Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent, 1743-1794

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French chemist and government administrator, considered the founder of modern chemistry.

From the description of Géographie minéralogique de la France / [par] Lavoisier et Guettard, 177-? (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 123487897

From the description of Géographie minéralogique de la France / [par] Lavoisier et Guettard, 177-? (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63938887

En 1775, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794) fut nommé régisseur des poudres et salpêtres. Il s’installa à l’Arsenal qui devint, avec l’installation de son laboratoire, l’un des centres scientifiques les plus réputés d’Europe. Il est le créateur de la chimie moderne. Il fut le premier à faire progresser les conceptions théoriques de la chimie. Il découvrit le rôle de l’oxygène dans la combustion, étudia la formation des acides phosphorique, sulfurique et nitrique, ainsi que la composition du gaz carbonique. Il plaça l’oxygène au centre de son système. Fermier général depuis 1779, Lavoisier avait épousé Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, fille d’un fermier général. La loi du 7 août 1791 créa une commission chargée de liquider les affaires de la Ferme générale. Tous les fermiers généraux furent arrêtés le 24 décembre 1793 et traînés devant le tribunal révolutionnaire. Ils furent condamnés à la peine de mort. Lavoisier ayant demandé un délai de grâce pour terminer ses travaux, le président du tribunal lui aurait déclaré : « la République n’a pas besoin de savants ». Lavoisier périt sur l’échafaud en 1794.

Information extraite de la notice des Archives nationals de France (FRAN_NP_050534)

French scientist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Paris, to M. Parisis fils, at Villers-Cotterêts, a relative, 1790 Dec. 9. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270596941

French chemist.

From the description of Letter, 1791, Mar. 20 : Paris, to M. Doirée, Valence. (Duke University). WorldCat record id: 35130852

French chemist and physicist, regarded as the founder of modern chemistry; also an important French government official, active in the Régie des poudres and Ferme générale, who also served as treasurer of the Académie des sciences.

From the description of Lavoisier manuscript collection, 1770-1794 (bulk). (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63934972

French chemist and physicist, regarded as the founder of modern chemistry; also an important French government official, active in the Régie des poudres and Ferme générale, who also served as treasurer of the Académie des sciences.

Lavoisier's wife, Marie-Anne-Pierrette Lavoisier (née Paulze), was a talented artist who studied with Jacques-Louis David. She drew the illustrations for her husband's seminal Traité élémentaire de chimie (1789), assisted Lavoisier in the laboratory, and also translated the work of English chemists such as Richard Kirwan so that Lavoisier would be able to read them.

From the description of Lavoisier artifacts, circa 1750-1794. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 465670416

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) was trained as a geologist and lawyer at the University of Paris. In 1764 he turned his attention to the study of chemistry. During the 1770s he was a key figure in the Chemical Revolution. His experimental work focused on identifying the properties of gases, (hydrogen and oxygen), acids, and water. He played a critical role in developing the first tables of chemical nomenclature.

Lavoisier applied his scientific principles in an effort to develop a better gunpowder. While on the faculty of the University of Paris he supervised the work of Eleuthère Irénée du Pont who in 1802 established the first Du Pont powder works on the banks of the Brandywine River in Delaware.

Lavoisier was a critic of the old regime, in France but as a tax farmer was marked for punishment by the revolutionaries. He was arrested on December 24, 1793, and executed on May 8, 1794.

From the description of Papers, 1785 [microform]. (Hagley Museum & Library). WorldCat record id: 122558522

