National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.)

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Founded in 1943, the National Council and its various branches promoted educational activities, peace programs and cultural exchanges between American and Soviet citizens, involving peace coalitions from both countries. The Council's purpose was to overcome politicized separations during the period which became known as the Cold War. The Council successfully fought a court case, overcoming assertions that the group was composed of Communist sympathizers.

From the description of Collection, 1943-1987 1949-1963 (bulk). (Swarthmore College, Peace Collection). WorldCat record id: 28558172

Lamont was Chairman, Barrows was Director of Activities, and Smith was Executive Director of the organization, which was based in New York City.

From the description of Correspondence with Franz Werfel, 1943. (University of Pennsylvania Library). WorldCat record id: 155864033

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (NCASF), founded in 1943, was composed largely of professionals who were sympathetic to socialism, who believed that the Soviet Union and the United States should join together in their common fight against fascism and that peaceful cooperation between the two countries should continue in the post-war era. The NCASF emphasized educational and cultural interchange as a means of strengthening the bonds of understanding between the American and Soviet people. Although the Council usually refrained from directly taking positions on political issues, the substantial congruence of the NCASF's outlook with those of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the United States are reflected in its activities and records.

The NCASF enjoyed widespread initial success with more than thirty local affiliates, and the support of many notable and socially prominent individuals. The Council has sponsored conferences and exhibits, concerts, rallies, forums, tours, and exchange programs. The Council sponsored American teenagers at Artkek, a Soviet summer camp, and college students studying at the Pushkin Institute in Moscow. In the mid-to-late 1940's, the Council held annual mass rallies in Madison Square Garden in New York City. The NCASF also issued numerous pamphlets and several bibliographies about life in the Soviet Union. In 1945, Reverend Richard Morford became the executive director of the Council, and would remain in that capacity until 1981. His tenure is reflective of the support the Council's work has received from progressive religious leaders and churches. With the development of the Cold War, the Council came under attack. Although the NCASF vigorously contested its designation by the Attorney General as a subversive organization, in the 1950's its number of local affiliates shrunk to three. Although the Council grew with the revival of the peace movement and detente, it never recovered its former influence. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the future of the NCASF is in doubt.

From the description of Records, 1919-1990. (New York University). WorldCat record id: 477247407

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship succeeded the National Council on Soviet Relations, founded in 1941. The NCSR grew out of the more overtly radical American-Soviet friendship movement of the 1930s, whose organizational center was the Friends of the Soviet Union founded in 1929. The Council, composed largely of professionals who were sympathetic to socialism, believed that the USSR and the United States should join together in their common fight against fascism. In 1942 the Council sponsored a well-attended Congress of American-Soviet Friendship which was effective in recruiting celebrity sponsors, speakers, and supporters such as Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull, Henry Wallace, and William Green. The success of the Congress inspired Dr. Harry Grundfest, Dr. Corliss Lamont, George Marshall, Reverend William Howard Melish, and William Morris Jr. to pioneer a permanent organization the following year.

The NCASF enjoyed widespread success under the chairmanship of Corliss Lamont. Almost immediately, more than 30 local affiliates sprang up across the country, including the very active American-Russian Institute in San Francisco and the Los Angeles Society for Cultural Relations between the US and the USSR. The program of the NCASF emphasized cultural interchange and education as a means of strengthening the bonds of understanding between the American and Soviet people. The Council set up special committees, such as an Architects Committee, a Committee on Education, a Women's Committee, and a Committee on the Arts. These committees sponsored various conferences and exhibits, such as the American-Soviet War Exhibit, shown at the Museum of Science and Industry in 1943 in New York City, and an exhibit of Soviet Architecture and American Housing and Planning. The Council also sponsored an exhibit of paintings by Soviet children at the Museum of Modern Art and an exhibit entitled "Soviet Artists and the War," held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the mid-to-late 1940s, the Council held annual mass rallies in Madison Square Garden.

In 1945, Reverend Richard Morford became the Executive Director of the National Council, and remained in that capacity until 1981. Beginning in 1945, the radical post-war shift in American foreign policy brought the Council under increasing attack. In 1946, the House Un-American Activities Committee began a formal investigation of the National Council, and Lamont and Morford were cited for contempt of Congress. In 1947, the NCASF was indicted for failure to register with the Subversive Activities Control Board. In 1950, Morford was again charged with contempt of Congress and spent three months in jail. In 1951, the Supreme Court ruled that the Attorney General acted arbitrarily and illegally by placing the Council on the List of Subversive Organizations. Three years later, the Subversive Activities Control Board again declared the Council a "Communist Front", and the Council initiated proceedings against the SACB. During this period, the number of local affiliates shrank to three. In 1989, the Council again had to resume legal defense when the NCASF's executive director, Reverend Alan Thomson, was indicted by the federal government for bringing funds from the Soviet Union into the United States.

