Records, 1976-1997 (inclusive).

ArchivalResource

Black Women Oral History Project. Records, 1976-1997 (inclusive).

Records, 1976-1997 (inclusive).

Collection consists of research material collected by the project consisting of printed and manuscript material and photographs.

5 linear ft.

Related Entities

There are 77 Entities related to this resource.

Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w67q9nmk (person)

Agricultural scientist, teacher, humanitarian, artist, and Iowa State alumnus (1894, 1896). George Washington Carver was born ca. 1864, the son of slaves on the Moses Carver plantation near Diamond Grove, Missouri. He lost his father in infancy, and at the age of 6 months was stolen along with his mother by raiders, but was later found and traded back to his owner for a $300 race horse. He enrolled in Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa in 1890 studying music and art. Etta Budd, his art instructor ...

McCabe, Eliza

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6p3303j (person)

Dykes, Eva Beatrice, 1893-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w65m6v97 (person)

Educator. From the description of Reminiscences of Eva Beatrice Dykes : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122620469 African American English professor at Howard University and the first African American woman to earn a Ph.D at Radcliffe College, in 1921. From the description of Papers, 1914-1977. (Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center). WorldCat record id: 70941120 ...

Craft, Juanita Jewel, 1902-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6mw4cpd (person)

Civil rights activist. From the description of Reminiscences of Juanita Jewel Craft : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122587177 Juanita Craft (1902-.) is known for her lifelong work in support of education, civil rights, and the NAACP. Born Juanita Jewel Shanks in Round Rock, Texas, on February 9, 1902, she grew up in Austin. She attended Prairie View State Normal and Industrial College, a Black school, where she earned ...

Kittrell, Flemmie P. (Flemmie Pansy), 1904-1980

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6n30k34 (person)

Home economist. From the description of Reminiscences of Flemmie P. Kittrell : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122376740 African American and Cherokee home economist and professor, of Hampton, Va., and Washington, D.C. From the description of Papers, 1924-1980. (Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center). WorldCat record id: 70953367 ...

Chinn, May Edward, 1896-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6x63q5b (person)

Physician. From the description of Reminiscences of May Edwards Chinn :koral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122362006 Physician. May Chinn was the first African-American woman graduate of Bellevue Hospital Medical College, and the first African-American woman doctor in Harlem. From the guide to the May Edward Chinn collection, 1926-1980, (The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture...

Harper, Neddie Rucker

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6gj11jn (person)

Lewis, Catherine Cardozo

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6711jbt (person)

Businesswoman. From the description of Reminiscences of Catherine Cardozo Lewis : oral history, 1980. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122565457 ...

Waddles, Charleszetta, 1912-2001.

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6zw53d0 (person)

Pentecostal minister and founder of the Perpetual Mission for Saving Souls of All Nations in Detroit, Michigan. From the description of Charleszetta Waddles autobiography, [ca. 1975]. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 34422276 Pentecostal minister; interviewee married Payton Waddles. From the description of Reminiscences of Charleszetta Campbell Waddles : oral history, 1980. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122343161 ...

Jones, Lois Mailou

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6qz2dvx (person)

d. June 9, 1998. From the description of Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. (Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)). WorldCat record id: 122311085 African American woman artist, of Washington, D.C.; b. 1905. From the description of Lois Mailou Jones papers, 1943-1990. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70949653 African American female visual artist, educator, scholar, and mentor; served as professor of art at the Howard Univ. College of Fine Arts from 1...

Grant, Frances O. (Frances Olivia), 1895-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6zd0xnb (person)

Edwards-Madison, Lena Francis.

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w61p7mvb (person)

Boyd, Norma E., 1888-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w61v97qg (person)

Teacher. From the description of Reminiscences of Norma E. Boyd : oral history, 1976. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122394080 ...

Matthews, Miriam

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63200f8 (person)

Librarian. From the description of Reminiscences of Miriam Matthews : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122308349 Miriam Matthews (1905-2003), the first credentialed African-American librarian in the state of California, was a librarian at Los Angeles Public Library (1927-1960), a historian of African American and California history, and an active member of the American and California Library Associations' Committees on In...

Halyard, Ardie Clark

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6v15n4g (person)

Businesswoman, community leader. From the description of Reminiscences of Ardie Clark Halyard : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122527562 ...

Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63k42x2 (person)

Rosa Louis Lee Parks (1913-2005) became an icon of the civil rights movement after she was arrested and jailed for refusing to relinquish her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus in 1955. Her courage led to the Montgomery bus boycott and eventual court order outlawing segregation and discrimination on buses in that city. She was honored with the Congressional Gold Medal, the United States' highest civilian honor, in July of 1999. ...

Tanneyhill, Ann

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6gx51kd (person)

Civil rights worker. From the description of Reminiscences of Ann Tanneyhill : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86100429 ...

