Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913

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Alfred Austin, English poet and critic, was heavily influenced by Byron. He made several trips to Italy following the cold public reception to his epic-type narrative poem The Human Tragedy in 1862. Austin was appointed poet laureate in 1896.

From the description of Alfred Austin manuscript material, 1863 (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 73516332

From the guide to the Alfred Austin manuscript material : 5 items, ca. 1863-1869, (The New York Public Library. Carl H. Pforzheimer Collection of Shelley and His Circle.)

English poet influenced by nature, who was a controversial choice for Poet Laureate in 1896.

From the description of Letters, 1862-1909. (University of Iowa Libraries). WorldCat record id: 122654581

Alfred Austin was born near Leeds, England, educated at the University of London, and trained as a lawyer. He embarked on a long and prolific literary career as a poet, critic, novelist, and journalist. A staunch and consistent supporter of conservative politics, he was a foreign correspondent and astute commentator on foreign politics, and founded and served as editor of the National Review. A mediocre poet in the style of Byron, he was named Poet Laureate in 1896 (over Swinburne and Kipling), probably as a reward for his support of the conservative government, and his elevation to the post was the cause of much ridicule.

From the description of Alfred Austin letters to Mr. Munro, 1902. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 66267183

Alfred Austin was born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, Northern England. He studied at the University of London and was called to the bar in 1857, but then abandoned law for literature. His works include The Season: a Satire, 1861, The Human Tragedy, 1862, and an autobiography, 1911. He became Poet Laureate in 1896. Austin died in 1913.

From the description of Holograph letter from Alfred Austin to Dorothy, dated Swinford Old Manor, Ashford, Kent, October 20, 1892. (Florida State University). WorldCat record id: 50657631

British poet laureate, 1896-1913.

From the description of Alfred Austin papers, 1869-1902. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122500035

Mrs. Stuart-Wortley was daughter of Sir John Millais.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : to Mrs. Stuart-Wortley, 1891 Feb. 11. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270133702

Alfred Austin, English poet.

From the description of Alfred Austin collection, ca. 1865-1915. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80277827

From the description of Alfred Austin collection, ca. 1865-1915. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702148133

Alfred Austin was born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, Northern England. He studied at the University of London, and was called to the bar in 1857, but then abandoned law for literature. His works include The Season: a Satire, 1861, The Human Tragedy, 1862, and an autobiography, 1911. He became Poet Laureate in 1896. Austin died in 1913.

From the description of Letters from Alfred Austin, 1862-1912. (Florida State University). WorldCat record id: 50657602

Alfred Austin was born in Headingly, England in 1835. He became a barrister but later gave up law to focus on literature, eventually becoming poet-laureate in 1896. He passed away in Ashford, England in 1913.

From the description of Unpublished play of Alfred Austin, [undated]. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 144059698

From the guide to the Unpublished Play of Alfred Austin, undated, (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.)

Poet Laureate of England.

From the description of Alfred Austin letters, 1892-1911. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 460879596

Biographical Note

Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of Salisbury, was born on 3 February 1830. Educated first at Eton and then at Christ Church, Oxford, he apparently found his subsequent voyage around the world (1851-1853) far more intellectually stimulating. Following his return to England, he was elected an MP for Stamford, but he began to make a real impact on the political scene only in April 1860, when he published in the Quarterly Review an article critical of popular democracy; subsequent articles, published throughout the 1860s, continued to deal with this issue as well as with questions of diplomacy and history. In July 1866, as Lord Cranborne, he entered Lord Derby's cabinet as Secretary of State for India; but seven months later, unhappy about the government's proposal to extend the franchise, he resigned. In the spring of 1868, the second Marquis having died, Cranborne became Lord Salisbury and master of the Cecil ancestral home, Hatfield House, in which simple capacity he spent the next six years, studying farming techniques, improving his estates, and criticizing Gladstonian liberalism. This period of relative inactivity ended in 1874 with the Tories' electoral victory and Salisbury's acceptance of the post of Secretary of State for India under Disraeli. As Secretary, Salisbury concerned himself not only with the Asian subcontinent but with eastern affairs in general, being sent in November 1876, for example, as the British delegate to an international conference in Constantinople on the need for governmental reform in Turkey. Some months after being promoted to the post of Foreign Secretary in the spring of 1878, Salisbury attended a second and far more important conference: the Berlin Congress, in the course of which he skillfully defended Britain's interests and emerged as a likely successor to Disraeli as leader of the Conservative Party.

