Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806

Variant names

Hide Profile

On October 15, 1777, John Graves Simcoe was appointed to the command of the Queen's Rangers, an American loyalist regiment organized by Robert Rogers in 1776. Under Simcoe's command, the regiment fought in the Philadelphia Campaign, including the battles of Crooked Billet (1778, May 1) and Monmouth (1778, June 28). In October 1779, Simcoe was captured and exchanged in December. In the spring of 1780, the Rangers were sent to South Carolina to assist in the siege of Charleston, then raided Virginia with Benedict Arnold. In June 1781, the regiment joined Cornwallis's army, and surrendered at Yorktown. In 1783, the regiment left for Nova Scotia and was soon disbanded. Simcoe returned to England and, hoping to procure a promotion, wrote a history of the Queen's Rangers that he planned to present copies to the king, ministers, and members of parliament. A limited edition of his memoir titled The Journal of the Operations of Queen's Rangers from the end of the Year 1777 to the Conclusion of the Late American War was printed in Exeter in 1787. In 1790, Simcoe was elected to parliament and in 1791 became the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada.

From the description of Journal of the operations of the Queen's Rangers : autograph manuscript draft, before 1787. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 722942121

Lieutenant governor of Upper Canada and British army officer.

From the description of Descriptive account of propsal presented to the British Parliament, 1792. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70980974

In 1791, John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) was appointed the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada created under the Constitutional Act of 1791 to accomodate American loyalists and the Six Nations of the Iroquois who had been Britain's allies during the Revolutionary War. Simcoe arrived in Quebec in November 1791 and remained at this post for five years.

From the description of Letter book of John Graves Simcoe, 1792, Jan. 16 -- 1793, Dec. 16. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 721011580

Epithet: Colonel

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e4

Commander of the Queen's Rangers in America during the Revolutionary War and later first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada.

From the description of Papers, 1781-1806. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation). WorldCat record id: 25059820

Lt. Col. John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) was commander of the Queen's Rangers in America during the Revolutionary War. Later, he served as the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada.

From the guide to the John Graves Simcoe Papers, ca. 1776-1806., (John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)

Epithet: Lieutenant -General, Governor of St. Domingo

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e6

Epithet: Lieutenant-General

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e7

Epithet: General

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000001034.0x0002e5

Simcoe was Lt.. Governor of Upper Canada .

Born at Cotterstock, Northamptonshire, Eng. Feb. 25, 1752, the son of Captain John Simcoe, R.N. Was educated at Eton and Merton. became ensign in 35th Regiment, 1771, and adjutant, Mar. 27, 1772 Served in American Revolution; commanded Queen's Rangers, 1777-81; returned to England, 1781-91; was appointed first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, 1791; in 1794 moved government offices from Niagara to Toronto; left Canada, 1796 to become governor, etc., at Santo Domingo. In 1806 was appointed to high post in India but died before reaching there. (Dic. Can. Biog., ed. Wallace.) (blue index cards)

From the description of Proceedings of a council holden at Buffaloe Creek, 1794 (Detroit Public Library). WorldCat record id: 501192980

John Graves Simcoe was born in Cotterstock, England, and was educated at Eton Grammar School and Merton College, Oxford. He obtained a commission as ensign in the 35th Regiment in 1770. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, he became a captain in the 40th Foot, and in October 1777 he obtained command of the Queen's Rangers. Simcoe was an able officer, and under his leadership the Rangers became one of the most effective Loyalist regiments. He was captured in an ambush in 1779 and imprisoned for six months. In 1781 he was promoted to colonel and returned to England (wounded) shortly before the surrender of Yorktown.