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Notes sur la musique, [17--]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn French, Sidney J. (Sidney James), 1894-. Letter, 1948 March 15, Hamilton, N.Y., to Sanborn C. Brown, Cambridge, Mass. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Barchas, Cecile M.,. Portrait prints of scientists, 1473-1898. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Fonds de la Bibliothèque du Palais des Arts, aujourd’hui réparti entre la Bibliothèque municipale de Lyon, la Bibliothèque de l’Académie de Lyon et la Bibliothèque Nationale de France Ms PA 1 - Ms PA 362. Bibliothèque municipale (Lyon)
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Plans, architectural drawings, and sketches of various buildings owned by Lavoisier and Madame Lavoisier (Countess Rumford), [ca. 1832] Cornell University Library
referencedIn Guerlac, Henry. Guerlac-Perrin Lavoisier Archive, 1939-1987. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Krit︠s︡man, Viktor Abramovich. The Viktor A. Kritsman Collection of Reprints, 1976-1996 Chemical Heritage Foundation, Othmer Library of Chemical History
creatorOf Académie des sciences (France). Journal des recettes et dépenses faites pour l'Académie des sciences pendant l'année 1792[-1793], 1792-1793. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Fonds Paulze et Lavoisier (1623-1781) Archives nationales (France)
referencedIn French, Sidney J. (Sidney James), 1894-. Torch and Crucible: The Life and Death of Antoine Lavoisier : annotated typescript, 1941. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Ghislain manuscript, [1794?] Cornell University Library
referencedIn Priestley, Joseph, 1733-1804. Experiments relating to phlogiston and the conversion of water into air, 1783. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Mémoire sur le Dauphiné dressé le premier de janvier mil six cents quatre vingts dix huit, [176-?]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Paris (France). Bureau de consultation des arts et métiers. Registre des rapports des artistes, 1792. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Papers, 1785 [microform]. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Pen drawings of ancient coins, [17-?]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Letter, 1790-1926. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Letter, [1794?] October 15, [Paris], to an unnamed recipient. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Diary, 1769-1770. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Roscoe, H. G. Leçons de chimie, 1788. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de, 1683-1757. Notes and letters : concerning beetles and weevils : manuscript, 1737-1746. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, 1739-1817. Papers, 1769-1831. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Nolin, Jean Baptiste, 1686-1762. Maps used by Lavoisier and Paulze in their work as fermiers-généraux, [ca. 1745-1775]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Plan geometral dv chasteauv de Freschine[s], [17--?] Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Description minéralogique de la France / Lavoisier et Guettard, 177-? Cornell University Library
creatorOf Coulomb, C. A. (Charles Augustin), 1736-1806. Proofs of engravings which appeared in Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences, 1789. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Tissandier, Gaston, 1843-1899. Tissandier collection on the history of aeronautics, 1539-1929 (bulk 1780-1920). Library of Congress
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Diary, 1769-1770. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Réponses aux questions proposées dans la lettre circulaire de Mrs. les régisseurs, 1775. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Experiments relating to phlogiston and the conversion of water into air, 1783, 1783 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Devis relatif aux cartes de Catalogne, [176-?]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Paris (France). Bureau de consultation des arts et métiers. Registre des rapports des artistes, 1792. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Autograph letter signed : [Paris], to an unidentified official, 1791 08 22. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Guerlac, Henry. A chronology of Lavoisier's career / prepared by Henry Guerlac and Carl Perrin, 1968? Cornell University Library
creatorOf Bourdelin, Claude, 1621-1699. Analises chymiques de Monsieur Bourdelin : commencées le trante aoust 1672 et finies le deuzieme septembre 1699, 1672-1699. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIa, 1743-1806 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Académie des sciences (France). Extrait des registres ... : record books of the treasurer, 1780-1793. Cornell University Library
creatorOf [Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, biographical materials] University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
referencedIn Blagden, Charles, Sir, 1748-1820. [Letterbook], 1783 Aug 12 - 1787 May 16. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Mongella. Vie privée de M. Guettard, 1786. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Du Pont, Eleuthère Irénée, 1771-1834. Notes on powder making, gunpowder mills and saltpeter, 1788. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Henry Guerlac papers, 1922-1981 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