The Council has consistently denied accusations that it is a pro-Soviet organization, while claiming to be non-partisan. Some prominent leaders and members, such as Rockwell Kent and Elizabeth Moos, opposed the Council taking political positions in any matter. However, the Council has asserted its political outlook on a number of issues, opposing the 1961 US-sponsored invasion of Cuba and the Vietnam War. The Council also actively supported broader-based US movements for disarmament. With the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the Board of Directors was bitterly divided, since Richard Morford condemned the action of the Soviet government. The political perspective of the NCASF was a varied mix of left-oriented politics: leaders, associates, and rank and file members held both pacifist and communist viewpoints. Throughout the Council's history, progressive religious leaders and churches have strongly supported the work of the Council. In the 1980s, this base of support expanded with the Council's efforts to broaden the issues of American-Soviet cooperation.

Many of the Council's activities have been educational projects. The Council sponsored numerous conferences and lectures on American-Soviet Relations, such as two held in 1951 entitled "From Bombs and Death to Cooperation and Peace" and "Facts, not Fiction--The Soviet Union Today." The NCASF initiated other programs to counter American anti-Soviet propaganda, such as the 1986 protest of the American film, "Amerika." The NCASF issued numerous pamphlets and bibliographies about life in the Soviet Union, as well as information on American-Soviet relations. Some of the titles are "The Story of American-Soviet Relations," by Harry Ward, "Soviet Education Today and Tomorrow," by Elizabeth Moos, and "Lenin's Humanity," by Howard Parsons. The Council initiated widespread distribution of Soviet films and documentaries to their local affiliates and to schools.

The Council has sponsored a variety of cultural activities, such as a Russian Music and Dance Festival in 1959, the Moscow Art Theater in 1965, and a gospel concert in 1986. The Council organized testimonials for notable people involved in the cause of American-Soviet relations, such as a ninetieth birthday party for Harry Ward in 1963, a celebration in 1965 for Richard Morford's twentieth year as the Council's executive director, and a John Reed Centenary in 1987. These events satisfied the NCASF's program for cultural activities in addition to raising Council funds.

The Council believed that their most important project was to promote cultural exchange at the local level. Since the late 1940s, the Council arranged individual and group tours of students, workers, and professionals to the Soviet Union. Beginning around 1970, the Council arranged several "Goodwill Delegations," in which small groups of Russians would visit one of the NCASF's local affiliates. The Council sponsored American teenagers at Artek, a Soviet summer camp on the Black Sea, as well as American college students studying at the Pushkin Institute in Moscow.

Part of the Council's program of cultural exchange was centered on the NCASF-sponsored Campaign for a Peoples' Peace Treaty, a broad-based attempt to involve communities, churches, and schools in the cause of American-Soviet friendship and disarmament. The Campaign, which lasted from 1985 until 1989, initiated a "People's Appeal for Peace." This peace petition, circulated in the Soviet Union and the United States, was intended for presentation to Ronald Reagan and Mikail Gorbachev; the Peoples' Peace Treaty ended unsuccessfully in 1987, when Reagan refused to accept the petition. The Campaign for a Peoples' Peace Treaty also initiated a project to "pair" American cities with Soviet cities of similar population and other characteristics. The Council only had mild success with this endeavor, while other organizations, such as Sister Cities International, paired many major US cities with Soviet cities.

The success and prominence of the NCASF vacillated throughout its history, often depending on the larger international political climate. The Council never returned to its significance during and immediately following World War II, but has occasionally been revived by the growing peace and disarmament movement. Throughout the late 1960s the Council's support dwindled, its base of support remaining with the Old Left. The Council lost much of it's Jewish support in the New York metropolitan area as a result of the Soviet pro-Palestinian position in the 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict.

