The Space Astronomy Oral History Project, 1981-1986.

ArchivalResource

National Air and Space Museum. Dept. of Space History. The Space Astronomy Oral History Project, 1981-1986.

The Space Astronomy Oral History Project, 1981-1986.

This project examines the early use of rockets and satellites over the period 1946 through the early 1960s to study the upper atmosphere and space. The central thread of this collection is how the availability of new technologies for research, first the rocket and later satellites, helped to create a new social matrix for research. The key institutional elements of this matrix were parts of the military, such as the office of Naval Research and the Naval Research Laboratory, the Johns Hopkis Applied Physics Laboratory, the Army's White Sands Proving Ground, and the Air Force Cambridge Research Center; a group of universities and scientists such as the University of Iowa and James Van Allen; researach coordinating bodies such as the Upper Air Rocket Research Panel; and, at the end of the 1950s, NASA.

225 hours of interviews with 56 individuals.

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Spitzer, Lyman, 1914-1997

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Lyman Spitzer (b. June 26, 1914, Toldedo, OH-d. March 31, 1997, Princeton, NJ) was an American theoretical physicist, astronomer, and mountaineer. As a scientist, he carried out research into star formation, plasma physics, and in 1946, conceived the idea of telescopes operating in outer space. Spitzer invented the stellarator plasma device and is the namesake of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. He also was the founding director of Project Matterhorn, Princeton University's pioneering program in ...

Van Allen, James A. (James Alfred), 1914-2006

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Johns Hopkins University. Applied Physics Laboratory

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Goldberg, Leonard D.

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Died 1987. From the description of Oral history interview with Leo Goldberg, 1978 May 16 to 1982. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79357855 Leo Goldberg (1913-1987), Astronomer. Astronomy Department at the University of Michigan (1946-1960); election to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1958); chaired the Astronomy Department and Higgins Professor of Astronomy, Harvard University (1960-1971); Director of the Harvard College Observatory (1966-1971); Chair of NASA's Astrono...

Nier, Alfred O. (Alfred Otto), 1911-1994

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Physicist. Died 1994. From the description of An account of the first sample of separated Uranium 235 at the University of Minnesota in 1940, 1954. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82028106 Alfred Otto Carl Nier, world-renowned physicist and scientific instrument designer, was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, on May 28, 1911. He spent most of his career at the University of Minnesota, both as a student and as a member of the faculty. His post-doctoral work was done at Harvard Univ...

Hinners, Noel W.

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Fastie, William George, 1916-

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National Air and Space Museum. Dept. of Space History.

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Brunk, William Edward, 1928-

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Astronomer. Served as a research scientist with National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center and as planetary scientist with University Space Research Association, among other posts. He was active in the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences and in projects advancing radio and infrared astronomy. In 1985 he received the Exceptional Service Medal from NASA. From the description of William E. Brunk collection. (Unknown). WorldCat record ...

Rosen, Milton W.

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Rosen was a Senior Scientist in the Office of DOD and Interagency Affairs. From the description of Comments on Ranger Chronology : memo to Dr. Eugene M. Emme, NASA Historian, 1968 Dec 27. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library and Archives). WorldCat record id: 733096790 Rosen was in Rocket Vehicle Development. From the description of Proposed Plan of Action on THOR-DELTA and VEGA : memo to A. Hyatt, 1959 Feb 10. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library and Archives). Worl...

Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel.

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Strand, K. Aage (Kaj Aage), 1907-2000

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Astronomer and scientific director of the United States Naval Observatory. Died 2000. From the description of K. Aage Strand papers, 1875-1999 (bulk 1947-1977). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 646634443 Kaj Aage Strand, 1907-2000. Astronomer. Education: University of Copenhagen (PhD, 1938, astronomy). Professional experience: Geodetic Institute in Copenhagen (1931-1933); University of Leiden (1933-1938); Swarthmore College (1938-1946); University of Chicago (1946-1967); Direc...

Purcell, J. DeWitt (James DeWitt), 1912-1986

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Friedman, Herbert, 1916-2000

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Herbert Friedman received his Ph.D. in physics from Johns Hopkins University in 1940, and began working at the Naval Research Lab a year later. After two years of using X-ray radiation to detect manufacturing flaws, he was appointed head of the Electron Optics (1943-1958) branch of the Rocketry Division. In 1958 Friedman took over the Space Science Division until his retirement. From the description of Oral History interview with Herbert Friedman, 1983 June 7. (Unknown). WorldCat rec...

