Page, William, 1811-1885

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Portrait and figure painter.

From the description of Letter : New York, to John Sartain, 1875 Dec. 9. (Bryn Mawr College). WorldCat record id: 28489467

Portrait, figure painter; New York.

Page was married three times; his first wife was Lavinia Twibill, sister of painter,? divorced c. 1843, second was Sara A. Dougherty. In 1857 he married Sophia Candace Stevens Hitchcock, daughter of Henry Stevens, an important bibliographer and bookseller. William and Sophie had six children.

From the description of William Page and Page family papers, 1828-1942. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80383296

William Page (1811-1885) was a portrait and figure painter in New York.

Page studied with the painter/engraver James Herring in 1825 and under Samuel F.B. Morse, at the National Academy of Design in 1826, the year it was formed. Page was married three times; the first two, to Lavinia Twibill and Sara A. Dougherty respectively, ended in divorce. He had three daughters with his first wife. His third wife was Sophia Candace Stevens Hitchcock, daughter of Henry Stevens, an important bibliographer and bookseller, with whom he had six children. He worked with the photographer Matthew Brady and others on portraits of Civil War heroes. A series of collapses in the 1870s left him incapacitated until his death in 1885.

From the description of William Page and Page family papers, 1815-1947, bulk 1843-1892. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 368021076

The painter William Page was born in 1811 in Albany, NY. He attended public schools in New York City, and after working briefly in the law firm of Frederick de Peyster, was placed in the studio of the painter/engraver James Herring in 1825, where he received his first formal art training. He took classes at the National Academy of Design the year it was formed, in 1826, under Samuel F.B. Morse, and in 1827 he was awarded one of the National Academy's first annual student prizes.

Page joined the Presbyterian church and attended Phillips Academy and Amherst with the intention of becoming a minister, but his artistic ability won out, and by 1830 he was painting commissioned portraits in Albany, Rochester, and New York. He married Lavinia Twibill in 1833, and they had three daughters between 1834 and 1839. He joined the American Academy and served on its board of directors in 1835. He exhibited at the American Academy, the National Academy of Design, the Boston Athenaeum, and other venues throughout the 1830s. Favorable reviews brought steady portrait commissions, including John Quincy Adams and the New York governor William L. Marcy. He was made a full member of the National Academy in 1837.

In the 1840s, Page's reputation and maturity as a painter grew. His first wife left him around 1840, and in 1843 he married Sarah Dougherty. The couple moved to Albany, Boston, and back to New York seeking portrait commissions and patronage. He became friends with the poet James Russell Lowell and the writer and publisher Charles Frederick Briggs, two writers and editors who helped to promote his artwork in Boston and New York and published his theoretical writings. In 1844, Lowell dedicated his first published book of poetry to Page, and the following year, Briggs published a series of articles by Page in the Broadway Journal, entitled "The Art of the Use of Color in Imitation in Painting." The series described Page's arduous experiments with color and glazes, and his ideas about correspondences between spirituality and the natural world as expressed in art.

In 1850, Page traveled to Florence, Italy, where he painted several copies of the works of Titian in the galleries of the Uffizi and Pitti palaces, studying his use of color and further developing his own experimental techniques. He became friends with the sculptor Hiram Powers, who introduced him to the writings of Emmanuel Swedenborg, a Christian metaphysician whose ideas fueled Page's interest in the spiritual aspects of art. In 1852, Page moved to Rome, a city with an international artists' community and a strong market for art. Page found a loyal following in Rome's large circle of American ex-patriates, including the sculptors Thomas Crawford and Harriet Hosmer, the actress Charlotte Cushman, and the poets Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, all of whom sat for portraits by Page.

In 1854, Page's second wife left him amidst public scandal, and he sank deep in debt to his bankers at Packenham and Hooker, an English firm that by 1856 had a lien on all the paintings in his studio. That same year Page met Sophia Stevens Hitchcock, an American widow traveling in Rome with Bertha Olmsted, Frederick Law Olmsted's sister. Hitchcock was from Barnet, Vermont and came to Europe after her first husband died in 1852 after only a year of marriage. She traveled to England and Paris, where she wrote regular columns on local customs and events for the New York Tribune that were published under the by-line "An American Woman in Paris." She and Page met in Rome in 1856, and in October 1857, after Page traveled back the United States to obtain a divorce from Sarah Dougherty, he and Sophia married.