Sequence of NCASF office holders: Chairmen

Corliss Lamont: 1943-1947 Reverend William Howard Melish: 1947-1951 John Kingsbury: 1949-1956 Rockwell Kent: 1957-1971 Reverend William Howard Melish: 1971-1978 Ewart Guinier: 1979-1984 John Cherveny: 1985-1987 John Randolph: 1988-1991

Executive Directors

Edwin Smith: 1944-1945 Reverend Richard Morford: 1946-1981 Reverend Alan Thomson: 1981-1991 Roy Kaufman: 1991

From the guide to the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship Records, Bulk, 1943-1988, 1919-1990, (Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive)

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship succeeded the National Council on Soviet Relations, founded in 1941. The NCSR grew out of the more overtly radical American-Soviet friendship movement of the 1930's, whose organizational center was the Friends of the Soviet Union founded in 1929. The Council, composed largely of professionals who were sympathetic to socialism, believed that the USSR and the United States should join together in their common fight against fascism. In 1942 the Council sponsored a well-attended Congress of American-Soviet Friendship which was effective in recruiting celebrity sponsors, speakers, and supporters such as Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull, Henry Wallace, and William Green. The success of the Congress inspired Dr. Harry Grundfest, Dr. Corliss Lamont, George Marshall, Reverend William Howard Melish, and William Morris Jr. to pioneer a permanent organization the following year.

The NCASF enjoyed widespread success under the chairmanship of Corliss Lamont. Almost immediately, more than 30 local affiliates sprang up across the country, including the very active American-Russian Institute in San Francisco and the Los Angeles Society for Cultural Relations between the US and the USSR. The program of the NCASF emphasized cultural interchange and education as a means of strengthening the bonds of understanding between the American and Soviet people. The Council set up special committees, such as an Architects Committee, a Committee on Education, a Women's Committee, and a Committee on the Arts. These committees sponsored various conferences and exhibits, such as the American-Soviet War Exhibit, shown at the Museum of Science and Industry in 1943 in New York City, and an exhibit of Soviet Architecture and American Housing and Planning. The Council also sponsored an exhibit of paintings by Soviet children at the Museum of Modern Art and an exhibit entitled "Soviet Artists and the War," held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the mid-to-late 1940's, the Council held annual mass rallies in Madison Square Garden.

In 1945, Reverend Richard Morford became the Executive Director of the National Council, and would remain in that capacity until 1981. Beginning in 1945, the radical post-war shift in American foreign policy brought the Council under increasing attack. In 1946, the House Un-American Activities Committee began a formal investigation of the National Council, and Lamont and Morford were cited for contempt of Congress. In 1947, the NCASF was indicted for failure to register with the Subversive Activities Control Board. In 1950, Morford was again charged with contempt of Congress and spent three months in jail. In 1951, the Supreme Court ruled that the Attorney General acted arbitrarily and illegally by placing the Council on the List of Subversive Organizations. Three years later, the Subversive Activities Control Board again declared the Council a "Communist Front", and the Council initiated proceedings against the SACB. During this period, the number of local affiliates shrank to three. In 1989, the Council again had to resume legal defense when the NCASF's executive director, Reverend Alan Thomson, was indicted by the federal government for bringing funds from the Soviet Union into the United States. As of 1992, this case is still pending.

The Council has consistently denied accusations that it is a pro-Soviet organization, while claiming to be non-partisan. Some prominent leaders and members, such as Rockwell Kent and Elizabeth Moos, opposed the Council taking political positions in any matter. However, the Council has asserted its political outlook on a number of issues, opposing the 1961 US-sponsored invasion of Cuba and the Vietnam War. The Council also actively supported broader-based US movements for disarmament. With the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the Board of Directors was bitterly divided, since Richard Morford condemned the action of the Soviet government. The political perspective of the NCASF is a varied mix of left-oriented politics: leaders, associates, and rank and file members have held both pacifist and communist viewpoints. Throughout the Council's history, progressive religious leaders and churches have strongly supported the work of the Council. In the 1980's, this base of support expanded with the Council's efforts to broaden the issues of American-Soviet cooperation.

Many of the Council's activities have been educational projects. The Council sponsored numerous conferences and lectures on American-Soviet Relations, such as two held in 1951 entitled "From Bombs and Death to Cooperation and Peace" and "Facts, not Fiction--The Soviet Union Today." The NCASF initiated other programs to counter American anti-Soviet propaganda, such as the 1986 protest of the American film, "Amerika." The NCASF issued numerous pamphlets and bibliographies about life in the Soviet Union, as well as information on American-Soviet relations. Some of the titles are "The Story of American-Soviet Relations," by Harry Ward, "Soviet Education Today and Tomorrow," by Elizabeth Moos, and "Lenin's Humanity," by Howard Parsons. The Council initiated widespread distribution of Soviet films and documentaries to their local affiliates and to schools.

The Council has sponsored a variety of cultural activities, such as a Russian Music and Dance Festival in 1959, the Moscow Art Theater in 1965, and a gospel concert in 1986. The Council organized testimonials for notable people involved in the cause of American-Soviet relations, such as a ninetieth birthday party for Harry Ward in 1963, a celebration in 1965 for Richard Morford's twentieth year as the Council's executive director, and a John Reed Centenary in 1987. These events satisfied the NCASF's program for cultural activities in addition to raising Council funds.