Porter, Richard W. (Richard William), 1913-

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White Sands Missile Range (N.M.)

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Webb, James E. (James Edwin), 1906-

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Government official and businessman. From the description of Letter : Washington, D.C., to Mattie U. Russell, 1976 Sept. 22. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 26997249 James Edwin Webb (1906-1992), lawyer and government official, was the Director of the Bureau of the Budget from 1946 to 1949, Under Secretary of State from 1949 to 1952, and Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1961 to 1968. From the description of We...

Strong, John, 1905-....

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John Donovan Strong (1905-1992). Physicist. Education: Uinversity of Kansas, B.A (1926); University of Michigan, M.S. (1928), Ph.D. (1930). Professional experience: Chemistry instructor at Universities of Kansas and Michigan, 1925-30; research fellow, CalTech, 1930-37; professor of physics, Harvard University, 1937-45; professor of physics and Director of the Laboratory of Astrophysics and Physical Meteorology, Johns Hopkins University, 1967-75; professor of physics and astronomy, University of ...

Code, Arthur D.

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Astronomer and astrophysicist. Born in 1923. From the description of Oral history interview with Arthur Dodd Code, 1982. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79182070 ...

Baum, William Alvin, 1924-

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Physicist. Affiliations: Naval Research Laboratory, 1946-1949; Mt. Wilson and Paolmar Observatory, 1950-1965; Planetary Research Center (Lowell Observatory), 1965-1990; consultant, Office of Space Science, NASA, 1970-present; Viking Orbiter Imaging Team (1970-1979) and Hubble Space Telescope Camera Team (1977-1997); Professor, University of Washington, 1990-present. Research interests: galaxies, spacecraft implementation, cosmology. From the description of Oral History interview with...

Roberts, Walter Orr

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Orr was born in 1915. From the description of Response to History of Modern Astrophysics Survey, 1980. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 77849767 Solar astronomer and geophysicist. Director of High Altitude Observatory, University of Colorado, 1946-1961; Director, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1960-1968. From the description of Oral history interview with Walter Orr Roberts, 1987 August 21. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78228351 From the descri...

Harwit, Martin, 1931-

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Astrophysicist. Martin Harwit served as professor of astronomy at Cornell University and as co-director of the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology Program. In 1987 he was appointed director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. He received a Ph.D. in physics in 1960 from M.I.T. and taught at Cornell since 1962. Harwit's research interests have included observational astronomy, theoretical astrophysics, infrared astronomy, galaxy formation, and the history o...

Tombaugh, Clyde William, 1906-1997.

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Clyde William Tombaugh was born February 4, 1906 on a farm near Streator, IL. The family moved to a farm in Kansas in 1922. He was hired to conduct planet-search photography in 1929 at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, AZ. On February 18, 1930, Tombaugh discovered the ninth planet Pluto. The official announcement of the discovery was made March 13. The discovery led to awards and a scholarship to the University of Kansas where he started as a freshman in 1932, receiving his B.A. in 1936. In 1...

Neugebauer, G. (Gerry)

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Hibbs, Albert R., 1924-2003

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Hibbs was Chief of the Division of Space Sciences. From the description of Division of Space Sciences - Division 32 Program Structure, 1960 Sep. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library and Archives). WorldCat record id: 733096844 From the description of Proposed budget for a lunar seismograph system, FY 1962, NASA-Lamont Geological Observatory : letter to Charles Sonett, NASA Chief of Lunar and Planetary Sciences, 1961 May 10. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library and Archives). Wor...

Schorn, Ronald A. (Ronald Anthony), 1935-

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Newburn, R. L. (Ray L.)

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Ray Leon Newburn (1933- ), astronomer and noted lunar and planetary scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he participated in the development of plans for lunar and planetary exploration and planetary models for mission design; served as JPL representative to National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Science Steering Committee's Astronomy Subcommittee; and helped establish the Table Mountain Observatory in 1962. From the description of Ray L. Newburn collection...

United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established as an independent agency of the executive branch on October 1, 1958 by the National Aeronautics and Space Act (72 Stat. 426), approved July 29, 1958. It superseded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). NASA conducted redsearch on problems of flight, developed aeronautical and space vehicles, explored outer space, and participated in international programs for the peaceful development of space technology....

