Luxemburg, Rosa, 1871-1919

Alternative names
Birth 1871-03-07
Death 1919-01-15
Polish, German

Biographical notes:

Born in Zamość, Russian Poland 1871, died in Berlin 1919; socialist theorist, journalist and agitator; joined the revolutionary socialist group ÌI. Proletarjat' as a schoolgirl in Warsaw in 1887 and had to emigrate in 1889; studied sciences and economics in Zurich; cofounder of the Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego (i Litwy) (SDKP) in 1894, which she represented in the International Socialist Bureau (ISB) 1904-1914; participated in the Russian Revolution 1905/06; active in the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) from 1898 as a fervent critic of revisionism and spokeswoman for the revolutionary left wing; editor of and contributor to party papers and journals including Die Neue Zeit and Przeglad Socjaldemokratyczny, teacher of the SPD's central party school and author of political and theoretical writings such as S̀ozialreform oder Revolution?' 1899 and D̀ie Akkumulation des Kapitals' 1913; during the First World War instrumental in organizing the socialist antiwar opposition with her Junius pamphlet D̀ie Krise der Sozialdemokratie' 1916; leading member from 1916 of the Spartakusgruppe which in 1918 became the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD); murdered by counterrevolutionary troups in January 1919.

From the description of Archives 1898-1918. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78550868

German-Polish revolutionary leader.

From the description of Rosa Luxemburg and Mathilde Jacob papers, 1887-1941. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754868179


Dei︠a︡telʹ germanskogo, polʹskogo i mezhdunarodnogorabochego i sot︠s︡ialisticheskogo dvizhenii︠a︡, odin iz liderov levogo kryla germanskoĭ sot︠s︡ial-demokratii i II Internat︠s︡ionala, osnovateleĭ SDKPiL, Soi︠u︡za Spartaka i KPG; teoretik-marksist, publit︠s︡ist.

From the description of Luxemburg Roza (1871-1919). Fond 209, 1887-1930. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122873999

Historical Note

Mathilde Jacob, the admirer, friend, confidant, and secretary of Rosa Luxemburg from December 1913 to January 1915, was born in 1873. Between 1913 and 1942 Mathilde Jacob made her living as a public stenographer, typist, and translator. Her years prior to World War I and through the 1920s were devoted to the successive causes of the Social Democratic Party and Communist Party in Germany. She was introduced to these movements by her brother Joseph Jacob, who also helped her obtain such clients as Franz Mehring, Karl Radek, Paul Levy, and Rosa Luxemburg. Mathilde Jacob first met Rosa Luxemburg in December 1913 during her employment as the typist for the publication Sozialdemokratische Korrespondenz. A friendship developed which led to Mathilde's role as Rosa's primary source of external information and material needs during her years of imprisonment from 1914-1918 for opposition to German participation in World War I. Following Rosa Luxemburg's death in 1919, Mathilde Jacob worked for Paul Levy until his death in 1930. In 1942 she was deported to a concentration camp where it is believed that she perished.

From the guide to the Luxemburg-Jacob Papers, 1887-1941, (Hoover Institution Archives)


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Ark ID:


  • Communism--Germany
  • Communism
  • World War, 1914-1918--Germany
  • Socialism
  • Revolutionaries
  • World War, 1914-1918
  • Labor movement
  • Revolutionaries--Germany
  • Socialism--Germany
  • Revolutionists
  • Socialists


  • Economists
  • Revolutionaries
  • Philosophers


  • Berlin, 16, DE
  • Zamość, 75, PL