The Council believed their most important project was to promote cultural exchange at the local level. Since the late 1940's, the Council arranged individual and group tours of students, workers, and professionals to the Soviet Union. Beginning around 1970, the Council arranged several "Goodwill Delegations," in which small groups of Russians would visit one of the NCASF's local affiliates. The Council sponsored American teenagers at Artek, a Soviet summer camp on the Black Sea, as well as American college students studying at the Pushkin Institute in Moscow.

Part of the Council's program of cultural exchange was centered on the NCASF-sponsored Campaign for a Peoples' Peace Treaty, a broad-based attempt to involve communities, churches, and schools in the cause of American-Soviet friendship and disarmament. The Campaign, which lasted from 1985 until 1989, initiated a "People's Appeal for Peace." This peace petition, circulated in the Soviet Union and the United States, was intended for presentation to Ronald Reagan and Mikail Gorbachev; the Peoples' Peace Treaty ended unsuccessfully in 1987, when Reagan refused to accept the petition. The Campaign for a Peoples' Peace Treaty also initiated a project to "pair" American cities with Soviet cities of similar population and other characteristics. The Council only had mild success with this endeavor, while other organizations, such as Sister Cities International, paired many major US cities with Soviet cities.

The success and prominence of the NCASF vacillated throughout its history, often depending on the larger international political climate. The Council never returned to its significance during and immediately following World War II, but has occasionally been revived by the growing peace and disarmament movement. Throughout the late 1960's the Council's support dwindled, its base of support remaining with the Old Left. The Council lost much of it's Jewish support in the New York metropolitan area as a result of the Soviet pro-Palestinian position in the 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the future of the NCASF is itself in doubt.

Sequence of NCASF office holders: Chairmen

Corliss Lamont: 1943-1947 Reverend William Howard Melish: 1947-1951 John Kingsbury: 1949-1956 Rockwell Kent: 1957-1971 Reverend William Howard Melish: 1971-1978 Ewart Guinier: 1979-1984 John Cherveny: 1985-1987 John Randolph: 1988-Present

Executive Directors

Edwin Smith: 1944-1945 Reverend Richard Morford: 1946-1981 Reverend Alan Thomson: 1981-1991 Roy Kaufman: 1991-Present