Simcoe recovered from his injuries at the home of his godfather, Admiral Samuel Graves. He married Admiral Graves' niece, Elizabeth Posthuma Gwillim, in 1782. Elizabeth, a wealthy heiress, purchased their 5,000 acre estate on the River Wolf in Dunkeswell. Simcoe entered Parliament in 1790 as member for St. Mawe's, Cornwall, and the following year he was appointed Governor of Upper Canada. He arrived at his new post in 1792, choosing Niagara for his capital. He surveyed the land, strengthened the province's military defenses, and attracted a number of Loyalist settlers to the area. Health issues forced Simcoe to leave Upper Canada in 1796. A year later, he accepted the governorship of St. Domingo, but left after five months due to illness. John Simcoe returned to England in 1797 with the rank of Lieutenant General. He was made Commander-in-Chief of India in 1806, but died before he could take his post.

From the guide to the John Graves Simcoe papers, Simcoe, John Graves, 1774-1824, 1774-1804, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. [Campaign of Major General Anthony Wayne, 1793-94]. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Jarvis, Stephen, 1756-1840. Autobiography of Stephen Jarvis : Typescript, [19--]. Churchill County Museum
creatorOf John Graves Simcoe papers, Simcoe, John Graves, 1774-1824, 1774-1804 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Canada Public Archives records of Indian affairs [microform], 1696-1856. Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
referencedIn Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert Du Motier, marquis de, 1757-1834. Marquis de Lafayette letter to Governor Thomas Nelson, 1781 June 28. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library
creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. Letter From Sir George Yonge, Secretary of War in the British Cabinet, to Colonel John Graves Simcoe Concerning Queens Rangers and Their Service in the American Revolution, January 21, 1783. University of Guelph
referencedIn Hamilton, Henry, d. 1796. Correspondence, 1793. Clarke Historical Library
referencedIn Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, Marquis, 1738-1805. Orderly book, 1781, 28 June to 19 October. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library
referencedIn Simcoe, Elizabeth, 1762-1850. [Sketch of Upper Canada showing the route of Lt. Gov. J.G. Simcoe]. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney papers, Sydney, Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount papers, 1665-1828, 1780-1788 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn 1. LETTER of W[illiam] Dover, President of Buenos Ayres, to the Prince of Wale, sending. productions of the country; 13 Jan. 1716, f. 1. 2. Dr. Malcolm Flemming to -and to J. Nourse, the bookseller; Brigg , 22 Nov. 1755, 30 Jan. 1756, ff. 3, 4. 3. J... British Library
referencedIn Ewing, William. Letter : Geneceo [sic], to Israel Chapin, Esq., 1794 Sept. 17. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
creatorOf Parrish, John, 1729-1807. Book relative to Indian affairs : journals to treaties, 1791-1794. Newberry Library
referencedIn Vol. XXXVI. (ff. 325). Mar. 1797-June 1798.Sir Herbert Croft, 5th Baronet: Letter to W.Osgoode: 1797.William Windham, Secretary of State, etc: General political correspondence: 1782-1810.includes:ff. 1, 7, 133, 161 Richard Wilson, MP for Barnstaple... British Library
referencedIn Public Archives of Canada. Selected materials on Indian affairs, 1698-1796. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Journal of the operations of the Queen's Rangers : autograph manuscript draft, before 1787. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Windham, William, 1750-1810. Papers, 1804-1806. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Vol. XXXVII. (ff. 309). July 1798-Dec. 1799.Maps and Plans: Plans of earthworks in Shropshire, by E. A. Downman: 1883-1906.William Windham, Secretary of State, etc: General political correspondence: 1782-1810.includes:ff. 1, 56 Lodge Evans Morres, ... British Library
referencedIn Henry Clinton papers, Clinton, Henry papers, 1736-1850 William L. Clements Library
creatorOf John Graves Simcoe Papers, ca. 1776-1806. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