The couple stayed in Rome until 1860. His wife's three brothers, all businessmen, helped to promote his artwork in Europe and America. Page's paintings of this period include several Venus subjects, one of which was championed by his most loyal patrons, who raised $3000 by subscription to buy the painting for the Boston Athenaeum. A later Venus painting was rejected from the Paris salon for indecency, a controversy that was later leveraged for publicity in a touring exhibition in the United States.

The Pages returned to the United States in 1860 and settled in Tottenville, New York. They had six children between 1858 and 1870. Page had a studio at Eagleswood, NJ, and later in the Studio Building on 10th Street in Manhattan, where he held a large exhibition in 1867. In the 1860s, he painted a self-portrait and a companion portrait of Sophia set in Rome, as well as a series of civil war heroes including Robert Gould Shaw, Winfield Scott, and David Farragut. Photographs played a consistent part in Page's technique of portraiture, and he is known to have worked with the photographer Matthew Brady, who attended art classes early on with Page, as well as the photographers Sarony and Charles Williamson, who taught classes on drawing from enlarged photo-transparencies. Brady photographs taken for Page include David Farragut and Reuben Fenton.

Page lectured frequently on Titian and Venetian art, a subject in which he was considered an expert, and on painting technique and his philosophical ideas about nature, art, and spirituality. In 1871, Page was elected the president of the National Academy of Design, a post he held until 1873, but his poor health following a collapse in 1872 limited his accomplishments in office. Despite these limitations, he continued to paint, including portraits of General Grant, an idealized portrait of the president based on early photographs and Charles Sumner. He also became interested in portraiture of William Shakespeare around this time, and his studies resulted in a book, Shakespeare's Portraits, a bust based on existing portraiture, and a full-length portrait entitled "Shakespeare Reading," based on Page's measurements of a supposed death mask in Darmstadt, Germany, which he went to inspect against the advice of his doctor in 1874.

In 1877, another collapse left Page incapacitated for the remainder of his life. Sophia Page tried editing and publishing his writings and lectures, but with little success. Page died in 1885. A life marked by personal scandal ended the same, when two of his daughters from his first marriage contested his will, tying up his estate in a lengthy and public probate trial. Their suit was dismissed in 1889, and Sophia Page died in 1892.

This biography relies heavily on Joshua Taylor's William Page: The American Titian (1957).