From the guide to the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship Records, 1919-1990, (Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Anton Refregier papers, circa 1900-circa 1990 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Waite, Edward F. (Edward Foote), 1860-1958. Edward F. Waite papers, 1764-1958. Minnesota Historical Society Library
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Collection, 1943-1987 1949-1963 (bulk). Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship Records, Bulk, 1943-1988, 1919-1990 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Horace Mann Bond Papers MS 411., 1830-1979, 1926-1972 Special Collections and University Archives, UMass Amherst Libraries
creatorOf MacMartin, Helen Hawthorne, 1891-1987. Progressive Party papers, 1948-1953. Vermont Historical Society
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Records, 1919-1990. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Papers, 1840-1961. Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Refregier, Anton, 1905-. Anton Refregier papers, 1900-1980. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Correspondence with Wanda Gág, 1943-1944. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Todes, Charlotte. Papers, 1927-1956. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Downes, Olin, 1886-1955. Olin Downes correspondence, [ca. 1909-1955]. Georgia Newspaper Project
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). National Council of American-Soviet Friendship : file of clippings and miscellanea. Michigan State University Libraries, Main Library
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Correspondence with Franz Werfel, 1943. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Ewart Guinier papers, 1910-1989 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Charlotte Todes Stern Papers, 1925-1956 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship Records, 1919-1990 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Draper, Muriel, b. 1886. Muriel Draper Papers. 1881-1977 (bulk 1925-1950). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Correspondence to Van Wyck Brooks, 1957. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Du Bois, Shirley Graham, 1896-1977. Papers, 1865-1998 (inclusive), 1905-1975 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1944. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Hawkins, Oscar F. (Oscar Ferdinand), 1872-1964. Oscar F. Hawkins and family papers, 1888-1963. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1865-1998, 1905-1975 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Richard Morford Papers, 1918-1986 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Timpson, Anne Burlak. Anne Burlak Timpson Papers, 1886-2003 (bulk 1912-2003). Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Morford, Richard. Richard Morford biographical manuscripts, 1984-1986. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Guinier, Ewart. Ewart Guinier papers, 1910-1989. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Printed Ephemera Collection on Organizations, 1886- Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Correspondence with Theodore Dreiser, 1943-1946. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Lovely, Clinton W., 1894-. Clinton W. Lovely papers, 1920-1967. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn John Howard Melish, William Howard Melish and Protestant Episcopal Church of the Holy Trinity collection, Bulk, 1947-1958, 1904-1985, bulk 1947-1958 Brooklyn Historical Society
referencedIn Refregier, Anton, 1905-. Anton Refregier papers, ca. 1900-ca. 1990. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Richard Morford Biographical Manuscripts, 1981-1986 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
creatorOf National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.). Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1944-1971. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Presidential Papers, American Unitarian Association, 1936-1958. Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School
referencedIn Vera Zorina papers, 1910-2001 (inclusive), 1933-2001 (bulk). Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Muriel Draper Papers., 1881-1977, 1925-1950 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Baron, Herman, 1892-1961. person
associatedWith Barrows, Alice, 1878-1954. person
associatedWith Benson, Elmer Austin, 1895-1985. person
associatedWith Bond, Horace Mann, 1904-1972 person
associatedWith Campaign for a Peoples' Peace Treaty. corporateBody
associatedWith Davis, Jerome. person
associatedWith Downes, Olin, 1886-1955. person
associatedWith Draper, Muriel, b. 1886. person
associatedWith Du Bois, Shirley Graham, 1896-1977. person
associatedWith Eliot, Frederick May, 1889-1958 person
associatedWith Fairchild, Henry Pratt, 1880-1956. person
associatedWith Fast, Howard, 1914-2003. person
associatedWith Guinier, Ewart. person
correspondedWith Hand, Learned, 1872-1961 person
associatedWith Hawkins, Oscar F. (Oscar Ferdinand), 1872-1964. person
associatedWith Hunton, Alphaeus, 1903-1970. person
associatedWith Kahn, Kathy person
associatedWith Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971. person
associatedWith Kingsbury, John person
associatedWith Kingsbury, John (John Graham) person
associatedWith Koussevitzky, Serge, 1874-1951. person
associatedWith Lamont, Corliss, 1902- person
associatedWith Lovely, Clinton W., 1894- person
associatedWith MacMartin, Helen Hawthorne, 1891-1987. person
associatedWith Manship, Paul, 1885-1966. person
associatedWith Mason, Anna May person
associatedWith Melish, John Howard, b. 1875 person
associatedWith Melish, William Howard, 1910- person
associatedWith Michigan State University. Libraries. American Radicalism Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Morford, Richard. person
associatedWith Morford, Richard, 1903- person
associatedWith Morford, Richard, 1903-1986 person
associatedWith Morford, Richard, 1983-1986 person
associatedWith Muste, Abraham John, 1885-1967. person
associatedWith Nathan, Otto, 1893-1987. person
associatedWith Nearing, Scott, 1883-1983. person
associatedWith Pepper, Claude, 1900-1989. person
associatedWith Refregier, Anton person
associatedWith Refregier, Anton, 1905- person
associatedWith Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976. person
associatedWith SHIRLEY GRAHAM DU BOIS, 1896-1977 person
associatedWith Smith, Edwin S. person
associatedWith Smith, Jessica, 1895- person
associatedWith Stettinius, Edward R. 1900-1949. person
associatedWith Stimson, Henry Lewis, 1867-1950. person
associatedWith Strong, Anna Louise, 1885-1970. person
associatedWith Swanson, Pauline. person
associatedWith Swarthmore College. Peace Collection. corporateBody
associatedWith Tamiment Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Thomson, Alan person
associatedWith Thomson, Alan. person
associatedWith Thomson, Alan Craft, 1931- person
associatedWith Timpson, Anne Burlak. person
associatedWith Todes, Charlotte. person
associatedWith Touchet, Francis H. person
associatedWith Trachtenberg, Alexander, 1884-1966. person
associatedWith Uphaus, Willard E. 1890-1983. person
associatedWith Van Kleeck, Mary, 1883- person
associatedWith Waite, Edward F. (Edward Foote), 1860-1958. person
associatedWith Walker, Hudson D. 1907-1976. person
associatedWith Ward, Henry Frederick, 1873-1966. person
correspondedWith Zorina, Vera. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States |x Foreign relations |z Soviet Union.
United States |x Foreign relations |z Soviet Union.
Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Soviet Union.
Soviet Union |x Foreign relations |z United States.
Communist countries |x Tours.
United States
United States
Soviet Union
United States
Soviet Union |x Foreign relations |z United States.
Subject
Peace movements
Cold War
Communism
International cooperation--Societies, etc.--History--Sources
Exchange of persons programs
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Information

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