referencedIn Vol. II. (I. ff. 382). 1762-1794.includes:f. 1 Richard Howe, Viscount and 1st Earl Howe: Instructions to Capt. Suckling: 1762. f. 1 Captain Maurice Suckling, RN: Instructions to, from Adm. Howe: 1762. f. 8 General Sir John Dalling, Governor of Jama..., 1762-1794 British Library
referencedIn Vol. XXX. (XXIX. ff. 349). 1 Sept.-2 Nov. 1805.includes:f. 1 John James Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn: Letter to Lord Nelson: 1805. f.3 Alexander Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas; 10th Duke of Hamilton: Letter to Lord Nelson: 1805. f. 5 George Gr... British Library
referencedIn Smith, David William, 1764-1837. A sketch shewing the situation of 230 acres of land, set apart for his excellency Major General Simcoe, to complete his military allowance as colonel, should his excellency approve of the place / DW Smith actg sur gen. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Donald Hyde and Mary Hyde Eccles Autograph Collection, 1505-1957 (inclusive), 1702-1854 (bulk). Houghton Library
creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. John Graves Simcoe Writing Hon. Peter Russell Administrator of Upper Canada in Absence of Lieut. Gov. Simcoe. Probably First Letter Written to York U.C. After Simcoe's Return to England Nov. 3, 1796. University of Guelph
creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. Document Signed J. Butler, Judge of Court of Common Pleas, Approving a "Special Bail" in the Case of Moyer Vs Faist, 1774. University of Guelph
creatorOf William L. Clements Library. Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney papers, 1665-1828. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Kerr, Elizabeth, d. 1845. Correspondence with Mrs. Simcoe [Elizabeth Postuma Simcoe], 1838-1845. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Vol. XLIII. (ff. 244). June-Nov. 1806.William Windham, Secretary of State, etc: General political correspondence: 1782-1810.includes:ff. 1, 60, 105, 184 Samuel A-? Humphreys: Letters to W. Windham: 1803-1810. f. 3 Maria Elliott: Letter to W. Windham... British Library
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Correspondence, 1793-1795. Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
referencedIn Washington Irving's Life of George Washington, Volume X, miscellany, 1764-1805. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Aitkin, Alexander, d. 1800. Copy of a plan of York harbour with the soundings, shoals &c. surveyed by order of Lt Governor Simcoe / by A. Aitkin d surveyor 1793. William L. Clements Library
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Letter book of John Graves Simcoe, 1792, Jan. 16 -- 1793, Dec. 16. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Robinson Family Papers, 1684-1915. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
referencedIn Miscellaneous Canadian papers, 1646-1935. Houghton Library
creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. Collection of Paper Bookplates of Important Historical Figures Circa 1823. University of Guelph
referencedIn (III. ff. 367.). Apr. 1797-1799.includes:ff. 1, 200, 209 Sir John Dalrymple, of Cranstoun, 4th Baronet (1771), Baron of the Scotch Exchequer: Letters to the 3rd Lord Hardwicke: 1797-1801. f. 3 Captain James Dalrymple: Despatches concerning the captu..., 1797-1799 British Library
creatorOf Simcoe, Elizabeth, 1762-1850. [Upper Canada and the Great Lakes region]. William L. Clements Library
creatorOf Clinton, Henry, Sir, 1738?-1795. Henry Clinton papers, 1736-1850. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Buckingham, George Nugent Temple Grenville, Marquess of, 1753-1813. Letter to J. King [manuscript], 1794 April 25. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Vol. XXXVI (ff. 366). Jan.-Nov. 1790.includes:f. 1 Lemuel Goodrich, of Leicester: Letter to the 1st Earl of Liverpool: 1790. f. 2 John Pownall, Commissioner of Excise, etc: Correspondence with the 1st Earl of Liverpool: 1762-1790. ff. 3, 115, 134,... British Library
creatorOf Selected materials on Indian affairs, 1698-1796, 1698-1796 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Simcoe (Ont. : County). Tweedsmuir history of Bond Head, Simcoe County, Ont. / compiled by the Bond Head Women's Institute. University of Guelph