Salisbury left the Foreign Office following his party's defeat in the general election of February 1880; fourteen months later, he succeeded the deceased Disraeli as leader of the Conservatives in the House of Lords. In February 1885 he became Prime Minister in a minority government which lasted only seven months before being ousted by Gladstone and the Liberals. In the general election of July 1886, however, the Conservatives won convincingly, enabling Salisbury to form a second -- and more secure -- ministry, which lasted until 1892 and in which he doubled as Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister until July 1902. He died on 22 August 1903.

Buried beneath the myriad of diplomatic, colonial, and political issues which Salisbury had to confront at the start of his third premiership was that of choosing a new poet laureate. The previous poet laureate, Tennyson, had died in 1892, and neither Gladstone nor Rosebery (Prime Ministers, 1892-94 and 1894-85, respectively) had found time to appoint a successor. Evidently unversed -- and uninterested -- in contemporary poetry, Salisbury, with the approval of Queen Victoria, appointed to the laureateship a man noted less for literary prowess than for steadfast support of the Conservative Party and its policies. Born on 30 May 1835 in a parish near Leeds, Alfred Austin, son of a devout Catholic father, spent the first years of his life at several Roman Catholic educational institutions in the north of England, finally taking a degree at the University of London. In 1854 he entered the Inner Temple to commence study for the Bar, which he joined in 1857. An inheritance left by the death of his uncle the following year, however, enabled him to abandon a career in the law and concentrate on his real love, poetry. His first poem of any note -- The Season, A Satire -- was published in 1861, and other verses followed frequently in the years ahead.

Nor did Austin limit his writing to poetry. In 1864 he offered his services -- which were accepted -- to the Standard, a Tory mouthpiece. In the numerous articles he wrote for this paper, as well as in his poetry and in the National Review (which he co-founded with W.J. Courthope in 1883), Austin gave fervent vent to his militant Toryism. Loathing all innovation, fearing popular rule, believing implicitly in tradition and the aristocracy, Austin glorified in verse and prose many of the same values held dear by other Tories. He also made a point of cultivating the friendship of the leading figures of the Conservative party, including Lord Salisbury. Remarked Gwendolyn Cecil in her biography of her father (IV: 55): Austin was a wholehearted supporter of Lord Salisbury's policy both at home and abroad, was personally attached to him, and a frequent visitor at Hatfield. Their intercourse enabled him to forward the Minister's policy by calling anonymous attention to aspects of it upon which Lord Salisbury could not himself dwell publicly, and this assistance was certainly welcomed, though there is no record of its ever having been directly invited. Salisbury generously acknowledged both Austin's personal friendship and his contributions to the Conservative cause when he selected him to be the new poet laureate. Though not unexpected, this selection, made public on 1 January 1896, aroused catcalls of derision and contempt on the part of many journalists and literati, and Austin's subsequent poetic output as laureate did nothing to lessen the hostility of his critics. Possessed of an invincible egotism and a uniquely high estimation of his own talents, however, Austin ignored his detractors and set about earnestly fulfilling the task of laureate, churning out partiotic verses which celebrated imperialism, royalty, and other staples of the Tory canon. He died on 2 June 1913.

