Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916

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Realist painter Thomas Eakins was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1844. He was encouraged by his parents to develop his talent in art, and in 1862 he entered the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Also during this period Eakins developed an interest in anatomy, revealed later in the realistically detailed Gross Clinic, painted in 1875. In 1866 he moved to Paris, where he studied painting with Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts for three years, and briefly with sculptor Augustin-Alexandre Dumont and painter Léon Bonnat. He toured Spain for six months in 1870 and then returned to Philadelphia to become a portrait artist. Eakins began teaching at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and became its director of instruction in 1882. During this period he also met fellow artist Susan MacDowell and they were married in 1884. While at the Academy, he promoted a curriculum based on the study of the human figure, and began using photography as a method of study for his paintings. A dispute over the use of nude models forced Eakins to resign from the Academy in 1886, but he continued painting and exhibiting until his death in 1916.

From the guide to the Thomas Eakins letters, 1866-1934, (Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution)

William Rudolf O'Donovan (1844-1920) was a sculptor, New York, N.Y. Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) was a painter and instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

From the description of [William Rudolf O'Donovan] / [graphic] Thomas Eakins, photographer. 1891 May. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 220213408

From the description of [William O'Donovan in his studio] / [graphic]. 1891. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 767864643

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Miscellaneous manuscripts, 1902. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Anshutz, Thomas Pollock, 1851-1912. Thomas Anshutz papers, circa 1870-1942. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Cassatt, A. J. (Alexander Johnston), 1839-1906. Letterbook index, 1894-1896; 1898-1903. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Sellers, Charles Coleman, 1903-1980. Papers, ca. 1940s-1978. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn William Trost Richards papers, 1848-1920 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Charles Coleman Sellers Collection, Circa 1940-1978 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Letter : Paris, to Benjamin Eakins, Philadelphia, 1868 Sept. 18. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Shinn, Earl, 1838-1886. Earl Shinn letters and diary from the collection at Swarthmore College, 1852-1889. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Taft, Robert, 1894-1955. Correspondence and notes relating to frontier artists Carvalho, Cushing, Eakins, Egloffstein, Holmes, Moran [microform] / Robert Taft. Northern Arizona University, Cline Library
referencedIn Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000. Letters and card : Northampton, Mass., Little Deer Isle, Me., and Lurley, Devon, to Seymour Adelman, 1961-1963 and 1980-1985. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Walt Whitman shoulders and hands [art original], ca. 1892. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Thomas Anshutz papers, circa 1870-1942 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Bowen, Catherine Drinker, 1897-1974. Letters and cards : Bryn Mawr, Pa., Haverford, Pa., and Gloucester, Mass., to Seymour Adelman, 1957-1972 and undated. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Alexander Johnston Cassatt letterbook index, 1894-1896; 1898-1903, 1894-1903 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Poole, Eugene. Letter : San Francisco, Calif., to Thomas Eakins, 1870 Jan. 16. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Harmer, Alexander Francis, 1856-1925. Alexander Francis Harmer papers and Alexander Francis Harmer Trust records, 1882-1985. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Duveen, Albert. Albert Duveen art reference files, [ca. 1831-1950]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944. Letter : New York, to Thomas Eakins, 1898 Nov. 21. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997. Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers, 1863-1970. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Kurtz, Charles M. (Charles McMeen), 1855-1909. Charles M. Kurtz papers, 1870-1910. Getty Research Library
referencedIn Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Library. Library Collection of Study Photographs and Clippings, ca. 1930-2000. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Bregler, Charles. Correspondence : with Seymour Adelman, 1931-1957. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Cassatt, Alexander J. (Alexander Johnston), 1839-1906. Selections from Alexander Johnston Cassatt's letterbook index, [ca. 1894-1903]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Thomas Eakins as a child. [graphic]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Postcards : from various correspondents, 1905-1929. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Hotel bill : Seville, Spain, 1870 Feb. 15. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Adelman, Seymour,. Collection, 1708-1884. Historical Society of Pennsylvania
referencedIn Walt Whitman papers, 1854-1892 The New York Public Library. Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature.
