Lloyd, Lola Maverick, 1875-1944Variant names
Lola Maverick Lloyd was a pioneer suffragist, pacifist, and friend and associate of Jane Addams with whom she founded the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
From the description of Collection, 1915-1944. (Swarthmore College, Peace Collection). WorldCat record id: 28329110
Lola Maverick Lloyd, pioneer suffragist and pacifist, graduated Smith College, 1897; married William Bross Lloyd, 1902 (divorced, 1916); four children: Mary, William Jr., Georgia, and Jessie Lloyd O'Connor. She co-founded, with Jane Addams, the Women's Peace Party, 1915, and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. In 1915 was a delegate to the Congress of Women, The Hague, and sailed on Henry Ford's Peace Ship. Also co-chaired, with Rosika Schwimmer, the Campaign for World Government.
From the description of Papers, 1903-1944. (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 49705839
Lola Maverick (Lloyd) with her first child, Jessie Lloyd, circa 1904
Pacifist; Suffragist; Women's rights activist. Lola Maverick was born 24 November 1875, daughter of George Madison Maverick and Mary Elizabeth Vance; grew up in St. Louis and on the cattle ranch owned by her family; graduated from Smith College, 1897; taught mathematics there, 1901. Married William Bross Lloyd, 1902, son of social reformer, Henry Demarest Lloyd, settling in Winnetka, a wealthy Chicago suburb; divorced, 1916; four children: Mary, William Jr., Georgia, and Jessie. She was a pioneer suffragist; a pacifist; and co- founder, with Jane Addams, of the Woman's Peace Party, 1915. She was a delegate to the International Congress of Women at the Hague, 1915; sailed on Henry Ford's Peace Ship, 1915; co-chaired, with Rosika Schwimmer, the Campaign for World Government; and co-founded the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Lloyd was also a painter and studied modeling in Paris, 1931-32. She designed the Texas State House and executed the details. Lola Maverick Lloyd died 25 July 1944.
From the guide to the Lola Maverick Lloyd Papers MS 94., 1903-1952, (Sophia Smith Collection)
Lola Maverick Lloyd (1875-1944) was a prominent activist involved in feminist, international peace and world government movements during the first half of the twentieth century, and a noted philanthropist and supporter of progressive causes.
Lloyd participated in the Ford Peace Expedition of 1915-1916; chaired the Griffin-O'Day Bill Committee; was a founding member of the Woman's Peace Party, which became the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom; and co-founded the Campaign for World Government with Rosika Schwimmer. Lloyd was a Smith College graduate and a descendant of Samuel Augustus Maverick of Texas.
From the description of Lola Maverick Lloyd papers, 1856-1949. (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 78682546
Lola Maverick Lloyd was a prominent social activist involved in the international peace and world government movements during the first half of the twentieth century. She was born on November 24, 1875 in Castroville, Texas to attorney George Madison Maverick and Mary Elizabeth Vance. Lola's grandfather Samuel A. Maverick served as mayor of San Antonio from 1839-1840. He was a signatory of the Texas Declaration of Independence severing ties with Mexico, and contributed his surname to the American lexicon through his refusal to brand his cattle, which became known as "mavericks."
One of six children, Lola was raised in St. Louis, Missouri, where she attended school at the Mary Institute. She graduated from Smith College in 1897, returning to teach mathematics there for the 1901-1902 academic year. While on vacation in Rhode Island, Lola met William Bross Lloyd, son of the newspaperman and philanthropist Henry Demarest Lloyd. Henry Demarest, a muckraking journalist for the Chicago Tribune, was author of several books with a pro-labor, antitrust bent, of which the most well-known was |Wealth Against Commonwealth|. William and Lola were married in November 1902. Both were close to Henry Demarest Lloyd, whose progressive politics influenced their interests in social advocacy and reform.
From 1902 until 1914, Lola lived a relatively private life in the Chicago suburb of Winnetka, Illinois, raising four children: Jessie Bross Lloyd (b. 1904), Mary Maverick Lloyd (b. 1906), William Bross Lloyd Jr. (b. 1908), and Georgia Lloyd (b. 1913). During this time, William practiced law in Chicago, and nominally served as director of the Chicago Tribune. In 1912, a rift began to develop between William and Lola, which would eventually result in their divorce in 1916.
The beginning of World War I in 1914 coincided with Lola's entrance into the public sphere. Prior to the war she had been involved in local women's and artists' groups, but attending one of the Hungarian feminist Rosika Schwimmer's antiwar lectures quickly sparked her interest in political activism. In January of 1915, Lola participated in founding the Women's Peace Party in Washington, D.C., which later became the American branch of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), an active group in the international pacifist movement.