Johnson, Fidelia, 1905-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6q28p44 (person)

Teacher. From the description of Reminiscences of Fidelia Johnson : oral history, 1976. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122343137 ...

Kemp, Maida Springer

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6320nxd (person)

Trade-unionist. From the description of Oral history interview with Maida Springer Kemp, 1977. (Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban). WorldCat record id: 32321612 Trade unionist. From the description of Reminiscences of Maida Springer Kemp : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86131813 Kemp was born in Panama, Central America, in 1910 and moved to New York City with her mot...

Williams, Frances H.

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6bk3xdg (person)

Government official. From the description of Reminiscences of Frances H. Williams : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122619837 ...

Eberhardt, Mae Massie, 1915-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6fn4pwv (person)

Union activist and official. Interviewed by Marcia M. Greenlee. From the description of Reminiscences of Mae Massie Eberhardt : oral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122513058 ...

Holmes, Margaret, 1898-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w62z1zbj (person)

Cosmetologist. From the description of Reminiscences of Margaret Cardozo Holmes and Elizabeth Cardozo Barker : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86147585 ...

Abbott, Jessie

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w69k850k (person)

Secretary. From the description of Reminiscences of Jessie Abbott : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122394075 ...

Tate, Merze, 1905-1996

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6931gd6 (person)

February 6, 1905 Born to Charles Edward and Myrtle (Katora) Tate in Blanchard, MI 1918 1920 Attended Blanchard School for two years 1923 Battle Creek High School honor graduate and winner of first place in the Hynman Oratorical contest ...

Gayton, Virginia Clark

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6g48wqr (person)

U.S. postal worker. From the description of Reminiscences of Virginia Clark Gayton : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122569614 ...

Snowden, Muriel S. (Muriel Sutherland), 1916-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6rz04rt (person)

Social reformer. From the description of Reminiscences of Muriel S. Snowden: oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86131836 Muriel S. and Otto P. Snowden were the founders and co-directors of Freedom House, a center for neighborhood improvement and community activism in the racially mixed neighborhood of Roxbury, Massachusetts. From 1949 until their retirement in 1984, the Snowdens were influential lea...

Lindsay, Inabel, 1900-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6s8532r (person)

Ferebee, Dorothy Boulding, 1898?-1980

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6np2swj (person)

Physician, administrator, and activist, of Boston, Mass., and Washington, D.C.; b. 1898. From the description of Papers, 1910-1980. (Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center). WorldCat record id: 70953364 Physician. From the description of Reminiscences of Dorothy Boulding Ferebee : oral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122513781 ...

Laurie, Eunice Rivers, 1899-1986

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6739833 (person)

Nurse. From the description of Reminiscences of Eunice Rivers Laurie : oral history, 1977. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122620194 ...

Moore, Audley, 1898-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6q556nz (person)

Audley (Queen Mother) Moore, an African American black nationalist and communist, was born in New Iberia, Louisiana, in 1898. In 1919 she joined Marcus Garvey's black nationalist movement, and in the 1920s, moved to New York City to work in Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association. In 1936 she joined the Communist Party, was active in its Harlem section, becoming its secretary in 1941, and in 1942, secretary of the New York State Party organization. In the late 1940s she began to assert ...

Yarbrough, Arline J., 1912-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6795hhx (person)

Alexander, Sadie Tanner Mossell, 1898-1989

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6hh6pgg (person)

Educator. From the description of Reminiscences of Sadie T.M. Alexander : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309720632 ...

Edmonds, Florence, 1890-1983.

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6nh4bfc (person)

Aiken, Lucy Rucker

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6vx20rh (person)

Adair, Christia, 1893-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6255182 (person)

Civil rights activist; interviewee married Elbert H. Adair. From the description of Reminiscences of Christia V. Adair : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122564830 ...

Height, Dorothy I. (Dorothy Irene), 1912-2010

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6z901p0 (person)

Social worker. From the description of Reminiscences of Dorothy I. Height : oral history, 1976. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 309740864 Civil rights activist; YWCA worker From the description of Dorothy Irene Height papers, 1937-2005 (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 463485177 Dorothy Irene Height was born March 24, 1912 in Richmond, Virginia to Fannie Burroughs and James Height. Both of Height's paren...

Wolfe, Deborah Joanne

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6qc2m61 (person)

Educator and minister, Deborah (Cannon) Patridge Wolfe was born in Cranford, N.J., in 1916, and educated at New Jersey State Teachers College (B.S. 1937) and Columbia University (M.A. 1938, Ed.D. 1945). She was on the faculty at Tuskegee Institute (1938-1950), serving as head of the Department of Elementary Education and as director of the graduate studies program, and at Queens College, City University of New York, where she was professor of education. In 1970 she was ordained and in 1975 appoi...