creatorOf Lavoisier, Jean-Antoine. Universa philosophiae elementa ordine naturali exposita et ad usum scholarum accomodata ... / Omnia scripsit Joannes Antonius Lavoisier auditor Ludovici Benet, 1731-1732. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Archives nationales (France). Manuscripts relating to Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, 1788-1806. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Adanson, Michel, 1727-1806. Autograph notes on nitre, n.d. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn La Forte collection, 1784-1797 Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Du Tennetar, Michel, 1740-1801. Cours particulier de chimie : commencé le 10 février 1785, 1785. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Académie des sciences, belles lettres et arts de Besançon. Mémoires présentées à l'Académie de Besançon en 1775 [i.e. 1766] sur la meilleure manière d'obtenir le salpêtre, 1775. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Géographie minéralogique de la France / [par] Lavoisier et Guettard, 177-? Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn La Forte, Benoist, b. 1761. La Forte collection, 1784-1797. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Benjamin Franklin Papers Part 6 -- Letters to Franklin, 1781-1782 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Lavoisier artifacts, circa 1750-1794. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de, 1656-1708. Catalogue des plantes de Bourgogne de M. d'Huissier d'Argencourt, [17-?] Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Benjamin Franklin Papers Part 5 -- Letters to Franklin, 1779 December-1780 December American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Miscellaneous Benjamin Franklin Collections, 1710-1822 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Déclaration par Lavoisier de ses revenues, 1793. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Sir Charles Blagden papers, 1616-1861, 1770-1800 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Lavoisier manuscript collection, 1770-1794 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Blagden, Charles, Sir, 1748-1820. Sir Charles Blagden papers, 1616-1861 (bulk 1770-1800). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Autograph letter signed : Paris, to M. Parisis fils, at Villers-Cotterêts, a relative, 1790 Dec. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Memoire relatif aux cartes des Pirennées, [176-?]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Autograph File, L, 1641-1976. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Notes from Lectures on Chemistry delivered by Doctor John McClean, Princeton College, January 1797 - June 1797 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn McKie, Douglas,. Lavoisier collection, 1951-1952. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Letter, 1791, Mar. 20 : Paris, to M. Doirée, Valence. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
referencedIn Archives nationales (France). Documents concernant Lavoisier, 195-? Cornell University Library
referencedIn Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. History of science miscellaneous manuscripts, 1757-1978 (bulk 1780-1920). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Tissandier Collection on the History of Aeronautics, 1539-1929, (bulk 1780-1920) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Mongella. Vie privée de M. Guettard, 1786. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Say, Antoine Maroquier de. L'état général des pertes faittes par le munitionnaire des vivres, 1746. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, 1739-1817. Papers, 1757-1836. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf Académie des sciences, belles lettres et arts de Besançon. Mémoires présentées à l'Académie de Besançon en 1775 [i.e. 1766] sur la meilleure manière d'obtenir le salpêtre, 1775. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Guerlac, Henry. Henry Guerlac papers, 1922-1981. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Lavoisier, Marie-Anne-Pierrette, 1758-1836. Correspondance avec M. Dezairs et M. Mercier : notes réunies dans le registre relatives à toute la régie de Frechines, 1796-1797. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Faurie. Détails concernant la marbriere de Turenne et l'établissement de la manufacture de toutes sortes d'ouvrages en marbre, avec plusieurs explications & observations qui font connoître toutes les dépenses qu'il y a à faire pour achever de perfectionner les établissemens de la carriere & de la manufacture. Et différents tarifs qui explique ce qui chaque ouvrage en marbre reviendra à la compagnie, tant pour les façons, que pour les frais de transport ..., 1730. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Du Pont, Henry Francis, 1880-1969,. The Winterthur Manuscripts 1588-1955. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Du Pont, Eleuthère Irénée, 1771-1834. Papers, 1771-1922. Hagley Museum & Library
creatorOf D'Elci, Orazio, b. 1639. Relatione della corte di Roma, [1701?]. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Géographie minéralogique de la France / [par] Lavoisier et Guettard, 177-? Cornell University Library
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Letter, 1787 March 3, Paris, [France], to [Thomas Jefferson], n.p. William & Mary Libraries