In April of 1915, Lola and her husband traveled to the International Congress of Women at The Hague. The Congress' goal was to demonstrate women's opposition to war and territorial aggression, propose a peace settlement, and nominate envoys to the governments of warring nations to present this peace plan. Lola served as part of the forty-member American delegation to the conference, attending in concert with Jane Addams, Rosika Schwimmer, and the Women's Peace Party. Following the Congress, Lola and William returned to the United States, while her friend Mme. Schwimmer and others traveled to several European countries, attempting to secure agreement to an armistice.
Lola's personal life was also affected by this trip, as it proved fatal to her marriage. Following their return from the conference, Lola and her husband began discussing divorce. This eventuality -- paired with their high-profile status amongst the Chicago social elite -- brought the possibility of both a public scandal and a custody dispute over their four children. Despite warnings from friends and family to stay home-(for example, her sister Augusta's November 1915 letter suggested she "stay at home and rock the cradle--as obviously as possible." Lola continued in her political efforts, participating in the controversial Ford Peace Expedition.
In 1915, after several unsuccessful attempts to convince President Wilson to take an active role as mediator in the European conflict, Lola's friend and mentor Rosika Schwimmer enlisted the assistance of Henry Ford in planning a peace expedition to Europe. Using signed documents collected through the conference at The Hague, Schwimmer's goal was to rally neutral countries to act as negotiators, while encouraging warring countries to accept a peace plan. Lola Maverick Lloyd initially declined an invitation to join the Peace Ship, citing her ongoing divorce and custody discussions, but was convinced by Ford to bring her three oldest children along on the trip.
Following the Peace Expedition's arrival in Europe, Schwimmer and other participants set up a Neutral Conference for Continuous Mediation. The Neutral Conference, headquartered in Stockholm but also traveling to Norway, Denmark and Holland, was aimed at continuing the goals of the preceding expedition over an extended period of time. Lola Maverick Lloyd was invited to serve as part of the Committee of Seven administering the Neutral Conference, but early in 1916, she returned to Chicago to finalize her divorce and custody proceedings. Subsequent to the surprisingly private closing of the divorce, Lola received primary custody of the four children.
Lola Maverick Lloyd remained active in politics on both a national and international level. Following the Neutral Conference, the remaining 28 years of her life were dedicated to various pacifist, suffragist, and internationalist causes. She demonstrated in Washington against the U.S. entry to the war in 1917; contributed to the push for woman suffrage through Alice Paul's National Woman's Party; and in 1937 founded and co-chaired the Campaign for World Government, a pioneer organization in lobbying for world government as the most effective means of preventing war. The organization advocated for a world government of the people, as opposed to the League of Nations or United Nations, which she saw as organizations comprised of, and thus representing the interests of, the war-makers--the various national governments. Lola's partner in founding this endeavor was Rosika Schwimmer, and Lola's son William Bross Lloyd, Jr. became its first director.
Lola also served as head of the Griffin Bill Committee (later Griffin-O'Day Bill Committee), which lobbied to allow foreign-born pacifists U.S. citizenship. She was extremely active in the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), for whom she repeatedly traveled as delegate for the American branch to numerous international conferences, served on the board beginning in 1933, and acted as National Minorities chair. Lola also participated in the 1931 WILPF Peace Caravan, which collected signatures to petition for disarmament, and she constituted part of the delegation presenting these petitions to President Hoover in October of 1931. In addition to these efforts, Lola served as president to the Women's Consultative Committee, formed through the Council of the League of Nations. This committee worked for complete equality of women in the international sphere.
Lola's interests expanded beyond pacifism and woman suffrage into the birth control movement, labor rights, the civil liberties of conscientious objectors, progressive education, and the proportional representation movement. From 1920 until 1932 she was a member of the Women's Committee for the Recognition of Soviet Russia. While she often demurred when questioned as to her political status, the collection documents Lola's membership in the Socialist Party of Illinois from the years 1905 or 1906 until 1921.
Lola Maverick Lloyd was well-known for being a philanthropist of progressive causes and activists, and maintained social and professional acquaintances with a variety of national and international public figures. One such connection was with Albert Einstein, for whom she organized two public receptions in 1931 and 1933 highlighting his support for peace. Other friends and professional acquaintances included Carrie Chapman Catt, Jane Addams, Angelica Balabanoff, Ignazio Silone, Charles and Sofia Haag, Alice Henry, Alice Paul, and Camille Drevet. As is documented in the collection, Lola assisted many of her acquaintances financially, particularly during the Great Depression.
When Lola was not lobbying or fundraising for various causes, she published essays and letters examining these same issues. Among her writings were the "People's Mandate to Governments" and "Common Questions About the Future United States of the World." She was a co-author with Rosika Schwimmer of "Chaos, War or a New World Order?"