referencedIn Virginia. Public Foundry. Agency history. Library of Virginia
referencedIn Flaxman, John, 1755-1826. Autograph letter signed : Buckingham Street [London], to R. Eales, 1812 Feb. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Papers, 1781-1806. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library
creatorOf Hammond, George, 1763-1853. Letter : Philadelphia, to Lieutenant Governor [John Graves] Simcoe, Niagara, [Ont.], 1792 Sept. 13. Newberry Library
creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. Broadside Describing the Settling of Lands Granted to the Loyalists in the Province of Upper Canada the Sixth Day of Nov., 1794. University of Guelph
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Descriptive account of propsal presented to the British Parliament, 1792. Library of Congress
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. John Graves Simcoe papers, 1774-1824, bulk 1774-1804. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Miller, Edward, 1756-1823. Edward Miller journal, 1794. William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Edward Miller journal, Miller, Edward journal, 1794 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Vol. XLVIII. (ff. 305). Feb.-May 1810, and undated.William Windham, Secretary of State, etc: General political correspondence: 1782-1810.includes:f. 1 Sir John Joseph Dillon: Letters to W. Windham: 1806, 1810.f. 3 Sergeant, A discharged: Letter, ... British Library
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Correspondence, 1793-1795. Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. [Essays and journal : manuscript]. Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library
creatorOf John Macintosh Duff Collection. Letters from Fidelia and Richard Munkhouse to Samuel Peters, from Wakefield to Pimlico 1796. References to Governor Simcoe. University of Guelph
referencedIn Pickering, Timothy, 1745-1829. Timothy Pickering papers, 1795-1797 Detroit Public Library, Detroit Main Library
referencedIn [Commonplace book], 1829. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Simcoe, John Graves, 1752-1806. Proceedings of a council holden at Buffaloe Creek, 1794 Detroit Public Library, Detroit Main Library
creatorOf Goodwin-Haines Collection. Letter Written by Joseph Brant to Lt. Gov. Simcoe Concerning Lands on the Grand River, April 3, 1796. University of Guelph
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Aitkin, Alexander, d. 1800. person
associatedWith Amherst, Jeffery Amherst, Baron, 1717-1797. person
associatedWith Bouquet, Henry, 1719-1765 person
associatedWith Brant, Joseph, 1742-1807 person
associatedWith Buckingham, George Nugent Temple Grenville, Marquess of, 1753-1813. person
associatedWith Burd, James, 1726-1793 person
associatedWith Butler, John, 1728-1796. person
associatedWith Butler, Richard, 1743-1791 person
associatedWith Chew, Joseph, d. 1798 person
associatedWith Clarke, Alured, Sir, 1744 or 5-1832. person
associatedWith Claus, Christian Daniel, 1727-1781 person
associatedWith Clinton, Henry, 1771-1829 person
associatedWith Clinton, Henry, Sir, 1738?-1795. person
associatedWith Clinton, Sir Henry, 1738? -1795 person
associatedWith Coffin, Thomas Aston, 1754-1810 person
associatedWith Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, Marquis, 1738-1805. person
associatedWith Duquesne de Menneville, Ange, marquis person
associatedWith Ewing, William. person
associatedWith Falladon, Charles Grey. person
associatedWith Falladon, Charles Grey. person
associatedWith Flaxman, John, 1755-1826. person
associatedWith Gates, Horatio, 1728-1806 person
associatedWith Goodwin-Haines Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Goodwin-Haines Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Goodwin-Haines Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Goodwin-Haines Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Goodwin-Haines Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Goodwin-Haines Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Gordon, Harry person
associatedWith Gray, James, ca. 1732-1796. person
associatedWith Great Britain. Army corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Army. Queen's Rangers (1776-1783) corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Parliament. corporateBody
