Airy, George Biddell, 1801-1892

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Sir George Biddell Airy was educated at Cambridge and became Plumain Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Cambridge Observatory in 1828. In 1835 he accepted the post of Astronomer based at the Royal Observatory Greenwich, which he held until 1881. In 1835 Airy was invited to become a member of the University of London Senate. Although he was unable to attend Senate meetings on a regular basis, he discussed the pressing issues of the University at the time with other Senate members, in particular Sir John William Lubbock, 3rd Bt. Airy also served on the University's Sub Committee on Mathematics and Natural Philosophy and the Committee on Certificates of Proficiency. He resigned from the Senate in August 1847.

From the guide to the Airy, Professor Sir George Biddell, 1835-1850, (Senate House Library, University of London)

Entered Trinity College Cambridge as a sizer, 1819. B. A. 1832 as Senior Wrangler and 1st Smith's Prizeman. Fellow of Trinity. He wrote mathematical works and was awarded the Copley Medal 1831. F. R. S. 1836. Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge 1826. Plumian professor of astronomy, Cambridge 1828. Astronomer Royal 1835-1881. 30th President of Royal Society 1871-1873. K. C. B. 1872.

From the description of Papers, 1824-1875. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79752711

Sir George Biddell Airy was a British astronomer.

From the description of Papers, 1840-1869. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122439995

Astronomer and mathematician. Fellow of the Royal Society.

From the description of Correspondence, 1832-1880. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122520807

From the description of Miscellaneous letters and papers. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82113426

From the description of Papers, 1832-1859. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84075381

From the description of Correspondence with the Earl of Ellenborough, 1845-1846. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80172629

English astronomer.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London, to Professor Nichol, 1857 Aug. 15. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270131726

Sir George Airy was the 7th Astronomer Royal at Greenwich, 1835-1881. In 1855 the South Australian Government requested Airy to select an observer and superintendent of electric telegraph (as astronomy was closely linked with the spread of the telegraphic network). Airy nominated Charles Todd.

From the description of Papers [microform]. 1833-1890. (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 225651224

Sir George Biddell Airy (1801–1892) was a British astronomer. Airy became Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge in 1826 and Plumian Professor of astronomy and director of the new Cambridge Observatory in 1828. From 1835 to 1881, he served as Astronomer Royal, a senior post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.

Airy was born in Northumberland, England, to William Airy and Ann Biddell. His father was a tax collector, but he lost his position by the time young Airy was thirteen. As a result, the boy came under the care of his uncle Arthur Biddell, who supported George’s growing interest in science. In 1819, Airy enrolled at Trinity College, Cambridge. Even though he attended on a reduced fee, he had to support himself with taking on pupils. Airy distinguished himself as a disciplined and talented student. Among other honors, he graduated as the top First Class student in 1823. He was also awarded a fellowship at Trinity College where he commenced his academic career.

Airy made many contributions in mathematics, physics and astronomy. One of his first research interests was the achromatism of eyepieces and microspopes. After discovering astigmatism in one of his own eyes, he suggested a successful method for correcting it by using a concave lens with one or two cylindrical surfaces. He also discovered the Airy stress function method, which helps determined strain and stress fields within a beam, and the Airy Wave theory, which describes gravity waves on the surface of a fluid. In addition, he also investigated the mass of Jupiter. One of his most significant accomplisments as an astronomer was the discovery of a new inequality in the motions of Venus and the Earth. For this he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1832.

In 1836, Airy became the Astronomer Royal. He immediately concentrated his efforts on improving the equipment and to reform the procedures and methods by which the Greenwich Observatory had been run until then. The first of the new instruments, an altazimuth designed primarily to observe the moon, was installed in 1847. Among the other equipment, most of which was designed by Airy himself, were a new meridian circle, a new equatorial, a double-image micrometer. Under his direction, observations were made with uninterrupted regularity. The editor of his autobiography noted that the “ruling feature of his character was undoubtedly Order.” This trait was clearly reflected in his extremely methodical and accurate reports, including the data he made available to the public. In 1851, he suggested the location of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich as the location of the Prime Meridian.

One of Airy’s imporant accomplishments was measuring the mean density of the Earth. In 1826 he launched a series of pendulum experiments at the top and bottom of deep mines. In 1854 after several failed efforts due to accidents and flooding, Airy tried the experiment at the Harton pit near South Shields, a coastal town in northeastern England. He was able to show that gravity at the bottom of the mine exceeded that at the top. From this he was led to the final value of Earth's specific density.

In the mid 1840s, Airy’s reputation was tarnished by his hesitancy to search for a planet, whose existence had been predicted by other astronomers, including the French mathematician Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier. Le Verrier based his claims only on mathematics and astronomical observations of the known planet Uranus. By the summer of 1846, leading astronomers in France and Germany were systematically searching for the body. Airy resisted joining the race, even after Cambridge astronomer John Couch Adams also predicted that there existed an unobserved planet. On July 9, when Airy finally launched a search, it was too late: the planet Neptune was discovered on September 23, 1846, by Johann Gottfried Galle at the Berlin Observatory. News of the discovery triggered a heated contest over the allocation of credit as well as blame for those who had failed to search more energetically. Airy in particular was severely critized; he wrote later that he “was abused most savagely by the English and French.” He defended himself with the argument that the search for a planet was not the role of the Greenwich Observatory. Moreover, he had actually tried for several months in 1845 and 1846 to convince another British astronomer, James Challis, his successor as Plumian Professor at Cambridge and head of the University Obvservatory, to look for the unseen planet. Finally, some recent scholars have suggested that Airy’s obsession with order and dread of alteration of routine, coupled with a strong sense of duty as a public employee who should not spent taxpayers’ money on such “non-utilitarian” projects, may help explain his reluctance to launch a search.