DeVorkin, David H., 1944-....

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Withbroe, G. L. (George L.)

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Frosch, Robert A. (Robert Alan), 1928-

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Robert A. Frosch is a Senior Research Fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He received his Ph. D. in 1952 from Columbia University in Theoretical Physics and later conducted research in ocean acoustics at Columbia. He has served as Director for Nuclear Test Detection and Deputy Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Department of Defense, Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development, Assistant Executive Director of the...

Jursa, Adolph S.

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Gold, Thomas, Sir, -1686

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Died June 22, 2004. From the description of Oral history interview with Thomas Gold, 1978 April 1. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78228370 Thomas Gold (1920-2004). Astronomer. Education: Cambridge University. Professional experience: Cavendish Laboratory, 1946-1947; Trinity College, 1947-1951; Royal Greenwich Observatory, 1952-1956; Harvard University, 1957-1958; Cornell University, 1959-1987. Research interests: cosmology, geophysics, radio astronomy, magnetohydrodynamics. ...

Air Force Cambridge Research Center (U.S.)

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Roman, Nancy Grace, 1925-2018

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Astronomer (Spectroscopy). Assistant professor, University of Chicago (1949-1955); astronomer and head of microwave spectroscopy section, Naval Research Laboratory (1955-1959); head of the observational astronomical program and chief of astronomy and relativity programs, Office of Space Science, U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1960-1979). From the description of Papers, 1931-1993, (bulk 1950-1980). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83157976 ...

Aarons, Jules

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Jules Aarons is a research physicist and astronomer, who has spent most of his career in various U.S. Air Force laboratories. He was born in New York, and earned his B.S. at City College of New York in 1942. Aarons then earned his M.S. from Boston University in 1949, where he received a Fullbright scholarship to continue his studies in Paris, France. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Paris in 1954, before returning to Boston to begin his long career as a research physicist, chief radio ...

Krause, Ernst Henry, 1913-

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Physicist. Affiliations: Naval Research Laboratory, 1938-1954; Lockheed, 1954-1955; Ford Aeronautics, 1956-1962. Research interests: missile systems and rocket development, cosmic rays. From the description of Oral History interview with Ernst Henry Krause, 1982. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 154305428 Ernst Henry Krause attended the University of Wisconsin, receiving his B.S. in 1934, his M.S. in 1935, and his Ph.D. in Physics in 1938. Krause began his career as a professi...

Schwarzschild, Martin

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An American astronomer who was Eugene Higgins Professor of Astronomy at Princeton University from 1951 to 1979. From the description of Martin Schwarzschild papers, 1939-1994. (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 79110403 Martin Schwarzchild (1912-1997). From the description of Oral history interview with Martin Schwarzchild, 1977 September 27. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79715469 Martin Schwarzschild, 1912-1997. An American astronomer ...

Spencer, N. W. 1918-

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Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.)

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Drake, Frank D.

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University of Iowa. Interfraternity Council

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Himie Voxman is among UI's most honored faculty and administrators. He earned a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from the UI with high distinction in 1933, and received a master's degree in 1934 in the psychology of music, studying with pioneering researcher Carl Seashore. He taught woodwinds in nearby public schools, then in 1939 became a full-time UI faculty member. He served as director of the School of Music from 1954 until his retirement in 1980. Among many other honors, the UI Mus...

Tousey, Richard

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Richard Tousey (May 18, 1908- ). Prominent Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) space scientist whose career spans the V-2, Aerobee, OSO, Solrad, and Skylab eras. Graduated from Tufts College in 1928 and received a Ph.D. in Physics from Harvard in 1933. After teaching at both Tufts and Harvard he began his long association with the NRL in 1941. From the description of Papers, 1940s-1980s (bulk dates 1960s). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78159145 From the description of Oral hist...

Ney, Edward Purdy, 1920-....

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Edward Purdy Ney was born in Minneapolis in 1920. He earned his bachelor's degree in physics from the University of Minnesota in 1942. During his graduate studies he worked with the Naval Research Laboratory in analysis of uranium isotopes for the Manhattan Project. After earning his Ph. D. at the University of Virginia, he joined their faculty before returning to the University of Minnesota as an assistant professor. Ney's research included work on cosmic rays, astronomy, and solar physics, and...