From the guide to the William Page and Page Family papers, 1815-1947, bulk 1843-1892, (Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Joseph Sill selected diaries Archives of American Art
referencedIn Selected papers from the Edward Carey Gardiner Collection Archives of American Art
referencedIn Grolier Club. Grolier Club artistic properties information files, 1913- Grolier Club
referencedIn Shaw, Sarah Blake Sturgis, 1815-1902,. Letters to Sarah Blake Sturgis Shaw from various correspondents, 1838-1880. Houghton Library
referencedIn Stevens, Benjamin Franklin, 1833-1902,. Autograph letter signed from B.F. Stevens, London, to J. Parker Norris, Philadelphia [manuscript], 1877 April 19. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf William Page and Page Family papers Archives of American Art
creatorOf Charles Henry Hart papers Archives of American Art
creatorOf John C. Page letter to William Page Archives of American Art
creatorOf Gatty, Alfred, Mrs., 1809-1873,. Autograph letter signed from Mrs. Alfred Gatty, Ecclesfield, Yorkshire, to [William] Page [manuscript], 1864 May 14. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Weir family papers Archives of American Art
referencedIn Norris, Joseph Parker, 1847-1916,. Copy of letters to Joseph Parker Norris from Sophia Page and William Page, New York, December 1873-January 15, 1874 [manuscript], after 1873. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Albert Duveen collection of artists' letters and ephemera Archives of American Art
referencedIn Edmonds, Francis William, 1806-1863. Notebook, [ca. 1835-1840]. New-York Historical Society
creatorOf Page, William, 1811-1885. Artist file. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Howard Russell Butler papers Archives of American Art
referencedIn Samuel Gray Ward and Anna Hazard Barker Ward papers, 1823-1934 (inclusive) 1837-1900 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Norris, Joseph Parker, 1847-1916,. Autograph letters signed to Joseph Parker Norris from Sophia Page and William Page, New York [manuscript], 1873-1877. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Page, William, 1811-1885. Letter : New York, to John Sartain, 1875 Dec. 9. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Carpenter, F. B. (Francis Bicknell), 1830-1900. Letters to Sanford Thayer, 1865-1880. Texas Christian University
referencedIn James Russell Lowell papers, 1835-1919. Houghton Library
creatorOf Page, Sophia Stevens, 1827-1892,. Autograph letter signed from Sophia Page, Tottenville, to Joseph Parker Norris [manuscript], 1877 March 28. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn Sara D. Page letters Archives of American Art
referencedIn Briggs, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1804-1877. Charles Frederick Briggs letters : to James Russell Lowell, 1843-1860. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Portrait file: Guide. Houghton Library
creatorOf Stevens, Henry, 1819-1886,. Autograph letter signed from Henry Stevens, London, to Prof. Owen, British Museum [manuscript], 1877 April 10. Folger Shakespeare Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813-1887. person
associatedWith Beecher, Thomas Kinnicut, 1824-1900. person
associatedWith Briggs, Charles F. (Charles Frederick), 1804-1877. person
associatedWith Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 1806-1861. person
associatedWith Browning, Robert, 1812-1889. person
associatedWith Carpenter, F. B. (Francis Bicknell), 1830-1900. person
associatedWith Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880. person
associatedWith Chilton, R. S. person
associatedWith Curtis, George William, 1824-1892. person
associatedWith Cushman, Charlotte, 1816-1876. person
associatedWith Dana, Charles A. (Charles Anderson), 1819-1897. person
associatedWith Duveen, Albert, person
associatedWith Edmonds, Francis William, 1806-1863. person
associatedWith Fenton, Reuben E. (Reuben Eaton), 1819-1885. person
associatedWith Fenton, Rueben person
associatedWith Gardiner, Edward Carey, ca. 1879-1945. person
associatedWith Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879. person
correspondedWith Gatty, Alfred, Mrs., 1809-1873, person
associatedWith Grolier Club. corporateBody
associatedWith Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918. person
associatedWith Hicks, Thomas, 1823-1890. person
associatedWith Hitchcock, Stephen. person
associatedWith Lowell, James Russell, 1819-1891. person
associatedWith National Academy of Design (U.S.) corporateBody
correspondedWith Norris, Joseph Parker, 1847-1916, person
associatedWith O'Donovan, William Rudolph, 1844-1920. person
associatedWith Olmstead, Bertha person
associatedWith Olmstead, Bertha. person
associatedWith Olmstead, Mary person
associatedWith Olmstead, Mary. person
associatedWith Page family. person
associatedWith Page, George S. person
associatedWith Page, John C. person
associatedWith Page, Levi. person
associatedWith Page, Sara Daugherty. person
associatedWith Page, Sophia Stevens, 1827-1892. person
associatedWith Page, Tamer. person
associatedWith Perry, E. W. (Enoch Wood), 1831-1915. person
associatedWith Phillips, Wendell person
associatedWith Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884. person
associatedWith Powers, Hiram, 1805-1873. person
associatedWith Sarony, Napoleon, 1821-1896, person
associatedWith Sartain, John, 1808-1897. person
associatedWith Scranton, William Walker person
associatedWith Scranton, William Walker. person
associatedWith Scudder, Horace Elisha, 1838-1902. person
associatedWith Shaw, Francis George, 1809-1882. person
associatedWith Shaw, Sarah Blake Sturgis, 1815-1902, person
associatedWith Sill, Joseph, 1801-1854. person
associatedWith Stark, William person
associatedWith Stark, William, 1825-1873. person
associatedWith Stevens, Benjamin Franklin, 1833-1902. person
associatedWith Stevens, Enos, 1816-1877. person
associatedWith Stevens, Henry, 1819-1886. person
associatedWith Sumner, Charles person
associatedWith Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874. person
associatedWith Thorn, Harry, person
associatedWith Tilton, Theodore, 1835-1907. person
associatedWith Ward, Samuel Gray. person
associatedWith Watson, Emma Page. person
associatedWith Weir family. family
associatedWith Williams, Mary Page, 1878-1937. person
associatedWith Wilmarth, Lemuel Everett, 1835-1918. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
New York (State)--New York
New York (State)--New York
Portrait painters
Portrait painters
Painting, Modern
Portrait painting
Portrait painting


Birth 1811-01-03

Death 1885-10-01




Ark ID: w6251s93

SNAC ID: 8699107