The “loss to England and to Cambridge of a discovery which ought to be theirs every inch of it,” as the British mathematician and astronomer Sir John Herschel put it in November 1846, cast a long shadow over Airy’s career. Nevertheless, over the course of his life, Airy received numerous awards and honors for his work in mathematics, physics and astronomy. In addition to the Royal Astronomical Society’s Gold Medal, which he won twice, he was awarded the Copley Medal from the Royal Society (1831), and the Lalande Prize from the French Academy of Sciences (1834). He was made a Knights Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1872; shortly afterwards, he was knighted by the Queen.

Airy was married to Richarda Smith. They had nine children, seven of whom survived to adulthood. His son Wilfrid Airy was the designer and engineer for the telescope and its equipment in George Tomline’s Orwell Park Observatory. He edited his father’s autobiography, which was published in 1896, four years after Sir George Biddell Airy’s death.

From the guide to the Sir George Biddell Airy Papers, 1840-1890, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Royal Greenwich Observatory. George Biddell Airy Papers, 1819-1890. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Whelpley, Albert W. Albert W. Whelpley Autograph Collection. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, Earl of, 1784-1860,. British abolition movement papers, 1821-1887. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Papers [microform]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn De Morgan family, 1753-1975 Senate House Library, University of London
referencedIn Richard Mackenzie Bacon: Correspondence and Papers, 1752-1874 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn Adam Sedgwick Collection, 1825-1870 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875. Papers, 1783-1884. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Brewster, David, Sir, 1781-1868. Items in various series of The Royal Society, 1813-1867. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Correspondence, 1832-1880. American Institute of Physics
referencedIn Brasch, Frederick E. (Frederick Edward), 1875-1967,. The Frederick E. Brasch collection of Sir Isaac Newton manuscripts and related materials on the history of scientific thought, 1684-1949. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Sir James Paget correspondence, 1784-1932, 1784-1932 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Royal Observatory, Greenwich. John Pond Papers, 1811-1835. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Collection of autographs of scientists, 1772-1973, 1772-1973 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Miscellaneous correspondence and papers of Sir George Biddell Airy. University of Leeds, Brotherton Library, Leeds University Library
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Papers, 1840-1869. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Irvine, Alexander, 1863-1941. Autograph Collection of Alexander Irvine. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Royal Greenwich Observatory. William Henry Mahoney Christie Papers, 1878-1940. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 1777-1855. Papers. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Maria Mitchell papers, ca. 1825-1887, Circa 1825-1887 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Papers, 1824-1875. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Papers of James David Forbes, 1785-1968 University of St Andrews
referencedIn Royal Greenwich Observatory. John Flamsteed Papers, 1638-1725. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Autograph letter signed : Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London, to Professor Nichol, 1857 Aug. 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf George Biddell Airy letters to Captain Ryder and Shirley Brooks., 1829-1861 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Papers, 1832-1859. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Académie des sciences (France). Commission du passage de Vénus de l'Académie des sciences, 1869-1885. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn John Edward Gray papers, 1783-1884, 1783-1884 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Royal Greenwich Observatory. Frank Watson Dyson Papers, 1875-1950. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Herschel Family. Papers, 1721-1951, (bulk 1810-1871). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, 1820-1971. Papers of Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, 1820-1978. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Mitchell, Maria, 1818-1889. Papers, ca. 1825-1887. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Eleanor M. Tilton Papers, 1770-1991 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
referencedIn W. H. (William Henry) Smyth correspondence, 1820-1864, 1820-1864 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Tilton, Eleanor M. (Eleanor Marguerite), 1913-. Papers, 1770-1991. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Smyth, W. H. (William Henry), 1788-1865. Correspondence, 1820-1864. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Scientists Collection, 1563-1973 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Paget, James, Sir, 1814-1899. Correspondence, 1784-1932. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Correspondence with the Earl of Ellenborough, 1845-1846. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Alexander, Stephen, 1806-1883. Letter, 1858 Mar. 20. Historical Society of Princeton
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Rawlins, Ray E. D., 1917-1979,. Collection of autographs of scientists, 1772-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892. Miscellaneous letters and papers. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Letters of scientists, 1655-1973. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Sir George Biddell Airy Papers, 1840-1890 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Airy, Professor Sir George Biddell, 1835-1850 Senate House Library, University of London
creatorOf Sheepshanks, R. (Richard), 1794-1855. Letters. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
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Stars--Magnitudes
Astronomy--Research--England
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Letters--19th century
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Birth 1801-07-27

Death 1892-01-02

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