From the guide to the Alfred Austin Papers, 1869-1902, (Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Alfred Austin manuscript material : 5 items, ca. 1863-1869 The New York Public Library. Carl H. Pforzheimer Collection of Shelley and His Circle.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin letters, 1892-1911. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Holograph letter from Alfred Austin to Dorothy, dated Swinford Old Manor, Ashford, Kent, October 20, 1892. Florida State University
referencedIn Ray, Gordon Norton, 1915-1986,. Literary and historical letters and documents, [ca. 1661]-1976. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Jeune, Susan Mary Elizabeth Stewart-Mackenzie, Lady. Lady St. Helier papers, 1847-1955. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Ricardo Gullón papers (MS 289), 1960-1985 University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed Alfred Austin to: Sir December 30, 1888. Wellesley College
creatorOf Gilbert, W. S. (William Schwenck), 1836-1911. Autograph letter signed : Grim's Dyke, Harrow Weald, to Alfred Austin, 1902 Jan. 3. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed Alfred Austin to: Hamilton Holt March 24, 1907. Wellesley College
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Letter, 1901 Nov. 15 [n.p.] to Mr. and Mrs. C.K. Shetterly, Franfort, Mich. University of Michigan
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913,. Autograph letters signed from Alfred Austin to Augustin Daly [manuscript], 1893-1895. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to Sir John Millais, 1891 Feb. 13. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Jeune, Susan Mary Elizabeth Stewart-Mackenzie, Lady. Lady St. Helier papers, 1847-1955. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Forsyth, Cecil, 1870-1941. To America : choral rhythm for men's voices / poem by Alfred Austin ; music by Cecil Forsyth. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Liebert, Herman W.,. Herman W. Liebert manuscript collection, 1604-1987. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Herman W. Liebert manuscript collection, 1604-1987 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn McKenna, Stephen. Letters to Stephen McKenna, 1917-1939. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Browne, Maurice, 1881-1955. Morley's First Sketch of English Literature papers, 1909 and 1936. University of Michigan
referencedIn Letters to Stephen McKenna, 1917-1939 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed Alfred Austin to: Sir February 25, 1896. Wellesley College
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to Sir John Millais, 1896 June 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Holograph letter from Alfred Austin to Dorothy, dated Swinford Old Manor, Ashford, Kent., October 20, 1892, 1892
creatorOf Orcutt, William Dana, 1870-1953,. Typescript letter signed from William Dana Orcutt to Alfred Austin [manuscript], 1909 January 6. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Letters from Alfred Austin, 1862-1912. Florida State University
creatorOf Leonard, William Ellery, 1876-1944. Letters, ca. 1906-1938. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf Sullivan, Arthur, Sir, 1842-1900. Autograph letters signed : 8 Albert Mansions, S.W., [London], to Alfred Austin, 1871 May 27 and [n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn [Alfred Austin : pamphlets. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Unpublished play of Alfred Austin, [undated]. University of Colorado Boulder
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin papers, 1869-1902. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Evelyn Wadsworth Symington Collection of John Hay Material, 1864-1905 Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Liebert, Herman W.,. Herman W. Liebert manuscript collection, 1604-1987. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Letters : London, to Laurence Housman, 1918 July 29 and [19--] Feb. 17. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Henley, William Ernest, 1849-1903. Letter to Mr. Austin. Edinburgh, Eng. 1890 Oct. 31. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Autograph File, A, 1518-2002. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Savonarola, 1881. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Letters from various correspondents, 1820-1894. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Sullivan, Arthur, Sir, 1842-1900. Autograph letter signed : to Alfred Austin, [n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Hay, John, 1838-1905. Papers of John Hay, 1872-1905. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Shetterly, Charles Kiely. Autograph collection of famous men and women, 1845-1901. University of Michigan
creatorOf Trollope family. Villa a Ricorboli : photograph album, [187-?]. Princeton University Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1915. Postcard, 1904 March 7, Ashford, [Eng.] to Harold Goddard Rugg, Hanover, N.H. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Lady St. Helier papers, 1847-1955 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Albert Stephens Borgman autograph collection, 1600-1950. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to Lady Millais, 1896 May 15. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Wharton, Edith, 1862-1937. Edith Wharton letters to Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Austin, 1903-1927. Princeton University Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to A. Strahan, 1888 Feb. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Letters, 1862-1909. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Sympathy letters for victims of the Messina and Reggio earthquakes, 1908-1911. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to Sir John Millais, 1888 May 17. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin manuscript material, 1863 New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to Sir John Millais, 1896 Jan. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Letters from Alfred Austin, 1862-1912, 1862-1912
creatorOf Unpublished Play of Alfred Austin, undated University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