West, Dorothy, 1909-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6hr3kr3 (person)

Mitchell, Lucy Miller, 1899-2002

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w62c0q0x (person)

Educator. From the description of Reminiscences of Lucy Miller Mitchell : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122376730 Specialist in early childhood education, Lucy Miller Mitchell was education consultant to the national Head Start program and educational director of the Associated Day Care Services of Metropolitan Boston. She was instrumental in mobilizing statewide support for the 1962 law regulating the licensing of Mas...

Wise, Ozeline

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6wx186k (person)

Ozeline Barrett (Pearson) Wise (1903-1988) was born in Worcester, Mass., the daughter of Rev. William B. and Frances (Gale) Lavinia Pearson. She was educated in the public schools in Cambridge, Mass., where her father was minister of the Saint Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1931, she married John D. Wise; they had one son, Hubert B. Wise. During World War II she worked for the U.S. Navy, both in ship fittings and in personnel. After the war, she became the first black woman to be em...

Stokes, Olivia Pearl, 1916-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w60z8jws (person)

Educator, lecturer, author and administrator, Dr. Stokes is an ordained minister in the American Baptist Churches and is well known as a religious educator. From the description of Olivia Pearl Stokes papers : additions, 1972-1992. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122466732 Educator, minister. From the description of Reminiscences of Olivia Pearl Stokes : oral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122574364 ...

Thurman, Sue Bailey

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6mk94xf (person)

Thomas, Constance Pitter

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w67q0vz4 (person)

Speech therapist. From the description of Reminiscences of Constance Allen Thomas : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122419536 ...

Wells-Barnett, Ida B., 1862-1931

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6dc8qwq (person)

Ida B. Wells (b. July 16, 1862, Holly Springs, MS - d. March 25, 1931, Chicago, IL) was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862, six months before the Emancipation Proclamation granted freedom to her slave parents. Following the death of both her parents of yellow fever in 1878, Ida, at age 16, began teaching in a one-room schoolhouse in rural Mississippi. Some time between 1882 and 1883 Wells moved to Memphis, Tennessee, to teach in city schools. She was dismissed, in 1891, for h...

Nipson, Annie M. (Annie Mae), 1884-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6dn4zbp (person)

Domestic; interviewee married John William Nipson. From the description of Reminiscences of Annie Mae Nipson : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122632185 ...

Rucker, Hazel

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6z625f7 (person)

Lancaster, Abna, 1907-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63p1q6d (person)

Barker, Elizabeth, 1900-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6jj04m1 (person)

Black Women Oral History Project.

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6745d6x (corporateBody)

Under the auspices of the Schlesinger Library, the Black Women Oral History Project interviewed 72 African-American women between 1976 and 1981. The project sought a cross section of women who had made significant contributions to American society in the first half of the twentieth century. Many interviewees had professional careers in such fields as education, government, the arts, business, medicine, law, and social work. Others combined care for their families with volunteer work at the local...

Jones, Susie, 1892-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6d25f49 (person)

Hester, Beulah S. (Beulah Shepard), 1893-1981

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6b86c7n (person)

Social worker. From the description of Reminiscences of Beulah S. Hester : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122451862 ...

Jackson, Ellen.

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w65b2dqz (person)

Ellen Swepson Jackson was the founder/executive director of Operation Exodus, a program to bus inner-city students from Boston to suburban schools. She is co-author of Family Experiences in Operation Exodus, Inc. (1967), and since 1978 has served as dean and director of affirmative action at Northeastern University. From the description of Papers, 1968, n.d. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 232007305 ...

Duster, Alfreda, 1904-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6s75wwp (person)

Community activist. From the description of Reminiscences of Alfreda Barnett Duster : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122440993 ...

Smith, Julia Hamilton, 1885-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63x8952 (person)

Julia Hamilton Smith was a teacher in Washington, D.C. schools for over forty years. In 1947 she moved to Cambridge, Mass., to care for her brother, a successful physician. Smith was active in religious and civic organizations in Washington and Cambridge, including the NAACP and the Young Women's Christian Association. From the description of Papers, 1969-1981 (inclusive). (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 122298152 Teacher. From the description of Remini...

Flippin, Katherine Stewart, 1906-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6kd7rv6 (person)

Jones, Virginia Lacy, 1912-1984

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63r49dz (person)

Librarian; interviewee married E. A. Jones. From the description of Reminiscences of Virginia Lacy Jones : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122565494 ...

Cass, Melnea A. (Melnea Agnes), 1896-1978

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6z063sb (person)

Civic leader. From the description of Reminiscences of Melnea A. Cass : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122608520 ...

