Romulo, Carlos P. (Carlos Peña), 1898-1985

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Carlos Peña Romulo QSC CLH NA (14 January 1898 – 15 December 1985) was a Filipino diplomat, statesman, soldier, journalist and author. He was a reporter at 16, a newspaper editor by the age of 20, and a publisher at 32. He was a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines, a general in the US Army and the Philippine Army, university president, President of the UN General Assembly, was eventually named one of the Philippines' National Artists in Literature, and was the recipient of many other honors and honorary degrees.

After he completed his studies at the University of the Philippines at Manila in 1918, he moved to New York City to attend Columbia University, graduating in 1921. He later received a degree from the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana, in 1935. He became a professor of English at the University of the Philippines in 1923 and simultaneously served as the secretary to the President of the Senate of the Philippines, Manuel Quezon. During the 1930s, Romulo became the publisher and editor of The Philippines Herald. At the start of WWII, Major Carlos Romulo served as an aide to General Douglas MacArthur and was one of the last men evacuated from the Philippines before the surrender of US Forces. He reached the rank of general by the end of that war.

After the resignation of Joaquín Miguel Elizalde as Resident Commissioner of the Philippines following the death of President Quezon, new president Sergio Osmeña appointed Romulo to the seat. For much of his first year in the House, while still serving as the Philippines’ secretary of public instruction, Romulo led a public education campaign to inform Congress about the living conditions on the war-ravaged islands. His reports were shocking. By the time the fighting ended, much of the Philippines had been reduced to ruins, and what remained needed to be rebuilt. Beginning in September 1945, Romulo began pushing what would become his signature issue: rebuilding the Philippines using the islands’ trade partnership with the United States. As with trade, Romulo acted as the moral compass for the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946 (S. 1610), which, unlike the trade bill, pumped capital directly into the war-torn commonwealth. He was successful with both trade and rehabilitation. Following the United States recognized the independence of the Republic of the Philippines in 1946, Romulo became the only member of the U.S. Congress to end his tenure via a legal secession from the Union.

Following his leaving Washington, Romulo remained remarkably active on the international stage. He twice served as ambassador to the United States (1952–1953 and 1955–1962), but he made his biggest mark in his work with the United Nations, which he helped charter. On July 9, 1946, the Philippine president appointed Romulo as the new republic’s permanent delegate to the United Nations. The former Resident Commissioner went on to serve as president of the UN General Assembly in 1949 and 1950. He was the Philippines' Secretary (Minister from 1973 to 1984) of Foreign Affairs under President Elpidio Quirino from 1950 to 1952, under President Diosdado Macapagal from 1963 to 1964 and under President Ferdinand Marcos from 1968 to 1984. In April 1955 he led the Philippines' delegation to the Asian-African Conference at Bandung.