referencedIn Symington, Evelyn Wadsworth, 1903-1972. Evelyn Wadsworth Symington collection of John Hay material, 1864-1905. Library of Congress
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin collection, ca. 1865-1915. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn A.P. Watt (Firm). A.P. Watt & Son correspondence, 1883-1917. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin letters to Mr. Munro, 1902. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn McKenna, Stephen. Letters to Stephen McKenna, 1917-1939. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Gilbert, W. S. (William Schwenck), 1836-1911. Autograph letters signed : Grim's Dyke, Harrow Weald, to Alfred Austin, 1889 Dec. 14 to 1899 Nov. 2. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Letter : Ashford, Kent, to Willaim E. Henley, 1891 June 12. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Benson, Arthur Christopher, 1862-1925. Letters, 1890-1925. University of Iowa Libraries
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. The tenant of Avoncourt, ca. 1910?. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn A. P. Watt & Son, 1883-1917. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin collection, ca. 1865-1915. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Alfred Austin collection, ca. 1865-1915 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Letter, 1901 Nov. 15 [n.p.] to Mr. and Mrs. C. K. Shetterly, Franfort, Mich. University of Michigan
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Autograph letter signed : to Mrs. Stuart-Wortley, 1891 Feb. 11. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Austin, Alfred, 1835-1913. Alfred Austin correspondence. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
creatorOf Alfred Austin Papers, 1869-1902 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alexandra, Queen, consort of Edward VII, King of Great Britain, 1844-1925. person
associatedWith A.P. Watt (Firm) corporateBody
correspondedWith Balcombe, Florence person
associatedWith Benson, Arthur Christopher, 1862-1925. person
associatedWith Bigge, Arthur John, Sir. person
associatedWith Borgman, Albert Stephens, 1890-1954 person
associatedWith Browne, Maurice, 1881-1955. person
correspondedWith Christy, Henry, 1810-1865 person
associatedWith Cust, Henry, person
correspondedWith Daly, Augustin, 1838-1899 person
associatedWith Dodd, Ashley, Mrs., person
associatedWith Edward VII, King of Great Britain, 1841-1910. person
associatedWith Ellis, J. Mullett, person
associatedWith Forsyth, Cecil, 1870-1941. person
associatedWith George V, King of Great Britain, 1865-1936. person
associatedWith Gilbert, W. S. (William Schwenck), 1836-1911. person
associatedWith Goldwater, Arnold, person
associatedWith Guiccioli, Teresa, contessa di, 1800-1873. person
associatedWith Gullón, Ricardo, 1908- person
associatedWith Hay, John, 1838-1905. person
associatedWith Henley, William Ernest, 1849-1903. person
associatedWith Hicks, Seymour, Sir, 1871-1949, person
associatedWith Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1809-1894 person
associatedWith Holt, Hamilton, 1872-1951. person
associatedWith Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1785-1865. person
associatedWith Housman, Laurence, 1865-1959. person
associatedWith Jeune, Susan Mary Elizabeth Stewart-Mackenzie, Lady. person
associatedWith Leonard, William Ellery, 1876-1944. person
associatedWith Liebert, Herman W., person
associatedWith Liebert, Herman W., collector. person
associatedWith Liveing, Edward, 1823-1919, person
associatedWith Locke, Joseph, 1805-1860. person
associatedWith McKenna, Stephen. person
associatedWith McKenna, Stephen. person
associatedWith Medici, House of family
associatedWith Millais, John Everett, Sir, 1829-1896, person
associatedWith Millais, Lady, person
associatedWith Molet, Edward, Sir, person
correspondedWith Orcutt, William Dana, 1870-1953, person
associatedWith Patmore, Coventry, 1823-1896, person
associatedWith Rawnsley, H. D. (Hardwicke Drummond), 1851-1920, person
associatedWith Ray, Gordon Norton, 1915-1986, person
associatedWith Royal Gardens, Kew. corporateBody
associatedWith Rugg, Harold Goddard, 1883-1957. person
associatedWith Salisbury, Robert Cecil, Marquess of, 1830-1903. person
associatedWith Savonarola, Girolamo, 1452-1498 person
associatedWith Schletter, Annie, d. 1944., person
associatedWith Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 1792-1822 person
associatedWith Shetterly, Charles Kiely. person
associatedWith Stephen, Leslie, Sir, 1832-1904. person
associatedWith Stoker, Bram, 1847-1912. person
associatedWith Strahan, A., person
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associatedWith Stuart-Wortley, Mrs, person
associatedWith Sullivan, Arthur, Sir, 1842-1900. person
associatedWith Symington, Evelyn Wadsworth, 1903-1972. person
associatedWith Tinsley, William, 1831-1902, person
associatedWith Trollope family. family
associatedWith University of Colorado Libraries. Special Collections Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Verrall, A. W. (Arthur Woollgar), 1851-1912, person
associatedWith Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, 1819-1901. person
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associatedWith Wharton, Edith, 1862-1937. person
associatedWith Willett, Henry, person
associatedWith Woolner, Thomas, 1825-1892. person
associatedWith Yates, Edmund Hodgson, 1831-1894. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Great Britain
England
Florence (Italy)
Great Britain
Great Britain
England
Subject
Poets, English--19th century
Lilies
Male authors, English--19th century--Correspondence
Royal household
English drama (Comedy)--20th century
Poets, English--20th century
English drama (Tragedy)--19th century
Poets, English--19th century--Correspondence
Poets laureate--19th century
Poets laureate
Critics--Great Britain--19th century--Correspondence
Historical drama--19th century
English poetry--19th century--Manuscripts--Specimens
Sunflowers
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1835-05-30

Death 1913-06-02

Britons

English

Information

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