Despite a frenetic public schedule and time spent with family, Lola also practiced hobbies including painting, drawing, weaving and sculpture. Another of her ongoing concerns was the construction and decoration of her rather unusual and artistic house in Winnetka, Illinois, based somewhat loosely on the Arts and Crafts movement. She was a prolific letter writer and maintained especially close contact with her children, Rosika Schwimmer, the Haags, and her siblings.
Suffering from an increasing number of ailments in her last several years, Lola's health rapidly deteriorated in 1944, when it became clear that she had pancreatic cancer. She passed away on July 25, 1944.
From the guide to the Lola Maverick Lloyd papers, 1856-1949, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)
|referencedIn||Frieda Langer Lazarus papers, 1927-1950||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Georgia Lloyd papers, 1915-1994, 1930-1990||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Rosika Schwimmer papers, 1890-1983, 1904-1948||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Rebecca Shelley Papers, 1890-1984||Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan|
|creatorOf||Schwimmer, Rosika, 1877-1948. Rosika Schwimmer papers, 1890-1983 (bulk 1904-1948).||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Hannah Clothier Hull papers, 1889-1958||Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC|
|referencedIn||Florence Kelley papers, 1836-1932, 1881-1932||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949. Papers, 1872-1949||Houghton Library|
|creatorOf||Jessie Lloyd O'Connor papers, 1909-1983||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Campaign for World Government (Organization). Campaign for World Government. Records of the New York office, 1917-1972 (bulk 1937-1960).||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|referencedIn||Katherine Leckie papers, 1914-1925||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Schwimmer-Lloyd Collection MS 141., 1912-1950||Sophia Smith Collection|
|creatorOf||Florence Kelley papers, 1836-1932, 1881-1932||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|creatorOf||Lola Maverick Lloyd papers, 1856-1949||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|creatorOf||Women's Peace Union. Women's Peace Union records, 1921-1941, bulk (1929-1940).||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|referencedIn||Babcock, Caroline L. (Caroline Lexow), b. 1882. Papers of Caroline Lexow Babcock and Olive E. Hurlburt, 1906-1961 (inclusive).||Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America|
|referencedIn||Campaign for World Government. Records of the New York office, 1917-1972, 1937-1960||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|creatorOf||Lola Maverick Lloyd Papers MS 94., 1903-1952||Sophia Smith Collection|
|creatorOf||Holbrook, Florence, 1860-1932. Florence Holbrook scrapbooks, 1897-1932.||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Lloyd, Lola Maverick, 1875-1944. Papers, 1903-1944.||Smith College, Neilson Library|
|creatorOf||Lloyd, Lola Maverick, 1875-1944. Lola Maverick Lloyd papers, 1856-1949.||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Katscher, Leopold, b. 1853. Schwimmer-Lloyd collection, 1852-1980, bulk (1890-1960)||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|referencedIn||William Bross Lloyd, Jr. papers, 1912-1991, 1960-1983||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Papers, 1906-1961||Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America|
|referencedIn||Women's Peace Union records, 1921-1941, 1929-1940||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|creatorOf||Lloyd, William Bross, 1908-. William Bross Lloyd papers, 1912-1986.||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Schwimmer, Rosika, 1877-1948. Schwimmer-Lloyd Collection, 1912-1950.||Smith College, Neilson Library|
|referencedIn||Campaign for World Government. Records of the Chicago office, 1937-1995||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Jessie Lloyd O'Connor papers, 1909-1983||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|creatorOf||Leckie, Katherine, d. 1930. Katherine Leckie papers, 1914-1925.||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Campaign for World Government (Organization). Campaign for World Government records, 1937-1985.||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|referencedIn||Florence Holbrook scrapbooks, 1897-1932||New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division|
|referencedIn||Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Additional papers of Mary Ware Dennett, 1892-1945 (inclusive).||Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America|
|creatorOf||Women's Peace Union. U.S. Branch. Records, 1921-1940.||Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC|
|creatorOf||Lloyd, George, 1913-1998. Georgia Lloyd papers, 1915-1994 (bulk 1930-1990).||New York Public Library System, NYPL|
|creatorOf||Lloyd, Lola Maverick, 1875-1944. Collection, 1915-1944.||Swarthmore College, Peace Collection, SCPC|
|referencedIn||O'Connor, Jessie Lloyd, 1904-. Papers, 1850-1988.||Smith College, Neilson Library|
|referencedIn||Papers of Doris Stevens, 1884-1983 (inclusive), 1920-1960 (bulk)||Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America|
|Place Name||Admin Code||Country|
|Peace movements--United States|
|United States--Social life and customs--1918-1945|
|United States--Social life and customs--1865-1918|
|Women and peace--History--Sources|
|World War, 1914-1918--Protest movements|
|World War, 1939-1945--Protest movements--United States|
|Peace movements--United States--History--Sources|
|Feminists--United States--Political activity|
|World War, 1914-1918--Protest movements--United States|
|Women and peace--History--20th century--Sources|
|World War, 1939-1945--Protest movements|