creatorOf Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. Culin Archival Collection Series 1: General Correspondence 1886-1929 1919-1929 (bulk). Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Shaw family. Shaw family papers, 1840-1938, bulk 1860-1890. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Maurice Sterne papers, 1912-1963 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Philadelphia Museum of Art. Selections from the Philadelphia Museum of Art's Archives of American Art collection, 1866-1968. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Sartain, William, 1843-1924. Postcard : Paris, to Thomas Eakins, Philadelphia, 1914 Aug. 23. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997. Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers, 1863-1970. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution. Libraries. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Library audio archive collection, 1969-2004. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Goodrich, Lloyd, 1897-1987. Letters : Little Compton, R.I., and New York, to Seymour Adelman, 1971 Oct. 8, 1975 Apr. 12, and 1981 Feb. 15. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Artist file. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Homer, William Innes. William Innes Homer papers, 1938-1980. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Thomas Eakins letter to Edwin Lutz, 1889-1890. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
referencedIn Goodrich, Lloyd, 1897-1987. Lloyd and Edith Havens Goodrich, Whitney Museum of American Art, record of works by Thomas Eakins, 1894, 1903, 1915-1986. Philadelphia Museum of Art
referencedIn Adelman, Seymour,. Seymor Adelman collection, 1724-1956. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918. Letters to Charles Henry Hart from artists, 1863-1915. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Sloan, Helen Farr, 1911-2005. Helen Farr Sloan Philadelphia Inquirer notebooks. 1886-1896. University of Delaware Library, Hugh M Morris Library
referencedIn Henry McBride papers, 1863-1962 (inclusive), 1901-1962 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn McBride, Henry, 1867-1962. Henry McBride papers, 1863-1962 (inclusive), 1901-1962 (bulk). Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Pickard, John, 1858-1937. John Pickard papers, 1907-1916. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Adelman, Seymour, 1906-. Selections from the Seymour Adelman collection, 1845-1958. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Library Company of Philadelphia. Print Dept. Library Company of Philadelphia Print Dept. photograph collection, [ca. 1850]-1890. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.). Homer, Ryder, Eakins. 1930 : Archives pamphlet file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
referencedIn Eakins, Thomas : Biographical file. Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center
referencedIn Shaw Family (Adrian, Mich.) papers, 1840-1938, 1860-1890 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Eakins family. Eakins-Crowell selected family papers, 1795-1938. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Naudé, Virginia Norton, 1939-. Virginia N. Naudé conservation records. Winterthur Library
referencedIn Eakins, Susan Macdowell. Susan Eakins letter, 1929 July 4. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Hendricks, Gordon. Gordon Hendricks research files on American artists, 1950-1977. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas. Eakins, Thomas : [photography bio file]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
referencedIn Tomlinson, Charles, 1927-. Letters : Ozleworth Bottom, to Seymour Adelman, 1981-1984. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Leslie, Shane, 1885-1971. Letters, 1935 Sept. 3 and 23, London and Glaslough, to Seymour Adelman. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
creatorOf EAKINS, THOMAS. Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)
referencedIn Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979. Elizabeth S. Navas papers, 1939-1963. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009. Letters : Harvey Cedars, N.J., and Thomaston, Maine, to Seymour Adelman, 1968 Aug. 26 and 31. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn McBride, Henry, 1867-1962. Henry McBride papers, 1887-1962. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. [William O'Donovan in his studio] / [graphic]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Meynell, Wilfrid, 1852-1948. Letters, 1931-1934, London, to Seymour Adelman, Chester, Pa. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn American Federation of Arts records, 1895-1993 (bulk 1909-1969) Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
referencedIn Fogg Art Museum 19th-century history of photography collection, 1844-1900 (inclusive). Harvard University Art Museum
referencedIn Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Inventory to the Samuel Murray and Thomas Eakins papers at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. [Thomas Eakins] : artist file John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Library, Ringling Museum Library
referencedIn Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Library. Library Collection of Study Photographs and Clippings, ca. 1930-2000. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. [William Rudolf O'Donovan] / [graphic] Thomas Eakins, photographer. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn American Federation of Arts. American Federation of Arts records, 1895-1993 (bulk 1909-1969). Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Nash, Paul, 1889-1946. Letter : Rye, Sussex, to Seymour Adelman, Chester, Pa., 1931 Oct. 18. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Eakins, Susan Macdowell. Letters and cards : Philadelphia, to Seymour Adelman, 1931-1938. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Newnam, Edward A. Edward A. Newnam papers, 1935-1978. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Carter, John, 1905-1975. Letters : London and New York, to Seymour Adelman, 1956-1973. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Walt Whitman collection, 1842-1949 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Cadbury, Richard Tapper, 1853-1929. Papers, 1799-1924. Swarthmore College, FRIENDS HIST LIBR