associatedWith Great Britain. Royal Navy corporateBody
associatedWith Hamilton, Henry, d. 1796. person
associatedWith Hamilton, Robert, 1743-1809. . person
correspondedWith Hammond, George, 1763-1853. person
associatedWith Holland, Samuel, 1728-1801. person
associatedWith Howe, William Howe, Viscount, 1729-1814. person
associatedWith Hutchins, Thomas, 1730-1789 person
associatedWith Jarvis, Stephen, 1756-1840. person
associatedWith John Macintosh Duff Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Kerr, Elizabeth, d. 1845. person
associatedWith Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert Du Motier, marquis de, 1757-1834. person
associatedWith Littelhales, E.B. ( Edward Baker), d. 1825. person
associatedWith Littlehales, Edward Baker, d. 1825. person
associatedWith Long, Charles, 1760-1838. person
associatedWith Mansfield, William Murray, Earl of, 1705-1793 person
associatedWith McKee, Alexander, d. 1799 person
associatedWith Miller, Edward, 1756-1823 person
associatedWith Monckton, Robert, 1726-1782 person
associatedWith Monro, John, 1731-1800. person
associatedWith North, Frederick, Lord, 1732-1792. person
associatedWith Ourry, Lewis, 1717-1779 person
associatedWith Parrish, John, 1729-1807. person
associatedWith Pécaudy de Contrecoeur, Claude-Pierre, 1705-1775 person
associatedWith Perth, James Drummond, Lord, 1744-1800. person
associatedWith Pickering, Timothy, 1745-1829. person
associatedWith Public Archives of Canada. corporateBody
associatedWith Queen's Rangers, 1776-1781. corporateBody
associatedWith Robinson Family. family
associatedWith Simcoe, Elizabeth, 1762-1850. person
associatedWith Simcoe, John, 1710-1759. person
associatedWith Simcoe (Ont. : County). corporateBody
associatedWith Smith, David William, 1764-1837. person
associatedWith Stanwix, John, 1690? -1766 person
associatedWith St. Clair, Arthur, 1734-1818 person
associatedWith St. Clair, John, Sir person
associatedWith St. Vincent, John Jervis, Viscount, 1735-1823. person
associatedWith Talbott, Thomas, 1771-1853. person
associatedWith United States. Continental Congress. corporateBody
associatedWith Upper Canada. Lieutenant Governor (1791-1794 : Simcoe) corporateBody
associatedWith Virginia. Public Foundry. corporateBody
associatedWith William L. Clements Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Windham, William, 1750-1810. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States of America
Yorktown (Va.)
Williamsburg (Va.)
United States
United States
Great Britain
Vermont, U.S.A.
Fort Pitt (Pa.)
Norfolk, England
Great Britain
Edinburgh, Scotland
America
North America, America
United States
London, England
Canada
Peru, South America
United States
Wilcott, Great Ness
Great Britain
Ireland, Europe
Ohio
Virginia
Indiana
Great Lakes Region (North America)
Great Britain
Fort Greenville (Ohio)
Ireland, Europe
Gibraltar, Spain
Northwest, Old
Belfast, Antrim
Minsmere, Suffolk
Upper Canada
United States
United States
Winchester, Hampshire
Old Fort Niagara (N.Y.)
Great Britain
Ontario
Leeward Islands, the Carribean
India, Asia
Northwest, Old
United States
Canada
Fort Bedford (Ont.)
Antigua, the Carribean
France
Fort Detroit (Mich.)
Canada, North America
Williamsburg (Va.)
Corsica, France
Norwich, Norfolk
Canada
Letters (correspondence)--Canada
Yorktown (Va.)
Ridge, Hertfordshire
Norwich, Norfolk
Canada
Canada
United States of America
Subject
American loyalists
Indians of North America--Wars--1790-1794--Sources
Wayne's Campaign, 1794--Maps
Indians of North America--Wars
Ship captains--Diaries
Indians of North America--Government relations--1789-1869--Sources
Iroquois Indians
St. Clair's Campaign, 1791--Sources
Indians of North America--Canada--Government relations--History--18th century--Sources
Indians of North America--Government relations--1789-1869
Indians of North America--Canada--Government relations
Indians of North America--Government relations
Maps shelf
Manuscript maps--Early works to 1800
Military maps
Commerce--History
Manuscripts--English
Brun Guide
Manuscript maps
American loyalists--Archives
Clinton Maps
Occupation
Public officials--Upper Canada
Army officers, British
Activity

Person

Birth 1752-02-25

Death 1806-10-26

Bretons

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6028vmz

Ark ID: w6028vmz

SNAC ID: 34116740