stance in the poetry of Richard Wilbur and Hart Crane / by Lou Ann Norman. University of Central Arkansas, Torreyson Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. The bridge : typescript, [1930] Princeton University Library
referencedIn Nelson, Ernest W. Manuscripts and papers, 1899-1921. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Blume, Peter, 1906-1992. Peter Blume papers, [ca. 1926]-1992. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Hart Crane Collection 1889-1987 1920-1973 Case Western Reserve University, Case Western RSV University
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Letters, 1917-1928 (inclusive), 1919-1928 (bulk). State Library of Ohio
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Collection, 1920-1932. North Central College, Oesterle Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Letters, 1917-1928. Ohio State University Libraries
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Letters, 1927-1928. Brown University, John Hay Library
referencedIn Poetry (Firm). Poetry : a magazine of verse : records, 1912-1961. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn De Gastyne, Serge. Correspondence to Leopold Stokowski, 1974. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Hart Crane Collection (1910-1972). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Knox, George. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1965-1966. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf May, Frederick, 1911-1985. Garden abstract / poem by Hart Crane ; music by Frederick May. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Baker, John, 1931-. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1962-1963. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Collection, 1930-1933 (inclusive), 1931-1932 (bulk). Texas Christian University
creatorOf May, Frederick, 1911-1985. North Labrador / poem by Hart Crane ; music by Frederick May. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Crane, Hart, 1899-1932. Postcard of Hart Crane, 1929. Library of Congress
creatorOf Hart Crane Collection, (1910-1972) Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Anderson, Sherwood, 1876-1941. person
associatedWith Ashe, Nathan. person
associatedWith Babcock, Margaret. person
associatedWith Baker, John, 1931- person
associatedWith Bazelon, Irwin. person
correspondedWith Beals, Carleton, 1893-1979. person
associatedWith Blume, Peter, 1906-1992. person
associatedWith Bobba, Roberta person
correspondedWith Braithwaite, William Stanley, 1878-1962 person
associatedWith Brown University. Library (Providence, Rhode Island). corporateBody
associatedWith Brown, William Slater. person
associatedWith Bryan, George, 1900-1967. person
associatedWith Burke, Kenneth, 1897-1993. person
associatedWith Contempo. corporateBody
associatedWith Cowley, Malcolm, 1898-1989. person
associatedWith Cowley, Peggy Baird. person
associatedWith Cowley, Peggy Baird. person
associatedWith Crane, Grace Hart. person
associatedWith Crane, Joan St. C. person
associatedWith Crosby, Caresse, 1892-1970. person
associatedWith Croyston, John, 1933- person
associatedWith Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1962 person
associatedWith Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1968. person
associatedWith De Gastyne, Serge. person
associatedWith De Voto, Bernard Augustine, 1897-1955. person
associatedWith Durieux, Caroline. person
associatedWith Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns), 1888-1965. person
associatedWith Evans, Walker, 1903-1975. person
associatedWith Frank, Waldo David, 1889-1967. person
associatedWith Freeman, G. W. person
associatedWith Galpin, Alfred Maurice, 1901-1983. person
associatedWith Gordon, Caroline. person
associatedWith Graves, Robert Windham, 1858-1934 person
associatedWith Greenberg, Samuel, 1893-1917. person
associatedWith Green, George, 1930- person
associatedWith Hart, Elizabeth B. person
associatedWith Hubbard, Elbert, 1856-1915. person
associatedWith Huebsch, B. W. (Benjamin W.), 1876-1964. person
associatedWith Jackson, Laura (Riding), 1901-1975. person
associatedWith Josephson, Matthew, 1899-1978. person
associatedWith Kahn, Otto Hermann, 1867-1934. person
associatedWith Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971. person
associatedWith Knox, George. person
associatedWith Lescaze, William, 1896-1969. person
associatedWith Lewis, Fredrica Crane. person
associatedWith Little review (Chicago, Ill.) corporateBody
associatedWith Loveman, Samuel, 1887-1976. person
associatedWith Mariani, Paul L. person
associatedWith May, Frederick, 1911-1985. person
associatedWith Mitchell, Stewart, 1892-1957. person
associatedWith Monroe, Harriet, 1860-1936. person
associatedWith Munson, Gorham Bert, 1896-1969. person
associatedWith Nelson, Ernest W. person
associatedWith New Directions Publishing Corp. corporateBody
associatedWith Norman, Lou Ann. person
associatedWith O'Malley, Cormac K. H. person
associatedWith O'Malley, Ernie, 1897-1957 person
associatedWith O'Neill, Eugene, 1888-1953. person
associatedWith Poetry (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Porter, Katherine Anne, 1890-1980. person
associatedWith Rudman, Mark. person
associatedWith Schiff, David. person
associatedWith Schmitt, Carl, 1888-1985. person
associatedWith Sommer, William, 1867-1949. person
associatedWith Speck, R. S. person
associatedWith Spender, Stephen, 1909- . person
associatedWith Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946. person
associatedWith Tate, Allen, 1899-1979. person
associatedWith Thayer, Scofield, b. 1889. person
associatedWith Toomer, Jean, 1894-1967. person
associatedWith Tunstall, Virginia Hunter Lyne, d. 1987. person
associatedWith Unterecker, John, 1922-1989. person
associatedWith Weber, Brom, 1917-1998. person
associatedWith Winters, Yvor, 1900-1968. person
associatedWith W. W. Norton & Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Zabel, Morton Dauwen, 1901-1964. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
United States
Subject
Poetry, Modern--20th century
Poets, American--20th century
Authors, American
American literature
Art and industry
Art, Modern
Poets, American
Brooklyn Bridge (New York, N.Y.)--Poetry
Poets, American--20th century--Manuscripts
Advertising copy
American poetry--20th century
Occupation
Authors
Poets, American
Authors--United States
Copy writers--United States
Poets--20th century.--United States
Poets--United States
Function

Person

Birth 1899-07-21

Death 1932-04-27

Americans

English

Information

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