Harrison, Pleasant, 1915-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63f86g1 (person)

Civil servant. From the description of Reminiscences of Pleasant Harrison : oral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122513406 ...

Thompson, Mary C. (Mary Crutchfield), 1902-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6m913zp (person)

Dentist. From the description of Reminiscences of Mary Crutchfield Thompson : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122631954 ...

Walker, Margaret, 1915-1998

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6zc8xh7 (person)

Teacher, writer. From the description of Reminiscences of Margaret Abigail Walker Alexander : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122526993 ...

Fisher, Minnie L. (Minnie Lucinda), 1896-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w69k8jgd (person)

Town clerk. From the description of Reminiscences of Minnie Lucinda Fisher : oral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122574569 ...

Hedgeman, Anna Arnold, 1899-1990

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6bk2mhq (person)

African American civil rights leader and educator. From the description of Anna Arnold Hedgeman papers, 1944-1952. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70984193 Anna Arnold Hedgeman (1899-1990) spent more than six decades working in the fields of interfaith and civil rights organizing, government service, and urban affairs. The author of two memoirs, The Trumpet Sounds (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964) and The Gift of Chaos (Oxford, 1977), Hedgeman was a pioneer in o...

Kelly, Hattie Simmons

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6vf463d (person)

Dunnigan, Alice Allison, 1906-1983

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6n30kb8 (person)

Teacher, journalist. From the description of Reminiscences of Alice Allison Dunnigan : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122419371 Alice Allison Dunnigan, journalist and author, was born in Russellville, Kentucky in 1906 and died in Washington, D.C., in 1983. After teaching school and working as a writer for several Kentucky newspapers, Dunnigan moved to Washington, DC, where, from 1947 to 1961, she served as chief of the ...

Albrier, Frances Mary, 1898-1987

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6d79g3h (person)

Trade-unionist. From the description of Oral history interview with Frances Albrier. 1968. (Wayne State University, Archives of Labor & Urban). WorldCat record id: 32321497 Community leader. From the description of Reminiscences of Frances Albrier : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122308222 ...

Williams, Addie Luck, 1874-1982

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6sn2fvv (person)

Teacher; interviewee married Pemberton Williams. From the description of Reminiscences of Addie Luck Williams and Henry Williams : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122598072 ...

Adams, Kathleen Redding, 1890-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6dk2f2f (person)

Hill, May Edwards

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6514f4d (person)

Social worker. From the description of Reminiscences of May Edwards Hill : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122527669 ...

Scott, Esther Mae, 1893-1979

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6796vpp (person)

Domestic servant, singer. From the description of Reminiscences of Esther Mae Scott : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86100466 ...

Dickson, Clara

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w63b6rw7 (person)

Community affairs leader. From the description of Reminiscences of Clara Dickson : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86147491 ...

Usher, Bazoline, 1885-

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6md1rv7 (person)

Educator. From the description of Reminiscences of Bazoline Estelle Usher : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122513698 ...

George, Zelma, 1903-1994

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6v99bxb (person)

Hunter, Clementine

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6gj0fhs (person)

Artist. From the description of Reminiscences of Clementine Hunter : oral history, 1979. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122597977 African American folk artist; Natichitoches, La.; b. 1885; d. 1988. From the description of Documentary on Clementine Hunter, 1985. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 779476826 From the description of Video on Clementine Hunter, 1985 [videorecording]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83475525 ...

Temple, Ruth Janetta, 1892-1984

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6jt3wzh (person)

Physician; interviewee married Otis L. Banks. From the description of Reminiscences of Ruth Janetta Temple : oral history, 1978. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122574571 ...

Barnett, Etta Moten, 1901-2004

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6c82jw1 (person)

An internationally acclaimed concert and musical theater singer, social activist and philanthropist, Etta Moten Barnett's career began in the 1930s and continued past her 100th birthday. She starred in Broadway musicals and in films. Her husband was Claude Barnett, founder and president of the Associated Negro Press. She was active in the Chicago chapter of The Links, Inc. Her papers include correspondence, speech texts, clippings, programs, photographs and memorabilia. From the desc...

Thompson, Era Bell

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w60s0tmr (person)

Editor, EBONY MAGAZINE. Chicago, Illinois. From the description of Letter, February 6, 1972. (State Historical Society of North Dakota State Archives). WorldCat record id: 17998699 ...

Adams, Frankie V., 1902-1979

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w61c4ngk (person)

Social worker. From the description of Reminiscences of Frankie V. Adams : oral history, 1977. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 86100368 Florence "Frankie" Victoria Adams (b. 1902 d. 1979) was a social worker, educator, author, and community activist. For most of her career, she was associated with the Atlanta School of Social Work (later the Atlanta University School of Social Work), the first school for African Americans to be accredited b...