creatorOf Sartain family (Philadelphia, Pa.). Sartain family papers, 1795-1944. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979. Elizabeth S. Navas papers, 1939-1963. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Library Company of Philadelphia. Print Dept. Library Company of Philadelphia Print Dept. photograph collection, [ca. 1850]-1890. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Richards, William Trost, 1833-1905. William Trost Richards papers, 1848-1920. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957. Maurice Sterne papers, 1912-1963. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Shinn, Earl, 1838-1886. Earl Shinn letters and diary, 1852-1889. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916 : [miscellaneous ephemeral material]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
referencedIn Helen Farr Sloan, Philadelphia Inquirer, notebooks, 1886–1896 University of Delaware Library – Special Collections
creatorOf Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916. Walt Whitman death mask [art original], after 1892. Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. Culin Archival Collection 1871-1933 1903-1928 (bulk). Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
referencedIn Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892. Walt Whitman collection, 1842-1949. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Thomas Eakins letters, 1866-1934 Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Adelman, Seymour, person
associatedWith Adelman, Seymour, person
associatedWith Adelman, Seymour, 1906- person
associatedWith American Federation of Arts. corporateBody
associatedWith Anshutz, Thomas Pollock, 1851-1912. person
associatedWith Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000. person
associatedWith Borie, Adolphe, 1877-1934. person
associatedWith Bowen, Catherine Drinker, 1897-1974. person
associatedWith Bregler, Charles. person
associatedWith Cadbury, Richard Tapper, 1853-1929. person
associatedWith Carter, John, 1905-1975. person
associatedWith Cassatt, A. J. (Alexander Johnston), 1839-1906. person
associatedWith Cassatt, Alexander J. (Alexander Johnston), 1839-1906. person
associatedWith Cope, E. D. (Edward Drinker), 1840-1897. person
associatedWith Couture, Thomas, 1815-1879 person
associatedWith Crowell, Frances Eakins, b. 1848 person
associatedWith Crowell, William J. person
associatedWith Culin, Stewart, 1858-1929. person
associatedWith Duveen, Albert. person
associatedWith Eakins, Benjamin, 1818-1899. person
associatedWith Eakins family. person
associatedWith Eakins, Susan Macdowell. person
associatedWith Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997. person
associatedWith Fussell, Charles Lewis, 1840-1909 person
associatedWith Gérôme, Jean Léon, 1824-1904 person
associatedWith Goodrich, Lloyd, 1897-1987. person
associatedWith Hallowell, William R. person
associatedWith Harmer, Alexander Francis, 1856-1925. person
associatedWith Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918. person
associatedWith Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944. person
associatedWith Hendricks, Gordon. person
associatedWith Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. corporateBody
associatedWith Homer, William Innes. person
associatedWith Johnston, Elizabeth Burton. person
associatedWith Jordan, David Wilson. person
associatedWith Kenton, Elizabeth Macdowell. person
associatedWith Kenton, Louis N. person
associatedWith Kurtz, Charles M. (Charles McMeen), 1855-1909. person
associatedWith Leslie, Shane, 1885-1971. person
associatedWith Library Company of Philadelphia. Print Dept. corporateBody
correspondedWith Lutz, Edwin George, b. 1868 person
associatedWith McBride, Henry, 1867-1962. person
associatedWith Meynell, Wilfrid, 1852-1948. person
associatedWith Murray, Samuel. person
associatedWith Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Nash, Paul, 1889-1946. person
associatedWith Naudé, Virginia Norton, 1939- person
associatedWith Navas, Elizabeth S., 1885-1979. person
associatedWith Newnam, Edward A. person
associatedWith O'Donovan, William Rudolf, 1844-1920 person
associatedWith Philadelphia Museum of Art. corporateBody
associatedWith Pickard, John, 1858-1937. person
associatedWith Poole, Eugene. person
associatedWith Richards, Frederick de Bourg, 1822-1903 person
associatedWith Richards, William Trost, 1833-1905. person
associatedWith Sartain family (Philadelphia, Pa.) family
associatedWith Sartain, William, 1843-1924. person
associatedWith Sellers, Charles Coleman, 1903-1980. person
associatedWith Shaw family. family
associatedWith Shaw Family. family
associatedWith Shinn, Earl, 1838-1886. person
associatedWith Sloan, Helen Farr, 1911-2005 person
associatedWith Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957. person
associatedWith Taft, Robert, 1894-1955. person
associatedWith The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Thomas Anshutz person
associatedWith Tomlinson, Charles, 1927- person
associatedWith Wallace, J. Laurie (John Laurie) person
associatedWith Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892. person
associatedWith Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Europe
Paris (France)
Subject
Sculptors
Painting, American
Painters--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
Portrait painters--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
Portrait painting, American
Portrait painting--19th century--United States
Occupation
Photographers
Function

Person

Birth 1844-07-25

Death 1916-06-25

Americans

English

Information

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