creatorOf Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 1743-1794. Letter signed : Paris, to M. Hamelin, 1782 May 5. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Desmarets, Nicolas, 1648-1721. Project d'un code des monnoyes, [17--]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Papers of Joseph Black (1728-1799), 1754-1799 Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Albert Stephens Borgman autograph collection, 1600-1950. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Eleutherian Mills Historical Library. Lavoisier and gunpowder manufacture : selected manuscripts, [17--]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Bergman, Torbern, 1735-1784. Papers of Torbern Bergman, 1779-1806. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Priestley, Joseph, 1733-1804. Correspondence. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Volta, Alessandro, 1745-1827. Letter :$bto an unidentified correspondent, 1783 Oct. 26. Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Lakanal, Joseph, 1762-1845. Joseph Lakanal papers, 1793-1834. Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Du Pont, Henry Francis, 1880-1969,. The Winterthur Manuscripts 1588-1955. Hagley Museum & Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
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associatedWith Académie des sciences (France) corporateBody
associatedWith Académie des sciences (France). corporateBody
associatedWith Académie des sciences (France). corporateBody
associatedWith Académie des sciences (France). corporateBody
associatedWith Adanson, Michel, 1727-1806. person
associatedWith American Philosophical Society. corporateBody
associatedWith Archives nationales (France). corporateBody
associatedWith Bailly, Jean Sylvain, 1736-1793. person
associatedWith Baudon, Anne Margueritte Charlotte, comtesse de Ligniville. person
associatedWith Baudon, François. person
associatedWith Baumé, Antoine, 1728-1804. person
associatedWith Benoist La Forte, b. 1761 person
associatedWith Bergman, Torbern, 1735-1784. person
associatedWith Berthollet, Claude-Louis, 1748-1822. person
associatedWith Black, Joseph, 1728-1799. person
associatedWith Blagden, Charles, Sir, 1748-1820. person
associatedWith Borgman, Albert Stephens, 1890-1954 person
associatedWith Bourdelin, Claude, 1621-1699. person
associatedWith Brisson, Mathurin-Jacques, 1723-1806. person
associatedWith Caisse d'escompte (France) corporateBody
associatedWith Chaptal, Jean-Antoine-Claude, comte de Chanteloup, 1756-1832. person
associatedWith Darcet, Jean, 1725-1801. person
associatedWith D'Elci, Orazio, b. 1639. person
associatedWith Desmarets, Nicolas, 1648-1721. person
associatedWith Dibner, Bern, person
associatedWith Duhamel du Monceau, M., 1700-1782. person
associatedWith Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, 1739-1817. person
associatedWith Du Pont, Eleuthère Irénée, 1771-1834. person
associatedWith Du Pont, Henry Francis, 1880-1969, person
correspondedWith Dupuis-Delcourt, 1802-1864 person
associatedWith Du Tennetar, Michel, 1740-1801. person
associatedWith Duveen, Denis I. person
associatedWith Duveen Lavoisier Collection. corporateBody
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associatedWith Faurie. person
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associatedWith Fourcroy, Antoine-François de, comte, 1755-1809. person
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associatedWith France. Ferme générale. corporateBody
associatedWith France. Régie des poudres et salpêtres. corporateBody
associatedWith Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790. person
associatedWith French, Sidney J. (Sidney James), 1894- person
associatedWith Ghislain, François Joseph, 1765-1795. person
associatedWith Guerlac, Henry. person
associatedWith Guettard, Jean Etienne, 1715-1786. person
associatedWith Guyton de Morveau, Louis-Bernard, 1737-1816. person
associatedWith Hasbrouck, Louis, 1777-1834 person
associatedWith Henry Guerlac. person
associatedWith Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826, person
associatedWith Krit︠s︡man, Viktor Abramovich. person
associatedWith La Forte, Benoist, b. 1761. person
associatedWith Lagrange, J. L. (Joseph Louis), 1736-1813. person
associatedWith Lakanal, Joseph, 1762-1845. person
associatedWith Lavoisier, Jean-Antoine. person
associatedWith Lavoisier, Jean-Antoine, 1715-1775. person
associatedWith Lavoisier, Marie-Anne-Pierrette, 1758-1836. person
associatedWith Maugard, M. (Antoine), 1739-1817. person
associatedWith Mazzei, Filippo, 1730-1816. person
associatedWith McKie, Douglas, person
associatedWith Monge, Gaspard, 1746-1818. person
associatedWith Mongella. person
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associatedWith Paulze, Jacques, 1723-1794. person
associatedWith Perrin, Carl. person
associatedWith Priestley, Joseph, 1733-1804. person
associatedWith Rappaport, Rhoda, 1935- person
associatedWith Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de, 1683-1757. person
correspondedWith Tissandier, Albert, 1839-1906 person
correspondedWith Tissandier, Gaston, 1843-1899. person
correspondedWith Tissandier, Paul, 1881- Tissandier collection on the history of aeronautics. 1539-1929 person
associatedWith Vicq-d'Azyr, M. (Félix), 1748-1794. person
associatedWith Volta, Alessandro, 1745-1827. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
France
France
France
France--Paris
France
France
France
France
France
Subject
Chemistry--History--Sources
Powder mills
Taxation
Street lighting
Cadences (Music)
Military art and science--History
Domestic relations--History
Gunpowder industry
Saltpeter
Ordnance
Tobacco industry
Gunpowder
Women intellectuals
Chemical industry
Women--History
Chemical elements
Finance, Public
Music--18th century
Women scientists
Meteorology--Observations
Personal belongings--History--18th century
Enlightenment
Harmony
Explosives industry
Mines and Mineral Resources
Geology
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1743-08-26

Death 1794-05-08

French

French

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