Romulo supported President Ferdinand Marcos through most of his presidency. But he resigned in 1983, soon after the assassination of Benigno Aquino, citing poor health. He died, at 87, in Manila on 15 December 1985 and was buried in the Heroes' Cemetery.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn McNutt, Paul V. (Paul Vories), 1891-1955. Mss., 1899-1955 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
referencedIn President's Secretary's Files (Truman Administration). 1945 - 1960. Diaries Files. 1947 - 1953. 1951. 1947 - 1953. Diary Entry of President Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman Library
creatorOf Romulo, Carlos P. (Carlos Peña), 1899-1985. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1960. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Philippine independence, 1933-1946. Arizona State University Libraries
referencedIn Eisenhart, Richard H., 1915-2010,. Richard H. Eisenhart papers 1938-1990 RIT Library, Wallace Library
creatorOf Romulo, Carlos P. (Carlos Peña), 1899-1985. Letter to Earl E. Harper. New York, NY. 1953 Dec. 18. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Roy Wilson Howard Papers, 1911-1966, (bulk 1920-1963) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. Arlington Cemetery, Virginia ; The arrival of the President of the Philippines, Washington National Airport ; Departure of helicopter, Pentagon, Washington, D.C. ; The new Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower Personnel and Reserve, Pentagon, Washington, D.C. National Archives at College Park
creatorOf Romulo, Carlos P. (Carlos Peña), 1899-1985. The common task of Asians and Australians [manuscript]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Walter W. Marquardt papers, 1896-1952 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
creatorOf Scripps-Howard Newspaper Alliance Staff Articles, 1949-1967 Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Harold Matson Company, Inc. (New York, N.Y.). Harold Matson Company, Inc. Records, 1937-1980. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Stone, Walker, 1904-1973. Papers, 1918-1969. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Keys mss., 1972-1982 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
referencedIn George Murphy papers, 1911-1961 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
creatorOf Romulo, Carlos P. (Carlos Peña), 1899-1985. O. Henry. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Gannett, Frank E. (Frank Ernest), 1876-1957. Frank Ernest Gannett papers, [ca. 1859]-1958. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. JAPANESE PEACE TREATY CONFERENCE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA National Archives at College Park
creatorOf Asian-African Conference (1st : 1955 : Bandung, Indonesia). [Speeches and documents delivered at the Asian-African Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955]. Stanford university libraries
referencedIn Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations. 1900 - 2003. Moving Images Relating to Military Aviation Activities. 1947 - 1984. MANILA SEATO CONFERENCE National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Cordier, Andrew W. (Andrew Wellington), 1901-1975. Andrew W. Cordier Papers, 1918-1975. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Abelman, Max, 1890-. Photographs, 1913-1957. Brooklyn College
referencedIn New York Times Company records. Arthur Hays Sulzberger papers, 1823-1999 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn John Foster Dulles oral history collection, 1964-1967 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Boone Family. Boone Family papers, 1920-2004. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. JAPANESE PEACE TREATY CONFERENCE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. General Carlos P. Garcia, President of the Philippines, at National Archives, Washington, D.C. ; Parade held in honor of the Post Office Department, The Mall, Washington, D.C. ; Graduation First OCS Army's RFA, Ft. Sill, Oklahoma National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Howard, Roy Wilson, 1883-1964. Papers of Roy Wilson Howard, 1911-1966 (bulk 1920-1963). Library of Congress
referencedIn Ogden Rogers Reid papers, 1925-1982 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Sound Recordings of Meetings and Telephone Conversations (Nixon Administration). 2/16/1971 - 7/18/1973. Sound Recordings of Meetings and Telephone Conversations. 2/16/1971 - 7/18/1973. Oval Office tape number 834 Richard Nixon Library
creatorOf Marquardt, Walter W. (Walter William), 1878-. Walter W. Marquardt papers, 1896-1952. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn 8/3/78, General Carlos Romulo (T-15509) Jimmy Carter Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. LT. GEN. WILLIS D. CRITTENBERGER RETIRES, FT. JAY, NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Reid, Ogden R. (Ogden Rogers), 1925-. Ogden Rogers Reid papers, 1925-1982 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn 8/3/78, ASEAN Ministers Conference at U.S. State Dept. (T-40402) Jimmy Carter Library
referencedIn Andrew Wellington Cordier Papers, 1918-1975 Columbia University. Rare Book an Manuscript Library
referencedIn General Faculty and Faculty Council of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Records, 1799-2011 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. University Archives and Records Service
referencedIn Robert E. Sherwood papers, 1917-1968 (inclusive), 1934-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Abelman, Max, 1890-. Photographs, [ca.1890-1960] Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Joseph Ralston Hayden Papers, 1854-1975 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
creatorOf Knox College (Galesburg, Ill.). [Honorary degrees series] / [Knox College, Galesburg, Ill.]. Knox College, Seymour Library
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. 1860 - 1985. Motion Picture Films from the Army Library Copy Collection. 1964 - 1980. JAPANESE PEACE TREATY CONFERENCE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA National Archives at College Park
creatorOf Romulo, Carlos P. (Carlos Peña), 1899-1985. Carlos P. Romulo letters: to Leonard Lyons, 1943-1976. Cornell University Library
referencedIn New York Times Company records. A.M. Rosenthal papers, 1955-1994, 1967-1986 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Frank Ernest Gannett papers, [ca. 1859]-1958. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Rayburn, Sam, 1882-1961, Papers, 1822, 1831, 1845, 1903-2007 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History
referencedIn Murphy, Frank, 1890-1949. Papers, 1908-1949 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Albert C. Jacobs papers, 1909-1970 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Reid, Ogden R. (Ogden Rogers), 1925-. Ogden Rogers Reid papers, 1925-1982 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Felix Frankfurter Letters to his sister Estelle, 1933-1964 Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Abelman, Max, 1890- person
associatedWith Asian-African Conference (1st : 1955 : Bandung, Indonesia) corporateBody
associatedWith Boone Family. person
alumnusOrAlumnaOf Columbia University corporateBody
associatedWith Cordier, Andrew W. (Andrew Wellington), 1901-1975. person
associatedWith Eisenhart, Richard H., 1915-2010, person
associatedWith Frank E.(Frank Ernest), Gannett 1876-1957. person
associatedWith Frankfurter, Felix, 1882-1965 person
associatedWith Gannett, Frank E. (Frank Ernest), 1876-1957. person
associatedWith Harold Matson Company, Inc. (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Hayden, Joseph Ralston, 1887-1945 person
associatedWith Howard, Roy Wilson, 1883-1964. person
associatedWith Jacobs, Albert Charles, 1900-1976 person
correspondedWith Keys, Donald person
associatedWith Knox College (Galesburg, Ill.) corporateBody
associatedWith Lyons, Leonard. person
associatedWith Macapagal, Diosdado, 1910-1997 person
associatedWith MacArthur, Douglas, 1880-1964 person
associatedWith Marcos, Ferdinand E. (Ferdinand Edralin), 1917-1989 person
associatedWith Marquardt, Walter W. (Walter William), 1878- person
associatedWith McNutt, Paul V. (Paul Vories), 1891-1955 person
associatedWith Murphy, Frank, 1890-1949 person
associatedWith Murphy, George, 1897-1961 person
associatedWith Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1889-1964. person
associatedWith New York Times Company corporateBody
correspondedWith Provine, William B. person
associatedWith Quezon, Manuel Luis, 1878-1944 person
associatedWith Quirino, Elpidio, 1890-1956 person
associatedWith Rayburn, Sam, 1882-1961 person
associatedWith Reid, Ogden R. (Ogden Rogers), 1925- person
associatedWith Rosenthal, A. M. (Abraham Michael), 1922-2006 person
associatedWith Scripps-Howard Newspaper Alliance. corporateBody
associatedWith Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. corporateBody
correspondedWith Sherwood, Robert E. (Robert Emmet), 1896-1955 person
associatedWith Stone, Walker, 1904-1973. person
associatedWith United Nations. corporateBody
associatedWith University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. General Faculty. corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf University of Notre Dame. corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf University of the Philippines corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
New York City NY US
Manila NCR PH
Notre Dame IN US
Camiling 03 PH
Subject
Communism
International relations
Occupation
Representatives, U.S. Congress
Ambassadors
Army officers
Diplomats
Federal Government Official
Legislative assistants
Newspaper editors
Newspaper publishers
University presidents
Activity

Person

Birth 1899-01-14

Death 1985-12-15

Male

Spaniards,

Filipinos

Spanish; Castilian,

Filipino; Pilipino,

English

Information

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SNAC ID: 85791208